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Table 1.1: Output, Intermediate Consumption and Value Added, 2016-20181
   € million% change
Intermediate Consumption287,346298,431334,11012.0
Value Added254,011277,246303,0769.3
1 Preliminary figures. Output and Value Added at basic prices. Excludes NIE statistical discrepancy. Excludes NACE 99.

Measuring Ireland's Economy: Value of Output was €637 billion in 2018

This publication presents Gross Value Added (GVA), a measure of economic activity, for the years 1995 to 2018 as estimated using the Output method (also known as the Production approach). The Output method is one of three ways in which GVA and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) can be calculated. Data describing GVA as calculated by the Income method are also provided for reference and comparison purposes. All aggregates in this release are consistent with the latest National Income and Expenditure 2018 (NIE) publication. Output method data were included for the first time in the most recent NIE publication (Table 3 NIE18, published July 2019). In addition to these Output method data, the NIE was produced using the Income method and the Expenditure method, the other two methods of estimating GVA and GDP.

This publication is part of an ongoing incremental process to fully incorporate the Output method into the Irish National Accounts alongside the Income and Expenditure methods. The NACE Rev. 2 industry sectoral classification is used in this publication for 64 industry groups (A64), 21 industry groups (A21) or 10 industry groups (A10) as appropriate for both presentation and confidentiality purposes. The composition of the A64 group is displayed in Table 1.2 below. The composition of the A21 and A10 groups are described in the relevant tables and charts and in more detail in the Background Notes Chapter of this publication.

In 2018, Output (the value of all goods and services produced) at basic prices for the total economy was €637.2 billion. The Intermediate Consumption required to produce this Output totalled €334.1 billion. Output (€637.2 billion) minus Intermediate Consumption (€334.1 billion) resulted in Gross Value Added at basic prices of €303.1 billion. The constituents of Output at basic prices in 2018 were:

  • Service industries (NACE 45-98) at €369.5 billion (58.0% of the total)
  • Production industries (NACE 5-39) at €230.7 billion (36.2%)
  • Construction (NACE 41-43) at €27.3 billion (4.3%)
  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (NACE 1-3) at €9.7 billion (1.5%).                  

The Output method approach will continue to be integrated into the existing National Accounts compilation process. Pending the full incorporation and integration of the Income, Expenditure and Output approaches, detailed sectoral estimates using the Output method should be considered as exploratory and transitional, particularly for the latest two years (2017 and 2018). Data in this publication are expressed in current prices only. The NIE statistical discrepancy is excluded and the data are consistent with the unadjusted Output method and Income method data by industry, as described in NIE Table 3.

Further details, including definitions and methodology, are provided in the Background Notes Chapter.

The Output method 1995-2018 time-series is provided in the CSO's StatBank database.

NIE data, describing the Output, Income and Expenditure methods are provided in the NIE on CSO's StatBank database or in the following NIE18 Tables 1-22 excel file.

In addition to these Irish data, comparable data from across EU Member States are provided for reference purposes. These EU data, subject to revision, reflect the data availability as of late November 2019, are sourced from the Eurostat database.

Users should note that these Output method data are presented from a National Accounts compilation perspective. Output and Value Added along with the Income method components of GVA/GDP are shown by sector. However, these figures do not take account of changes in employment numbers and consequently should not be used as proxies for comparisons of productivity or wage rates by sector. Output and Value Added data are a starting point for such analysis when used in combination with additional, relevant data.

Table 1.2 Output, Intermediate Consumption and Gross Value Added by activity, and the Income method components of Gross Value Added, 2018

Table 1.3 Output, Intermediate Consumption and Gross Value Added and the Income method components of GVA, 1995-2018

Table 1.4 Output, Intermediate Consumption and Gross Value Added and the percentage value change on the previous year, 1995-2018

X-axis labelIntermediate ConsumptionValue Added
Agriculture, forestry & fishing (1-3)6728.821150327952973.37926278
Industry (5-39)120050.044581579110657.24238975
Construction (41-43)18706.20850727268577.5239561
Distribution, transport & communication (45-63)109074.13747187272321.22817018
Business services (64-82)64130.07123040172265.54373877
Other services (84-97)15420.918630188936281.13289557
Total (NACE 1-97)334110.201571642303076.05041315

In the Output method of estimating GVA and GDP, Output minus Intermediate Consumption equals Gross Value Added. Rearranging this equation gives Output equals Intermediate Consumption plus Gross Value Added.

In 2018, Agriculture, forestry and fishing (NACE 1-3) and Construction (NACE 41-43) had the highest relative levels of Intermediate Consumption compared to Output, while Other services (NACE 84-92) and Business services (NACE 64-82) had the highest relative levels of Value Added compared to Output. See Figure 1.1.

In 2018 across EU Member States, Luxembourg had the highest relative level of total Intermediate Consumption (74%) compared to total Output, while Greece had the highest relative level of total Gross Value Added (55% in 2017) compared to total Output. Ireland in 2018 had total Intermediate Consumption at 52% and total Gross Value Added at 48% of total Output. See Figure 1.2.

X-axis labelIntermediate ConsumptionGross Value Added
United Kingdom2052244.22157326.1

Structure of this publication              

In addition to the main table (Table 1.2) presented at A64, this publication is structured into seven distinct themes. These are:      

  • Theme 1 - Output       
  • Theme 2 - Intermediate Consumption 
  • Theme 3 - Gross Value Added (GVA)              

In the Output method, GVA equals Output minus Intermediate consumption. 

Three additional themes (using Income method data) show the main components of GVA:         

  • Theme 4 - Compensation of Employees (COE)      
  • Theme 5 - Net Operating Surplus (NOS)           
  • Theme 6 - Consumption of Fixed Capital (CFC)            

In the Income method, GVA equals COE plus NOS plus CFC plus net Non-product taxes (also known as Other taxes on production). 

A seventh theme, splitting the total Output, Intermediate Consumption and GVA into NACE sectors dominated by Foreign-owned Multinational Enterprise (MNE) and Other sectors has been included in this 2018 edition.

  • Theme 7 - Foreign-owned Multinational Enterprise (MNE)

Foreign-owned Multinational Enterprise (MNE) dominated sectors occur where MNE turnover on average exceeds 85% of the sector total. In this Output publication, these 'Foreign' owned MNE dominated sectors contain NACE 20, 21, 26, 27, 31-32, 58 and 62-63.

In 2018, Non-product taxes were €3.254 billion, while Non-product subsidies were €2.290 billion, resulting in Net non-product taxes of €0.964 billion. Because of this small size relative to the other components of the Income method, the inclusion of a similarly detailed theme for this item was considered unnecessary. See Table 1.2, the Background Notes and NIE items 30 and 31 for further details on Non-product taxes and subsidies.  

The six themes describing the Output method and Income method data have a general, repeated, structure. For each of the six themes the structure is as follows:       

  • Proportional composition time-series by A21, charts           
  • Value time-series by A21, table
  • Proportional ranking time-series by A21, table                     
  • EU Member State comparison by A10, 2018, table            
  • Cross-cutting time-series by selected EU member states, chart           
  • Manufacturing comparison of EU member states, 2018, chart   

The proportional ranking tables and proportional composition charts allow us to see the relative contributions of different sectors to the economy as a whole for each item across the years 1995 to 2018.

These tables and charts allow us to look at contributions of different sectors across time. For example, if we look at the Construction (F) sector we can see that it contributed 5.9% of all GVA in 1995 rising to 9.8% in 2005. By 2010 it had decreased to contributing 1.5% but has increased since then and contributed 2.8% in 2018.

These tables and charts also allow us to examine how different sectors contribute to different items in different ways. For example, the Wholesale and Retail Trade (G) sector contributed 7.5% of all GVA in 2018 and contributed 12.1% of all COE in the same year. The Information and Communication (J) sector contributed 12.1% of all GVA in 2018 and contributed 8.0% of all COE in the same year.                   

Go to next chapter Output