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Consumer Price Index April 2023

Consumer prices rose by 7.2% over the 12 months to April 2023

Online ISSN: 2009-5767
CSO statistical publication, , 11am

Key Findings

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose by 7.2% between April 2022 and April 2023, down from an annual increase of 7.7% in the 12 months to March 2023.

  •  This is the nineteenth straight month where the annual increase in the CPI has been at least 5.0%.

  • The divisions with the largest increases in the 12 months to April 2023 were Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+20.7%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+13.1%).

  • Education (-6.3%) and Transport (-2.3%) were the only divisions to show a decrease when compared with April 2022.

  • Consumer prices rose by 0.5% in the month between March 2023 and April 2023.

  • The divisions with the largest increases in the month were Communications (+2.3%) and Recreation & Culture (+1.1%).

  • The only divisions to show a fall in the month were Transport (-0.8%) and Health (-0.1%).

Statistician's Comment

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) has today (11 May 2023) published the Consumer Price Index (CPI) April 2023.

Commenting on annual changes shown in the release, Anthony Dawson, Statistician in the Prices Division, said: “The latest publication for the Consumer Price Index (CPI) shows that prices for consumer goods and services in April 2023 increased by 7.2% on average when compared with April 2022. This was down from 7.7% in the 12 months to March 2023. Prices have been rising on an annual basis since April 2021, with annual inflation of 5.0% or more recorded in each month since October 2021.

Annual Changes

The most significant increases in the year were seen in Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels which was up 20.7% and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages, which rose by 13.1%. Rising electricity (+51.3%) and gas (+55.8%) costs, along with higher mortgage interest repayments (+41.0%) are reflected in the yearly growth of Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels. The annual change in Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages costs reflects a rise in prices across a range of products such as sugar (+38.9%), frozen fish (+29.9%), fresh whole milk (+24.1%), butter (+18.9%), and eggs (+18.3%) compared with April 2022.

Education (-6.3%) and Transport (-2.3%) were the only divisions to show a decrease when compared with April 2022.

Monthly Changes

Consumer prices in April were up by 0.5% in the month. During April 2022, prices rose by 0.9% in the month. The most significant monthly price changes were increases in Communications (+2.3%) and Recreation & Culture (+1.1%). Communications increased due to higher prices for telephone & telefax services. 

Transport (-0.8%) and Health (-0.1%) were the only divisions to show a decrease when compared with March 2023.

It should be noted that these figures relate to the CPI. The flash estimate published on 28 April 2023 related to the EU Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP)."

National Average Prices

The National Average Prices for selected goods and services for April are also published today. The National Average Prices are compiled together with the CPI. Commenting on the National Average Prices, Anthony Dawson said: “The National Average Price of a number of items rose in April 2023. There were price increases for an 800g loaf of white sliced pan (+23c), an 800g loaf of brown sliced pan (+18c), 2 litres of full fat milk (+44c), and a pound of butter (+66c) when compared with April 2022.” The comprehensive list of items included in the National Average Prices and their monthly prices are available at: https://data.cso.ie/table/CPM12.

Soundbyte

This is an audio file with a 38-second quote from CSO statistician with the Prices Division, Anthony Dawson, about the April 2023 Consumer Price Index release.
Media outlets have permission to use the clip as long as they credit the CSO.

Headline Table and Graph

Figure 1 shows the development of the CPI and HICP over recent months. It also shows the recent divergence of the CPI and HICP. This divergence is due to some items having different weights in the respective indices.

CPI and HICP
 CPI HICP
 % monthly change % annual change % monthly change % annual change
Dec 2022-0.2 8.2 -0.3 8.2
Jan 2023-0.8 7.8 -1.0 7.5
Feb 20231.6 8.5 1.5 8.1
Mar 20231.1 7.7 0.9 7.0
Apr 20230.5 7.2 0.3 6.3
X-axis labelCPIHICP
Apr 202277.3
May 20227.88.3
Jun 20229.19.6
Jul 20229.19.6
Aug 20228.79
Sep 20228.28.6
Oct 20229.29.4
Nov 20228.99
Dec 20228.28.2
Jan 20237.87.5
Feb 20238.58.1
Mar 20237.77
Apr 20237.26.3

Annual and Monthly Price Changes

Prices on average, as measured by the CPI, were 7.2% higher in April 2023 compared with April 2022.

The most notable changes in the year were increases in Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+20.7%), Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+13.1%), Restaurants & Hotels (+8.1%) and Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+6.1%). There were decreases in Education (-6.3%) and Transport (-2.3%).

Consumer Prices in April, as measured by the CPI, increased by 0.5% in the month. During April of last year, prices rose by 0.9% in the month. The most significant monthly price changes were increases in Communications (+2.3%) and Recreation & Culture (+1.1%). There were decreases in Transport (-0.8%) and Health (-0.1%).

Table 1 - Consumer Price Index (All Items)

Table 2 - Consumer Price COICOP Division Indices - April 2023

Contributions to the Overall CPI

Annual Change

Table 3 shows the contribution of each 2-digit COICOP1 division to the overall change in the CPI. A detailed breakdown of the individual components of each of the 12 COICOP divisions is presented in Tables 4 to 15.

The divisions which caused the largest upward contribution to the CPI in the year were Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+3.53%), Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+1.43%), Restaurants & Hotels (+1.26%) and Recreation & Culture (+0.40%).

The only divisions to cause a downward contribution to the CPI in the year were Transport (-0.32%) and Education (-0.10%).

The main factors contributing to the annual change were as follows:

  • Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels rose mainly due to an increase in the cost of electricity, gas, solid fuels, mortgage interest repayments and higher rents. This increase was partially offset by a reduction in prices for liquid fuels (home heating oil).
  • Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages increased due to higher prices across a range of products such as meat, bread & cereals, milk, cheese & eggs and vegetables.
  • Restaurants & Hotels rose primarily due to higher prices for alcoholic drinks and food consumed in licensed premises, restaurants, cafes etc. and an increase in the cost of hotel accommodation.
  • Recreation & Culture increased mainly due to higher prices for package holidays, participation in recreational & sporting services and products for pets.
  • Transport fell primarily due to lower prices for diesel, petrol, passenger transport by bus & coach and services in respect of personal transport equipment. This decrease was partially offset by higher prices for motor cars.
  • Education decreased mainly due to a reduction in costs associated with participating in third level education.

1Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose Adapted to the Needs of Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (2000). 

Figure 2: Contribution of CPI COICOP Divisions to the Overall CPI Annual Percentage Change - April 2023
Monthly Change

The divisions which caused the largest upward contribution to the CPI in the month were Restaurants & Hotels (+0.16%) and Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+0.12%). The only division to cause a downward contribution to the CPI in the month was Transport (-0.12%).

The main factors contributing to the monthly change were as follows:

  • Restaurants & Hotels increased primarily due to higher prices for alcoholic drinks and food consumed in licensed premises, restaurants, cafes etc. and an increase in the cost of hotel accommodation.
  • Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels rose mainly due to an increase in the cost of mortgage interest repayments. This increase was partially offset by a reduction in prices for liquid fuels (home heating oil).
  • Transport decreased due to lower prices for airfares and diesel. This decrease was partially offset by higher prices for motor cars.
Table 3 - Contributions to the change in the All Items CPI - April 2023

CPI sub-indices

Tables 4 to 15 detail all COICOP1 sub-indices of the CPI.

Table 2 and table 17 detail selected consumer price index sub-indices. The sub index for Services rose by 9.2% in the year to April, while Goods increased by 4.6%. Services, excluding mortgage interest repayments, increased by 7.6% in the year since April 2022.

The CPI excluding tobacco increased by 0.5% in the month of April and rose by 7.3% in the year. The CPI excluding mortgage interest rose by 0.3% in the month and increased by 6.2% in the year.

1Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose Adapted to the Needs of Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (2000).

Table 4 - COICOP Division 01 Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages - April 2023

Table 5 - COICOP Division 02 Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco - April 2023

Table 6 - COICOP Division 03 Clothing and Footwear - April 2023

Table 7 - COICOP Division 04 Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas and Other Fuels - April 2023

Table 8 - COICOP Division 05 Furnishings, Household Equipment and Routine Household Maintenance - April 2023

Table 9 - COICOP Division 06 Health - April 2023

Table 10 - COICOP Division 07 Transport - April 2023

Table 11 - COICOP Division 08 Communications - April 2023

Table 12 - COICOP Division 09 Recreation and Culture - April 2023

Table 13 - COICOP Division 10 Education - April 2023

Table 14 - COICOP Division 11 Restaurants and Hotels - April 2023

Table 15 - COICOP Division 12 Miscellaneous Goods and Services - April 2023

Table 16 - Consumer Price Index Goods and Services by COICOP Division - April 2023

Table 17 - Consumer Price Index Subindices - April 2023

Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices

Prices on average, as measured by the EU Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP), increased by 6.3% compared with April 2022.

Table 19 details the COICOP sub-indices for the HICP. The most notable changes in the year were increases in Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+17.1%), Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+13.0%), Restaurants & Hotels (+8.1%) and Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+6.1%). There were decreases in Education (-6.3%), Transport (-2.0%) and Health (-0.5%).

The HICP increased by 0.3% in the month. This compares to an increase of 0.9% recorded in April of last year.

The most significant monthly price changes were increases in Communications (+2.4%) and Restaurants & Hotels (+1.0%). There were decreases in Health (-1.9%) and Transport (-0.9%).

Table 18 - EU Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) - Ireland

Table 19 - EU Harmonised Consumer Price COICOP Division Indices - April 2023 Ireland

National Average Price

National Average Prices for selected goods and services for April 2023 are detailed in Table 20.

Looking at the National Average Prices of some staple items:

  • The national average price for bread (large (800g) white sliced pan) was up 23 cents in the year to April 2023, while the same size brown sliced pan was up 18 cents in the year.
  • Spaghetti per 500g increased by 27 cents in the year while the average price for 2.5kg of potatoes was up 11 cent.
  • Full fat milk per 2 litres increased by 44 cents in the year while the average price of Irish cheddar per kg rose by €1.42 and butter per lb rose by 66 cents.
  • The national average price of a take-home 50cl can of lager at €2.30 was up 14 cents on average from April 2022 while a take-home 50cl can of cider at €2.54 was up 18 cents.
  • In April 2023, the national average price of a pint of stout in licensed premises was €5.50, up 38 cents in the year, while a pint of lager was €5.97, up 47 cents compared with April 2022.

National Average Price

National Average Prices for selected goods and services for April 2023 are detailed below

These prices are compared to the same product and service in April 2022. A full list of National Average Prices is detailed in Table 20.
Increase
23c
now €1.69
White Sliced Pan (800g)
Increase
27c
now €1.49
Spaghetti (500g)
Increase
11c
now €3.39
Bag of Potatoes (2.5kg)
Increase
44c
now €2.28
Milk - Full Fat (2L)
Increase
€1.42
now €10.71
Irish Cheddar Cheese (kg)
Increase
66c
now €3.87
Butter (lb/454g)
Table 20 - National Average Prices