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The Expenditure approach uses all spending on final demand to produce an estimate for Gross Domestic Product. We do this by estimating:

  • personal expenditure on consumers' goods and services
  • expenditure by central and local government on current goods and services
  • gross domestic fixed capital formation
  • value of physical changes in stocks

The value of exports is then added and imports are deducted.

The following tables show the contributions of the different components of the Expenditure approach to Gross Domestic Product at current market prices and at constant market prices.

Exports grew by 10.4% in 2018, while imports reduced by 2.9%. Fixed capital formation decreased 21.1% in 2018. This was largely driven by the decrease in R&D related IP imports. For more information see Capital Formation. Personal consumption increased by 3.4% while government net current expenditure rose by 4.4%.

Figure 5.1 below shows the relative contributions of each of the components of expenditure.

X-axis labelPersonal consumption of goods and servicesNet expenditure by local and central government on goods and servicesGross domestic fixed capital formationValue of physical changes in stocksNet exports of goods and services

For a further breakdown of Personal consumption of goods and services go to Consumption of Personal Income.

For a further breakdown of Gross domestic fixed capital formation go to Capital Formation.

Show Table: Table 5 Expenditure on Gross National Income at Current Market Prices

Show Table: Table 5.1 Annual Percentage Changes in the Main Constituents of Table 5

Show Table: Table 6 Expenditure on Gross National Income at Constant Market Prices (chain linked annually and referenced to year 2017)

Show Table: Table 6.1 Annual Percentage Changes in the Main Constituents of Table 6

Go to Gross National Disposable Income