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Poverty and Deprivation

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At Risk of Poverty

In 2018, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 14.0% compared to 15.7% in 2017.  The change is not statistically significant.  An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics showed that those most at risk of poverty in 2018 were those individuals who were not at work due to illness or disability (47.7%) and individuals who were unemployed (47.3%). The at risk of poverty rate for households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 was 33.5%. See table 3.1 & figure 3.1.

At risk of povertyDeprivationConsistent povertyDeprivation rate for those at risk of poverty
201216.9278.248.8
201316.230.5955.3
201416.728.98.349.7
201516.325.48.551.9
201616.2218.250.4
201715.718.86.742.8
20181415.15.640.3

Impact of social transfers on the at risk of poverty rate

In 2018, if all social transfers were excluded from income, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate would have been 40.9%, a decrease from the 2017 rate of 43.8%.  The corresponding figure for 2013 was 49.5%. This decrease between 2013 and 2018 shows a decreasing dependence of individuals on social transfers to remain above the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold during this period.  See table 3.3 & figure 3.2.

Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)Including old-age and survivors' benefits onlyexcluding all social transfers
201216.939.150.2
201316.238.149.5
201416.737.149
201516.334.746.2
201616.233.444.9
201715.732.343.8
20181430.240.9

Deprivation

In 2018, 15.1% of the population experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.  This compares with 18.8% in 2017 and a high of 30.5% in 2013.  See table 3.1 and figure 3.1.

Most socio-demographic groups experienced a decline in 2018 deprivation rates year-on-year. Those living in households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest deprivation rate in 2018 at 42.7%. Unemployed individuals (41.6%) and those individuals who were not at work due to illness or disability (36.7%) also had high deprivation rates in 2018.

Deprivation by poverty status

The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 40.3% in 2018 compared with a high of 55.3% in 2013.  The deprivation rate for those not at risk of poverty was 11.1% in 2018, compared with a high of 25.8% in 2013.  See table 3.3.

Types of deprivation

At an overall level in 2018, the prevalence of ten of the eleven types of deprivation declined when compared to 2017. The most common types of deprivation experienced were an inability to replace worn out furniture (17.8%), to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month (11.7%) and to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight (10.3%).  See table 3.5a.

The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those at risk of poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (34.1%), to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in last fortnight (29.1%) and to afford to have family or friends for a drink or a meal once a month (27.5%).

The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those not at risk of poverty were again an inability to replace worn out furniture (15.1%), to afford to have family or friends for a drink or a meal once a month (9.2%) and to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight (7.2%). 

The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those living in consistent poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (72.9%), to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight (64.1%) and to afford to have family or friends for a drink or a meal once a month (57.3%).  Of those living in consistent poverty, 47.8% were unable to afford new (not second-had) clothes, and 42.8% reported going without heating at some stage in the last 12 months. See table 3.5c.

Consistent Poverty

The consistent poverty rate in 2018 was 5.6% compared with 6.7% in 2017, this is not a statistically significant change. See table 3.1 & figure 3.1.  

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by principal economic status shows that the consistent poverty rate was highest among unemployed individuals (27.6%) and lowest among those who were at work (1.6%) and those who were retired (1.9%).

Further analysis of consistent poverty rates by household composition shows that individuals living in households where there was one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest consistent poverty rate at 19.2%.  The consistent poverty rate was lowest for individuals living in households where there were two adults, at least one of whom was aged 65 or over and where there were no children (0.8%).

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by tenure status shows that the rate for those living in ‘owned’ dwellings was 2.5% compared with 11.2% for those renting at the market rate and 14.2% for those paying less than the market rate or rent free.

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Show Table: Table 3.1 At risk of poverty, deprivation and consistent poverty rates by year

Show Table: Table 3.2 Nominal at risk of poverty thresholds by year

Show Table: Table 3.3 Key national indicators of poverty and social exclusion by year

Show Table: Table 3.4 The number of deprivation items experienced by year

Show Table: Table 3.5a Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by poverty status and year

Show Table: Table 3.5b Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by deprivation status and year

Show Table: Table 3.5c Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by consistent poverty status, 2018

Show Table: Table 3.6 Profile of population at risk of poverty, experiencing deprivation and in consistent poverty by demographic characteristics and year

Show Table: Table 3.7 Summary of deprivation indicators by net equivalised income decile, 2018

Go to next chapter >>> Annex