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Enforced Deprivation

Enforced Deprivation

Enforced deprivation increased from 13.8% in 2021 to 17.7% in 2022.

CSO statistical publication, , 11am

In SILC, weights are applied to the data to ensure the results are reflective of the population as a whole. In 2022, the SILC Enforced Deprivation publication was released early, before the income data was fully processed, to provide more timely statistics on households. Following the processing of the income data and coherence checks with administrative data sources, the weights used for SILC 2022 data have been refined. Adjustments were made in the non-response process and the calibration boundaries, reducing the variance of the weights and improving the accuracy of the estimates. As a result, estimates contained in the SILC 2022 Enforced Deprivation publication have been revised. Please see the information note which compares published and revised results.

Enforced Deprivation

17.7%
of people
were experiencing enforced deprivation in 2022
up from 13.8% in 2021
Source: CSO Ireland, Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC): Enforced Deprivation 2022

enforced deprivation is where a household experiences two or more of the 11 deprivation items discussed in the previous chapter. Survey on Income and Living Conditions Fact Sheet (PDF 497KB) .

the proportion of persons living in households experiencing enforced deprivation increased over three percentage points, from 13.8% in 2021 to 17.7% in 2022. see table 3.1.

more than one in four (29.2%) of persons are living in households experiencing at least one of the 11 deprivation items. see figure 3.1 and table 3.2.

X-axis label2+ items of deprivation experienced1 item of deprivation experienced0 (No deprivation)
202217.711.570.7
202113.811.275
202014.314.371.4

Of persons that are living in enforced deprivation, the most commonly experienced items are being:

  • unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture (79.2%);
  • unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in last fortnight (51.9%)
  • unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or a meal once a month (51.0%);

See table 3.3.

Table 3.1 Enforced deprivation rate by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)

Table 3.2 The number of deprivation items experienced by year (% of individuals)

Table 3.3 Percentage of the population experiencing each deprivation item by enforced deprivation status and year (% of individuals)

One in two unemployed persons are living in enforced deprivation

By principal economic status, persons that are most likely to be living in enforced deprivation are the unemployed (48.6%), followed by those unable to work due to long-standing health problems (44.3%). Persons least likely to be living in enforced deprivation are the employed (12.7%) and the retired (12.0%). The enforced deprivation rate for all categories by principal economic status increased in 2022. See figure 3.2 and table 3.1.

""
X-axis label202020212022
Employed9.28.612.7
Unemployed33.331.648.6
Retired77.612
Unable to work due to
long-standing health problems
3739.644.3
Student, pupil16.11320.1
Fulfilling domestic tasks16.515.623.1

Over two in five persons in single-adult households with children are living in enforced deprivation

By household composition, persons living in one-adult households with children are the most likely to be living in enforced deprivation (43.5%). See figure 3.3 and table 3.1.

X-axis label202020212022
1 adult aged 65
years and over
10.612.116.8
1 adult aged less
than 65 years
2219.625.2
2 adults, at least 1
aged 65 years and over
6.86.99
2 adults, both aged
less than 65 years
11.715.317.9
3 or more adults7.810.912.9
1 adult, with
children under 18 years
44.144.943.5
2 adults, with 1-3
children under 18 years
12.410.717.7
Other households with
children under 18 years
19.215.117.1

Renters over three times more likely to be living in enforced deprivation than those in owner-occupied homes

By tenure status, one in three (35.6%) of persons living in rented or rent-free accommodation are living in enforced deprivation, compared with one in ten (10.2%) living in owner-occupied housing. See figure 3.4 and table 3.1.

X-axis label202020212022
Owner-occupied7.46.110.2
Rented or rent free29.93235.6

While an estimated three in ten (29.6%) of persons live in rented or rent-free accommodation, they make up six in ten (59.4%) of persons living in enforced deprivation. See figure 3.5 and table 3.4.

X-axis labelRented or rent freeOwner-occupied
Persons experiencing enforced deprivation59.440.6
Population29.670.4
Table 3.4 Profile of population experiencing enforced deprivation by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)