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Global Context

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Show Table: 1.1 World: Population 1950-2018

The World's population increased by 201% from 2.536 billion to 7.631 billion between 1950 and 2018. Africa‘s share of the World's population increased from 9% in 1950 to 17% in 2018, while Europe’s fell from 22% to 10% over the same period. In 2018, Asia was the world region with the largest share of the World's population at 60%.

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Show Table: 1.2 World: Child mortality rates 1950-2015

World child mortality rates, as measured by the number of deaths of children before the age of five per 1,000 live births, have fallen from an average annual 213 in 1950-1955 to 46 in 2010-2015.

The greatest fall in child mortality rates occurred in Europe where the average annual rate declined from 93 to 6 between 1950-1955 and 2010-2015. Europe also had the lowest average annual child mortality rate in 2010-2015 at 6 deaths of children before age five per 1,000 live births.

Africa had the highest child mortality rate in the World in 2010-2015 with an average annual 84 deaths of children before age five per 1,000 live births.

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Show Table: 1.3 World: Life expectancy at birth 1950-2015

Global life expectancy at birth for males and females combined increased from an average annual 47.0 years in 1950-1955 to 70.9 years in 2010-2015.

Although life expectancy in Africa increased from an average annual 37.5 years in 1950-1955 to 60.3 years in 2010-2015, the latter figure was still the lowest for any World region. In contrast North America had the highest life expectancy at birth in 2010-2015 at 79.2 years.

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YearHadCRUT4GISTEMPNOAA Global Temp
1850-0.0600
18510.100
18520.0900
18530.0500
18540.0700
18550.0500
1856-0.0400
1857-0.1400
1858-0.1500
18590.0300
1860-0.0300
1861-0.0900
1862-0.2100
18630.0400
1864-0.1800
18650.0400
18660.0700
1867000
18680.0800
18690.0600
18700.0400
1871-0.0200
18720.0900
18730.0100
1874-0.0500
1875-0.0800
1876-0.0700
18770.2400
18780.3500
18790.0900
18800.090.030.08
18810.120.120.13
18820.10.120.13
18830.020.030.05
1884-0.09-0.07-0.01
1885-0.07-0.09-0.02
1886-0.05-0.10
1887-0.1-0.13-0.05
18880.010.040.05
18890.150.110.1
1890-0.1-0.15-0.13
1891-0.01-0.02-0.05
1892-0.14-0.05-0.1
1893-0.16-0.1-0.12
1894-0.09-0.1-0.08
1895-0.070-0.02
18960.130.110.11
18970.110.10.09
1898-0.09-0.06-0.06
18990.030.040.08
19000.110.130.14
19010.060.070.06
1902-0.08-0.08-0.05
1903-0.16-0.17-0.13
1904-0.2-0.27-0.22
1905-0.06-0.07-0.09
19060.03-0.01-0.01
1907-0.15-0.18-0.17
1908-0.19-0.22-0.24
1909-0.2-0.26-0.23
1910-0.17-0.22-0.18
1911-0.23-0.21-0.23
1912-0.12-0.14-0.13
1913-0.11-0.13-0.12
19140.070.060.06
19150.180.10.13
1916-0.07-0.11-0.09
1917-0.15-0.21-0.11
1918-0.02-0.060
19190.04-0.050
19200.07-0.03-0.01
19210.130.050.06
19220.02-0.05-0.02
19230.04-0.02-0.01
19240.02-0.03-0.04
19250.10.010.06
19260.210.130.15
19270.110.020.06
19280.110.030.03
1929-0.03-0.13-0.09
19300.180.070.11
19310.230.120.13
19320.180.050.08
19330.04-0.08-0.05
19340.190.080.1
19350.140.010.06
19360.170.060.09
19370.290.180.18
19380.310.190.17
19390.270.190.19
19400.330.330.29
19410.340.40.39
19420.290.270.35
19430.310.290.35
19440.460.430.48
19450.340.310.36
19460.250.150.19
19470.280.180.14
19480.280.110.14
19490.240.110.13
19500.140.030.03
19510.270.150.18
19520.350.230.22
19530.410.290.29
19540.190.070.08
19550.130.080.06
19560.050.02-0.01
19570.310.260.24
19580.360.290.3
19590.330.250.25
19600.270.20.21
19610.360.280.27
19620.330.260.28
19630.370.290.3
19640.090.020.04
19650.180.120.12
19660.250.170.17
19670.240.20.18
19680.20.150.16
19690.350.290.29
19700.290.250.23
19710.130.130.11
19720.250.230.22
19730.380.380.36
19740.10.140.12
19750.170.20.2
19760.080.110.11
19770.360.390.39
19780.260.280.31
19790.370.380.42
19800.410.490.46
19810.460.550.49
19820.330.350.38
19830.510.530.54
19840.30.380.34
19850.290.340.33
19860.360.40.42
19870.510.550.57
19880.520.630.57
19890.440.510.49
19900.610.660.63
19910.570.630.6
19920.420.440.45
19930.470.460.48
19940.530.530.53
19950.640.660.65
19960.50.550.52
19970.710.690.71
19980.860.840.83
19990.620.620.64
20000.610.620.62
20010.760.760.74
20020.810.840.8
20030.820.830.81
20040.760.750.77
20050.860.890.85
20060.820.840.81
20070.810.860.81
20080.710.740.74
20090.820.850.83
20100.880.920.9
20110.740.80.78
20120.790.830.82
20130.830.860.86
20140.90.950.94
20151.081.081.1
20161.111.211.14
20170.991.121.04

This indicator shows three series measuring global mean near surface temperature deviations for the 1850-2017 period. All three time series show an overall increase in temperatures compared with pre-industrial times (using observations from the period 1850-1899 as a proxy).

2017 was one of the three warmest years on record with temperatures between 0.99 oC and 1.12 oC above pre-industrial levels. The two other warmest years were 2015 and 2016.

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Show Table: 1.4 World: Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2017

This indicator shows greenhouse gas emissions for the most significant countries and regions specified in Annex 1 of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change between 1990 and 2017.

EU emissions fell by 20% from an average annual 5.4 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 1990-1994 to 4.3 billion tonnes in 2017. Russian emissions of greenhouse gases fell by 19% over the same period, while emissions from the USA remained stable at 6.5 billion tonnes.

The greatest increase in greenhouse gas emissions among the countries in Table 1.4 occurred in Turkey, where emissions grew by 128% from an average annual 231 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 1990-1994 to 526 million  tonnes in 2017.

Go to next chapter: Environmental Economy