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Income

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Equivalised Income

The nominal median equivalised disposable income was €22,872 and the nominal at risk of poverty threshold stood at €13,723 i.e. 60% of the median.  In 2018, 14.0% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income below this threshold. The nominal mean equivalised disposable income was €26,766 and 63.4% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income that was less than this amount.  The real value, i.e. at 2012 prices, of the at risk of poverty threshold for 2018 was €13,505 and this represents an increase of 9.2% on the real value for 2017 of €12,364. 

Real median equivalised disposable income increased for most socio-economic groups in 2018. An analysis by principal economic status shows that income increased for all groups. See table 2.1e. 

Individuals with a highest level of educational attainment of third level degree or higher continued to have the highest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2018, at €33,610.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2017 was €34,050. 

Individuals not at work due to illness or disability had the lowest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2018 at €14,026.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2017 was €13,920.  

Real median equivalised disposable income for males was €22,991 in 2018, 4.6% higher than the corresponding 2018 figure for females (€21,973). 

Individuals living in the Eastern and Midlands region had a real median equivalised disposable income (€24,345) that was 21.3% higher than those living in the Northern and Western region (€20,067) and 13.7% higher than those living in the Southern region (€21,417).    

Composition of Income

In 2018, real average weekly equivalised gross income was €675.31, up from €618.46 in 2017, an increase of 9.2%.  See table 2.2b.

An analysis of the composition of gross income by year shows real average weekly equivalised direct income in 2018 at €546.51, an increase of 11.0% on the 2017 figure (€492.22).  Real average weekly equivalised social transfers increased to €128.80 in 2018 from €126.24 in 2017, an increase of 2.0%.  See figure 2.1 below.

Direct incomeSocial transfers
2012376.33138.63
2013392.69136.91
2014411.21131.65
2015434.87131.98
2016456.26131.74
2017492.22126.24
2018546.51128.8

Average real weekly equivalised disposable income showed an increase of 6.8% from €472.81 in 2017 to €504.80 in 2018.  Average real weekly equivalised tax and social insurance contributions stood at €170.51 in 2018, an increase of 17.1% from the 2017 value of €145.66.  See figure 2.2 below.

Total Tax and Social ContributionsNet Disposable Income
2012106.62408.34
2013118.77410.84
2014125.87417
2015131.39435.45
2016138.96449.04
2017145.66472.81
2018170.51504.8

Equality of Income

The quintile share ratio is the share of income of the highest income quintile divided by the share of income of the lowest income quintile, and it stood at 4.4 in 2018. The corresponding value for 2017 was 4.8. See figures 2.3 & 2.4 below.

The Gini coefficient measures income equality across the entire income distribution and in 2018 its value was 29.7% compared with 31.5% in 2017. This indicates an decrease in income inequality across the total income distribution.  This decrease is not statistically significant.

Gini coefficientQuintile share ratio
201231.75.1
201331.85
201432.15.1
201530.84.7
201630.74.7
201731.54.8
201829.74.4
EuroQuintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1
201838.5322.4717.0213.188.79
201739.8722.6216.6912.568.26
201639.0122.7517.1212.788.34
201539.0722.9816.9812.78.27
20144022.8616.7112.647.79
201339.8522.8516.7212.597.99
201239.6222.9916.912.737.76
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Show Table: Table 2.1a Median real household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1b Mean real household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1c Median nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1d Mean nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1e Median equivalised real disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1f Mean equivalised real disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1g Median equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.1h Mean equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 2.2a Composition of nominal household income and nominal equivalised income by year

Show Table: Table 2.2b Composition of real household income and real equivalised income by year

Show Table: Table 2.3a Nominal median income measures by year

Show Table: Table 2.3b Nominal mean income measures by year

Show Table: Table 2.4 Average weekly equivalised income by net disposable equivalised income deciles and composition of net equivalised disposable income, 2018

Show Table: Table 2.5 Average weekly household income by net disposable household income deciles and composition of net household disposable income, 2018

Show Table: Table 2.6 Demographic characteristics of individuals by net disposable equivalised income deciles, 2018

Go to next chapter >>>  Poverty and Deprivation