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Deprivation Items

Deprivation Items

One in five persons living in single adult households with children cannot afford to keep the home adequately warm

CSO statistical publication, , 11am

Increase in 9 of the 11 deprivation items in 2022

Households that are excluded and marginalised from consuming goods and services which are considered the norm for other people in society, due to an inability to afford them, are considered to be deprived. The identification of the marginalised or deprived is currently achieved on the basis of a set of eleven basic deprivation indicators. See Survey on Income and Living Conditions Fact Sheet (PDF 105KB)  

The most common deprivation items in 2022 were being unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture (20.2%), followed by being unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes (10.1%), and being unable to afford have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month (9.7%). See figure 2.1.

X-axis label% of Individuals
Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture20.2
Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes10.1
Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or a meal once a month9.7
Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in last fortnight9.3
Without heating at some stage in the last year8.9
Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm7.4
Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year4.1
Unable to afford a roast joint (or its equivalent) once a week3.7
Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.3
Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat1.7
Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day1.1

All but two of the eleven deprivation items increased in 2022. The decreases were in the percentage of people living in households unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes, 3.0% in 2021 and 2.3% in 2022; and being unable to afford a meal with meat chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day, down from 1.6% in 2021 to 1.1% in 2022. See tables 2.1 and 2.2.

The largest increases were seen in those unable to afford a morning, afternoon, or evening out in last fortnight, increasing from 3.8% in 2021 to 9.3% in 2022; and being unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm, 3.2% in 2021 and 7.4% in 2022. See tables 2.3 and 2.4.

Food-related deprivation items

The proportion of persons living in households unable to afford a roast joint (or its equivalent) once a week remained relatively unchanged, 3.6% in 2021 and 3.7% in 2022. In 2022, just over one in a hundred (1.1%) were unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day, down from 1.6% in 2021. See figure 2.2.

X-axis label202020212022
Unable to afford a roast joint
(or its equivalent) once a week
3.73.63.7
Unable to afford a meal with meat,
chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent)
every second day
1.31.61.1
14.6%
of people unable to work due to long-standing health problems
are unable to afford a roast joint (or its equivalent) once a week, in 2022
up from 14.2% in 2021
Persons unable to work due to long-standing health problems are least able to afford a Sunday roast, or a meal with meat every second day

In 2022, one in seven (14.6%) of those unable to work due to long-standing health problems and one in ten (10.3%) of unemployed persons are unable to afford a roast joint (or its equivalent) once a week. This compares with 2.1% of employed persons and 1.7% of retired. See figure 2.3.

Similarly, by principal economic status, unemployed persons (4.1%) and those unable to work due to long-standing health problems (8.5%) were most likely to be unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day. See table 2.1.

""
X-axis label202020212022
Employed2.12.42.1
Unemployed9.78.910.3
Retired1.41.91.7
Unable to work due to
long-standing health problems
1014.214.6
Student, pupil4.83.96
Fulfilling domestic tasks4.43.34.5
Show Table: Table 2.1 Food related deprivation items by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)

Clothing and footwear-related deprivation items

In 2022, one in ten (10.1%) of persons were unable to afford new (not second-hand clothes), an increase of almost three percentage points from 7.2% in 2020. Around one in fifty were unable to afford a warm waterproof coat (1.7%) or two pairs of strong shoes (2.3%). See figure 2.4.

X-axis label202020212022
Unable to afford
new (not second-hand) clothes
7.28.910.1
Unable to afford
a warm waterproof coat
0.81.31.7
Unable to afford
two pairs of strong shoes
2.132.3
26.4%
of people living in one-adult households with children under 18
are unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes in 2022
down from 33.1% in 2021
One in four persons in single-adult households with children are unable to afford new clothes

By household composition, one in four (26.4%) persons living in single-adult household with children are unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes, compared with one in eight (13.5%) in two-adult households with one to three children. See figure 2.5.

X-axis label202020212022
1 adult aged
65 years and over
8.57.29.9
1 adult aged
less than 65 years
12.31412.5
2 adults, at least 1
aged 65 years and over
2.74.72.2
2 adults, both aged
less than 65 years
7.211.111.5
3 or more adults3.35.84.5
1 adult, with
children under 18 years
21.533.126.4
2 adults, with 1-3
children under 18 years
66.313.5
Other households with
children under 18 years
99.66.9

By principal economic status, unemployed persons and those unable to work due to long-standing health problems were least likely to be able to afford each of the clothing and footwear-related deprivation items. One in four (24.8%) of those unable to work due to long-standing health problems and three in ten (30.9%) of unemployed persons are unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes, compared with 6.4% of employed.

One in twenty (5.2%) of persons unable to work due to long-standing health problems and 2.6% of the unemployed are unable to afford a warm waterproof coat, compared with 1.2% of those employed. See table 2.2.

Show Table: Table 2.2 Clothing and footwear related deprivation items by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)

Housing-related deprivation items

All three housing-related deprivation items increased in 2022:
  • being without heating at some stage in the last year increased from 7.1% in 2021 to 8.9% in 2022;
  • inability to keep the home adequately warm increased over four percentage points from 3.2% in 2021 to 7.4% in 2022;
  • being unable to afford to replace worn out furniture increased from 16.5% in 2021 to 20.2% in 2022. See figure 2.6.

Data collection for SILC occurred from January to July 2022. At the midpoint of data collection, April 2022, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) indicated that, on average, prices were 7.0% higher compared with April 2021. In particular, Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels had increased 17.1%.

X-axis label202020212022
Without heating at
some stage in the last year
9.17.18.9
Unable to afford to
keep the home adequately warm
3.33.27.4
Unable to afford to
replace any worn out furniture
16.216.520.2
 

 

21.5%
of people living in one-adult households with children under 18
are be unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm in 2022
up from 7.9% in 2021
One in five persons in single-adult households with children cannot afford to keep the home adequately warm

The inability to afford to keep the home adequately warm increased across all analysed subgroups in 2022. Persons living in single-adult households with children are the most likely to be unable to keep the home adequately warm (21.5%), while those living in two-adult households where at least one is aged 65 or over are the least likely (2.8%). See figure 2.7.

By household composition, those living in single-adult households with children are also most likely to be unable to have gone without heating at some stage in the last year (23.4%); or be unable to afford to replace worn out furniture (52.7%). See table 2.3.

X-axis label202020212022
1 adult aged
65 years and over
3.13.58
1 adult aged
less than 65 years
7.17.210.9
2 adults, at least 1
aged 65 years and over
1.61.22.8
2 adults, both aged
less than 65 years
24.87.8
3 or more adults2.33.75.2
1 adult, with
children under 18 years
9.87.921.5
2 adults, with 1-3
children under 18 years
2.626.4
Other households with
children under 18 years
42.48
23.3%
of people that are unemployed
have gone without heating at some stage in the last year, in 2022
up from 17.6% in 2021
One in five unemployed and persons unable to work due to long-standing health problems went without heating at some point in the last year

By principal economic status, those most unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm are persons unable to work due to long-standing health problems (19.5%) and the unemployed (17.4%), compared with 5.7% of either employed or retired persons. See figure 2.8.

Those that are unemployed or unable to work due to long-standing health problems are more likely to have gone without heating at some point in the last year, 23.3% and 21.0% respectively, compared with 8.2% of retired persons and 6.8% of employed. See table 2.3.

""
X-axis label202020212022
Employed2.12.45.7
Unemployed8.65.917.4
Retired1.92.15.7
Unable to work
due to long-standing
health problems
8.511.419.5
Student, pupil43.69.5
Fulfilling domestic tasks3.62.36.9
One in five renters went without heating at some point in the last year

By tenure, persons living in rented or rent-free accommodation were more likely to experience heating-related deprivation than those in owner-occupied homes. One in five (19.3%) living in rented or rent-free accommodation went without heating at some point in the last year, compared with one in twenty (4.4%) of persons in owner-occupied housing. Similarly, 13.5% of those in rented or rent-free and 4.7% in owner-occupied accommodation are unable to keep the home adequately warm. See table 2.3.

Show Table: Table 2.3 Housing related deprivation items by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)

Social-related deprivation items

The proportion of persons experiencing each of the social-related deprivation items increased in 2022. As noted in the SILC 2021 publication, public health restrictions were in place during the January to June 2021 data collection period, including level 5 restrictions for more than three months, and as a result the reduction in social deprivation measures observed in 2021 appear to have been temporary.

  • The proportion unable to afford a morning, afternoon, or evening out in the last fortnight increased from 3.8% in 2021 to 9.3% in 2022;
  • the inability to afford to have family or friends for a meal once a month increased from 8.6% in 2021 to 9.7% in 2022;
  •  being unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year increased from 3.4% to 4.1%. See figure 2.9.
X-axis label202020212022
Unable to afford
a morning, afternoon or evening
out in the last fortnight
7.43.89.3
Unable to afford
to have family or friends for
a drink or meal once a month
10.58.69.7
Unable to afford
to buy presents for family or
friends at least once a year
3.83.44.1
18.5%
of people living in rented or rent-free accommodation
were unable to afford to have family or friends for drink or meal once a month, in 2022
down from 20.2% in 2021
One in five persons in rented accommodation cannot afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month

One in five persons living in rented or rent-free accommodation were unable to afford a morning, afternoon, or evening out in the last fortnight (18.0%), and unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month (18.5%); compared with one in twenty in owner-occupied housing, 5.6% and 5.9% respectively. See figure 2.10 and table 2.4.

X-axis label202020212022
Owner-occupied4.73.75.9
Rented or rent free23.420.218.5
Show Table: Table 2.4 Social related deprivation items by demographic characteristics and year (% of individuals)