Aged 26 at the time of the Census 1911
Photo: Thomas Ashe
Address: 7, Corduff (Hackett) (Lusk, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Thomas Ashe records him living alone, his marital status was single and he was a national school teacher. Thomas Ashe was born in Kerry and was an active member of both the Irish Volunteers and the Gaelic League. He was the leader of the North County Dublin Volunteers during the Rising during which they captured four barracks and a large quantity of arms and ammunition when they engaged with the Royal Irish Constabulary in Ashbourne. He was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life. He was released from jail in 1917. Later that year, he was once again arrested and sentenced to a year’s hard labour at Mountjoy Prison.
He demanded, along with other Republicans in the jail, to be treated as a prisoner of war. When these demands were refused, the prisoners went on hunger strike. Thomas Ashe died on 25 September, 1917, as a result of incorrectly administered forcible feeding. An account of how Ashe was treated and died is recorded the in Witness Statement of Patrick Berry, a member of Mounty Prison Staff, see pages 5 and 6 below.
Bureau of Military History Witness Statement: Patrick Joseph Berry, Member of Mountjoy Prison staff
Aged 1 year at the time of Census 1911
Address: 3, Kennycourt (Gilltown, Kildare)
The Census 1911 return for the Bacon household at 3, Kennycourt, Gilltown, Co. Kildare, includes one year old Francis, who would become the most sought-after international artist of the post-war period.
Aged 18 at the time of Census 1901
Address: 1.2, Bowling Green (Galway North Urban, Galway)
The Census 1901 return for Norah Barnacle, the future Mrs. James Joyce, records her living with her family at Bowling Green in Galway city in 1901, aged 18 and working as a laundress. Barnacle met Joyce on 10 June 1904 in Dublin and they had their first romantic encounter on 16 June. Joyce later chose 16 June 1904 as the date for the setting for his novel Ulysses and the date has come to be known and celebrated around the world as Bloomsday.
Aged 9 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 8, Fleet St. (South City, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Barry household in Fleet Street, Dublin includes Kevin Gerrard Barry (9). The return shows the head of the household as Kevin’s Aunt Judith (63), who appears to be looking after a number of nieces and nephews. There is also a domestic servant, Catherine Kinsella (59) from Dublin City. Kevin Barry was born at this address. When Kevin’s father Thomas died in 1908, his mother Mary moved back to Co. Carlow while Kevin remained in Dublin and attended school in Rathmines.
In 1920, the 18 year old medical student was the first Irish republican to be executed by the British since the leaders of the Easter Rising were executed in 1916. Barry was sentenced to death for his part in an Irish Volunteers operation which resulted in the deaths of three British soldiers. On 14th October 2001, the remains of Kevin Barry and nine other volunteers from the War of Independence were given a state funeral and moved from Mountjoy prison to be re-interred in Glasnevin cemetery.
This is the Census 1911 return for Kevin Barry’s mother who had returned to Carlow. The head of the family is Mary Barry (39), a widow and her occupation is recorded as a farmer. The Census also records her three daughters Eileen (7), Maureen (5) and Margaret (3) and her mother Eileen Dowling (73), who was a widow. One other person was recorded in the house - a domestic servant Mary Dunne, (18). All occupants are recorded as Roman Catholic.
Address: 6, Tombeigh (Hacketstown, Carlow)
Aged 4 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 14, Kerrymount (Ballybrack, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Beckett household in Kerrymount, Ballybrack, Co. Dublin shows 4 year old Samuel Barclay. Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. He was widely regarded as one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969.
Thomas Clifford Butterfield (Lord Mayor of Cork 1916 - 1918)
Aged 50 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 68, South Mall (Cork No. 6 Urban, Cork)
The 1911 Census return for the Butterfield household recorded the head of the household as Thomas Clifford (50) who was originally from Co. Clare. He was a dental surgeon and was proficient in Irish and English. He had been married 28 years but his wife is not recorded on the census record. There were 2 domestic servants present, Minnie Santry (23) and Nora Healy (19).
During the Easter Rising, Tomás MacCurtáin and the Volunteers in Cork mustered at their headquarters at Sheare’s Street and waited for orders from the volunteer leadership in Dublin.
However confusion prevailed because of conflicting instructions and the Cork Volunteers were in a stand-off with British forces who surrounded the volunteer hall. This stand-off continued for a week until a negotiated agreement led to the surrender of the volunteers’ arms to the Lord Mayor of Cork, Thomas Butterfield.
The rifles were to be locked in the Lord Mayor's safe or strong room and returned after the Rising.
This agreement was signed by the Bishop of Cork Daniel Coholan, the Lord Mayor and the British representative. A few hours after the Volunteers had deposited their rifles, the City Hall was raided by the British Army and all the rifles confiscated. At the same time another party led by the R.I.C. arrested all the Volunteer officers. The next morning the Bishop and the Lord Mayor approached the military and protested against the breaking of the agreement and the arrest of the Volunteers. The result was the release of the Volunteers - but it was only for a few days. They were arrested again and deported to British prisons.
Erskine Childers’ family (The Bartons)
Robert Erskine Childers or Erskine Childers (1870-1922) was the author of the influential novel “The Riddle of the Sands” and an Irish nationalist. He smuggled guns to Ireland in his sailing yacht The Asgard in 1914. He was executed by the authorities of the Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War. He was the son of scholar Robert Caesar Childers and Anna Mary Henrietta, née Barton, from an Anglo-Irish landowning family of Glendalough House, Annamoe, County Wicklow and he was the father of the fourth President of Ireland, Erskine Hamilton Childers. While we do not have a Census report for Erskine Childers who was located in London, we do have one for the Barton family in Glendalough.
Address: 23, Drummin (Glendalough, Wicklow)
The Census 1911 return for the Barton family includes the head of the family, Agnes A.T. Barton (53), a widow, born in Italy, whose occupation is recorded as land owner and labour employer. It shows her two daughters, Frances Margaret (23), who was born in Dublin and Dulcibella (21) who was born in Co. Wicklow. Her nephew, Henry Caesar Childers (32) was born in England. The occupations of her daughters and nephews were recorded as “money p. land mortgage etc”. There are six servants recorded in the house: Margaret Bigger (48), the cook; Isabella Rogers (27), the dairy maid; Elizabeth Hamilton Smith (27) the housemaid; Selina Jacob (18) and Ellen Jacob (15) the kitchen and scullery maids respectively and Thomas Strickland (64), the butler. All members of the household are recorded as Church of England.
The Barton’s owned Glendalough House and around 15,000 acres of Wicklow. The family were closely related to the wine producing family of Straffan House, (now the K Club). Robert Barton, the son, is not recorded in the family census return; he was a British soldier when the Rising broke out. He abandoned his army career and, with his sister Dulcibella, became part of Irish revolutionary politics. He was jailed in Portland Prison in England for various seditious activities. He became a Minister for Agriculture in the second Dáil and was part of the Sinn Féin delegation that negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921. While Erskine Childers was executed during the Civil war, Barton survived to become Chairman of the Agricultural Credit Corporation and a Director of Bord na Mona. He died in 1975.
Daniel Cohalan (Bishop of Cork 1916 - 1952)
Aged 52 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 1.2, Collegeland (Maynooth), Kildare
Daniel Cohalan was the Bishop of Cork during the 1916 Rising. During the Census 1911, he was living as a professor in Maynooth. (entry no. 22)
During the Rising Tomás MacCurtain and the Volunteers in Cork mustered at their headquarters at Sheare’s Street and waited for orders from the volunteer leadership in Dublin.
However confusion prevailed because of conflicting instructions and the Cork Volunteers were in a stand-off with British forces who surrounded the volunteer hall. This stand-off continued for a week until an agreement, negotiated by the Bishop of Cork and the Lord Mayor of Cork Thomas Butterfield, led to the surrender of the volunteers’ arms to the Lord Mayor of Cork. It was agreed that the rifles were to be locked in the Lord Mayor's safe or strong room and returned after the Rising.
This agreement was signed by the Bishop of Cork, the Lord Mayor and the British representative. A few hours after the Volunteers had deposited their rifles, the City Hall was raided by the British Army and all the rifles confiscated. At the same time another party led by the R.I.C. arrested all the Volunteer officers. The next morning the Bishop and the Lord Mayor approached the military and protested against the breaking of the agreement and the arrest of the Volunteers. The result was the release of the Volunteers - but it was only for a few days. They were arrested again and deported to British prisons.
Daniel Cohalan was appointed an auxiliary bishop on the 25th May and consecrated on the 7th of June 1914. He was appointed Bishop of Cork on the 29th of August 1916 and died 24th of August 1952.
Sir George Colthurst
Aged 60 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 3, Blarney (Blarney, Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the Colthurst family of Blarney, Cork includes Sir George Colthurst (60) who was the 6th Baronet of Ardrum. He had been married to Edith (50) for 30 years and the census report includes their son Richard (24). There were 7 servants recorded: Kate McKeown (39) from Kilkenny is the housemaid, Flora Murphy (28) from Carlow is the lady’s maid, Susan Daly (23) from Cork City is the under housemaid and Kate Murphy (19) from Midleton is the relative maid. The butler is James O’Neill (29) from Wexford, Albert Heath (16) from London is the pantry boy and Mary Sherlock (50) from Cork, a widow, is the cook. All members of the household are Church of England except for Mary Sherlock, who is recorded as Church of Rome.
The Colthurst family lived on an estate of over 31,000 acres which included Blarney Castle, the home of the famous Blarney Stone. Sir George held the office of High Sheriff of County Cork in 1884. His son Richard, aged 24, married Cecily Charlotte Cholmondeley on 2 August 1911. They divorced in 1927. Richard gained the rank of Captain in the service of the London Regiment and fought in the First World War. He subsequently held the office of High Sheriff of County Dublin between 1920 and 1921. He succeeded to the title of 8th Baronet Colthurst, of Ardrum, Co. Cork on 28 February 1951.
Aged 29 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 58, Gloucester Street, Lower (North Dock, Dublin)
The 1911 Census return for the Connolly family at North Dock, Dublin records the head of the household as Michael Connolly (54) from Co. Kildare, a dock porter who is married to Mary (50) from Co. Dublin. They have four daughters, Mary (30) a housemaid, Gertie (20) a printing machinist, Ellen (19) a book keeper and Veronica (8) is at school. There are five sons, Joseph (18) a messenger, George (16), Edward (15), Matthew (12). There is also a son John (Seán) (29) married for one year to Christina (22) and both are boarders in the house. There is another boarder living in the house, a nephew Richard Byrne (50), who was a commercial clerk from Co. Lough. The only two people in the household not proficient in Irish are Mary Connolly and her daughter Mary.
Seán Connolly, an ICA officer and Abbey Theatre actor, was both the first rebel to kill a British soldier and the first to be killed. Connolly's father was a sailor, who was later employed on the docks. The family moved to the north inner city district of Dublin shortly after Seán's birth. At school he became a fluent Irish speaker and took a great interest in history. When he left school, he began working for Eason's in Middle Abbey Street as a dispatch clerk, moving from there to become a junior clerk in Dublin Corporation, becoming in time a senior officer in the Motor Licence Department in City Hall.
Only a week before the rising, Seán Connolly was playing the lead role in James Connolly's new play 'Under Which Flag' in its first performance at Liberty Hall by the Abbey Theatre company. The play was about an Irishman torn between serving in the Irish or the British army, and ended with Connolly raising a green flag and uttering the words 'Under this flag only will I serve. Under this flag, if need be, will I die.'
During the Rising, Connolly was under the command of Michael Mallin in St. Stephen’s Green. Connolly's men moved from there to take up a position at City Hall. The objective of the group was to enter Dublin City Hall and keep the British army under fire as long as possible. Connolly had a key to City Hall as he worked there in the motor tax office located in the building. When they reached Dublin City Hall he ordered two men to secure the sentries at the gates of Dublin Castle which would allow him and his men time to enter the City Hall. It was at this time the castle guard James O’Brien was killed. Connolly was shot first in the hand but the second shot he received proved fatal. Also serving at the same post was his sister Katie who was nursing the wounded and his brother Michael. An account of the fighting can be read in Matthew Connolly’s Witness Statement included below.
Bureau of Military History Witness Statement: Matthew Connolly
Sinéad de Valera
Aged 22 at the time of Census 1901
Address: 6, Richmond Cottages (Mountjoy, Dublin)
The Census 1901 return for the Flanagan household at 6 Richmond Cottages, Mountjoy, Dublin, included Jane, a 22 year old national teacher. Jane Flanagan changed her name to the Irish equivalent, Sinéad. She met her future husband Éamon de Valera, whom she married in January 1910, while teaching Irish with the Gaelic League.
Aged 32 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 33, Morehampton Terrace (Pembroke West, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return recorded Sinéad's family living in 33, Morehampton Terrace, Dublin. Her husband’s name was recorded as Edward and they had a young baby, Vivian, aged just 3 months old. Sinéad de Valera is widely known in her own right as an author of Irish Fairy Stories for Children in both Irish and English.
John Farrell, Lord Mayor of Dublin
Aged 39 at the time of Census 1911
Address:19.2, Dawson Street (Mansion House, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Lord Mayor of Dublin, John Joseph Farrell (39) and his wife of 13 years Mary Josephine (31). Also present are their children, Eliza Mary (12), John (10), May Josephine (8), Eileen (6), Patrick (2), Peter (1 month). There were five servants: Thomas Buckley (47), the house steward, his wife Alice (36), also a servant, both of whom were from Galway; Annie McGuire (19), a nurse from Dublin; May Anne Hughes (19) and Maggie Clancy (19), both domestic servants from Wexford. On census night there was also a visitor recorded - Margaret Byrne (31) from Dublin City.
Barry Fitzgerald (Actor) born William Joseph Shields
Aged 23 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 65, Douglas Street (Cork No. 5 Urban (part of), Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the Welch house in Douglas Street, Cork which includes a number of boarders, one being the actor Barry Fitzgerald, aged 23, an Episcopalian. At the time of the 1911 Census Barry Fitzgerald was working in the Civil Service in Cork but then transfered to Dublin. He took the pseudonym of Barry Fitzgerald while moonlighting as an actor but didn’t become a full-time actor until 1919. He befriended a playwright called Sean O’Casey and O’Casey wrote parts for him in his plays including Captain Boyle in “Juno and the Paycock” and Fluther in “The Plough and the Stars”. He moved to Hollywood where he appeared in the John Ford film version of “The Plough and the Stars” as well as movies such as “Bringing Up Baby” with Cary Grant and Katherine Hepburn. He was reunited with his brother Arthur Shields when they both starred in Ford’s film “How Green Was My Valley”. He won an Academy Award for his part as Father Fitzgibbons in the film "Going My Way”. He played the matchmaker Michaeleen Oge Flynn in the Quiet Man which his brother Arthur Shields also appeared in. He never married and returned from Hollywood to live in Dublin in 1959. He died in 1961 and is buried in Deansgrange Cemetery, Dublin beside his brother, Arthur Shields. (For the Census return for Arthur Shields and the Shields family see Arthur Shields below)
Zenon Geldof (Grandfather of musician Bob Geldof)
Aged 30 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 177, Strand Road (Pembroke East, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Geldofs in Dublin records the head of the household was Zenon, a hotel chef originally from Belgium. He was married for 6 years to Minnie (35) from England. They had 2 daughters, Cleo (5) born in England and May (2) born in Dublin. All the family were Roman Catholic. There were 3 lodgers staying with them in the house: Frederick Armstrong (39), a Commercial Traveller from Dublin and Church of Ireland; Andrew Duncan (34) from Scotland, a Secretary and Presbyterian and George Samuel Nyilessy (27), a Civil Service Army Auditor and Church of England. Lizzie Gordan (20), a servant, was also recorded. She was Roman Catholic and from Dublin. Between 1913 and 1917, Zenon was head chef in Jurys Hotel, College Green. As he was such a renowned chef, he was given a special permit during the Rising to pass through the checkpoints and get home from work at night. He was presented with the “Chevalier de L’Orde de Leopold” by the King of Belgium in 1929 in recognition of his work in restaurants abroad and for representing Belgian firms in Ireland. He died in a car crash in Waterford in 1939.
Lady Augusta Gregory
Aged 59 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 16, Frederick Street, South (Royal Exchange, Dublin)
This Census 1911 return for Lady Augusta Gregory recorded her staying at Nolan’s Hotel in South Frederick St., accompanied by William Butler Yeats. She was an Irish dramatist, folklorist and theatre manager. With William Butler Yeats and Edward Martyn, she co-founded the Irish Literary Theatre and the Abbey Theatre. She wrote numerous short works for both companies. Her home was Coole Parke near Gort in Galway, but while on the board of the Abbey, she spent her time in Dublin staying in a number of hotels. She frequently used her hotel rooms to interview would-be Abbey dramatists and to entertain the company after opening nights of new plays.
Aged 28 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 14, in Ballycultra (Holywood Urban, Down)
The Census 1911 return for the Hobson family in Co. Down shows the head of the household as Benjamin Hobson (58), a commercial agent from Co. Armagh. According to the Census, he and his wife Mary Ann (who was born in England) had been married for 31 years. They had one daughter, Florence Fulton (30) born in Kildare, who was an architect and one son John Bulmer Hobson (28) born in Belfast and a journalist. All members of the household were members of the Society of Friends or Quakers.
John Bulmer Hobson came from a Quaker background and was a leading member of the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB before the Easter Rising in 1916. In 1909, along with Countess Markievicz, he formed Fianna Eireann, a form of scouting organisation for boys which enjoyed considerable success. Two of its earlier recruits were Con Colbert and Seán Heuson. He left the Quakers after he helped organise the 1914 gun smuggling at Howth as the Quakers were opposed to all forms of violence. Although he was a member of the IRB which had planned the Rising, he was opposed to the Rising and attempted to prevent it.
Dr. Douglas Hyde
Aged 40 at the time of Census 1901
Photo: Douglas Hyde (seated) with the Lord Mayor of Dublin
Address: 17, Ratra (Frenchpark, Roscommon)
This is the Census 1901 return for Douglas Hyde and his family, along with 3 servants, who were living in Ratra, Frenchpark. A scholar of the Irish language, Hyde published a substantial amount of Irish verse under the pen name "An Craoibhín Aoibhinn". He was a leading figure in the Gaelic revival and the first president of the Gaelic League, one of the most influential cultural organisations in Ireland at the time. He would later become a Senator and was the first President of Ireland from 1938-1945. The Douglas Hyde Gallery is located in Trinity College, Dublin and was founded in 1978 by Trinity College and the Arts Council of Ireland. It is home to many contemporary art exhibitions. Dr. Hyde Park is the home of Roscommon GAA. Opened in 1969, it has a capacity of 30,000 people.
Address: 1, Earlsfort Place (Fitzwilliam, Dublin)
Census 1911: Return records for the Hyde family show that the family have moved to Dublin. The return was completed in the Irish language.
Aged 19 at the time of Census 1901
Address: 8.1, Royal Terrace (Clontarf West, Dublin)
The Census 1901 return for the Joyce family in Clontarf, Dublin showed James Augustine Joyce as a 19 year old student. It also included his father John Stanislaus (51) from the City of Cork, a government pensioner, and James’ mother Mary, aged 39. He had 6 sisters and 3 brothers. Joyce was later to become a novelist and poet and found fame as the author of Ulysses and he was regarded as one of the most influential writers of the early twentieth century.
Aged 7 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 2, Mucker (Kiltybegs, Monaghan)
The Census 1911 return for the Kavanagh household in Mucker, Kiltybegs, Co. Monaghan included 7 year old Patrick, who was later to become a poet and novelist. Fans of Kavanagh’s autobiographical novel 'The Green Fool' will note his father’s occupation, shoemaker, and the presence of a journeyman shoemaker in the household on Census night 1911.
Denis Kelly (Bishop of Ross in 1911)
Aged 59 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 81, North Street (Skibbereen Urban, Cork)
Denis Kelly (59) from Tipperary was the Bishop of Ross at the time of the Census 1911 and lived in Skibbereen. There were two servants in the house; Julie Kearney (40) was the cook, Mary Keohane (35) was a general domestic servant who was proficient in Irish and English. There were 13 rooms in the house and 10 windows. The house also had the following out-buildings: a stable, a coach house, a harness room, a fowl house and a potato house.
Aged 29 at the time of Census 1911
The Census 1911 return for Delia Larkin, with her brother James and his family. Delia Larkin was a trade union organiser, journalist and actress. She was influenced by the activities of her brother, James Larkin, to move to Ireland from Liverpool in England and was prominent during the 1913 Dublin Lockout. She was active in Irish trade union activities and was a founding secretary of the Irish Women Workers' Union. In 1921, she married Patrick Colgan, a member of the Irish Citizen Army. She died in 1949 and is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery.
Aged 31 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 27, Auburn Street (Inns Quay, Dublin)
This is the Census 1911 return for the Larkin household in Broadstone, Dublin. The return was completed in Irish and both James and his wife Elizabeth, (Séaumus and Eilis) were aged 31. There were three children recorded, James Junior (Séaumus), aged 6, Denis (Donnachadh), aged 2 and Fintan Lawlor (Fintán Lalor), aged 1. His sister Delia (Bridhe) was aged 29.
James Larkin was an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, born to impoverished Irish parents in Liverpool. He married Elizabeth Browne in 1903 and they had four sons. He moved to Belfast in 1907 where he organised a successful dock workers strike, with other workers such as coalmen joining in. In 1908 he moved to Dublin and formed the Irish Transport and General Workers Union. The union was formed to protect the rights of workers such as dock workers, labourers and factory workers who lived in incredibly poor conditions in the slums and tenements in Dublin. In 1910 he was accused of embezzlement of funds and imprisoned but was pardoned and released pending an appeal to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Earl of Aberdeen. In 1911 he established the newspaper “The Irish Worker and People’s Advocate” and in 1912 he helped form the Irish Labour Party with James Connolly.
Larkin is best known for his involvement in the 1913 Lock-Out. It was the worst industrial dispute in Irish history. The employers (of Guinness, Jacobs and other factories), led by William Martin Murphy, a rich industrialist and owner of Irish Independent Newspaper and other newspapers, engaged in a lock-out of workers if they refused to sign a pledge not to become a member of a union and to strike. Notable people such as Pearse and Countess Markievicz supported the workers. Over the eight months of the dispute the workers were reduced to near starvation. The Lock-Out ended in 1914 when Larkin and Connolly unsuccessfully looked for support from other British Unions.
After the Lock-Out Larkin went to America but his support for Communism and his anti-war stance led to him being arrested in 1920 and sent to Sing Sing Prison for up to ten years. He was pardoned in 1923 and returned to Ireland. With his brother Peter he founded the Workers Union of Ireland. James Larkin and his two sons, James Junior and Denis, served as members of the Oireachtas for the Labour Party. His son Denis was also Lord Mayor of Dublin 1955-1956.
He died in 1943 and is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery. A large statue in his honour stands on O’Connell Street.
Seán Francis Lemass
Aged 11 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 2, Capel St. (North City, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Lemass family showed the head of the family as John (43), from Dublin City, who was a mines-outfitter and who was married for 14 years to Frances (39) from Co. Dublin, They had three sons, Noel (13), John (11) and Patrick (4) and three daughters, Alice (10), Clare (7) and May (1). There was one domestic servant recorded, Elizabeth Kelly (19) from Co. Dublin. Everyone in the household was Roman Catholic. Noel and John were the only people in the household proficient in Irish and English.
Lemass joined the Volunteers at the age of 15 and was appointed as Eamon de Valera’s personal aide. Both Sean and his older brother Noel took part in the Rising. On Easter Monday, thinking that the Rising was cancelled, they were out walking in the Dublin mountains when they learned about the Rising from the sons of Eoin MacNeill. The next morning without a word to their parents they headed off to take part and Noel was sent to the Imperial Hotel where he was equipped with a shotgun and sent to the roof of the GPO where he stayed for most of the week. With the evacuation of the GPO he was one of many who assisted in carrying Connolly’s stretcher to Moore Lane. He witnessed the deaths of many of the Volunteers who died during The O’Rahilly’s charge and also the deaths of men, women and children who were killed trying to leave their homes. Following the Rising, Seán Lemass stayed in the Volunteers and was involved in the War of Independence and was anti-Treaty during the Civil War.
Three of Lemass's brothers died while young. When he was 16, Seán Lemass killed his own baby brother, Herbert, aged twenty-two months, in a domestic shooting accident with a revolver on 28 January 1916. His older brother, Noel, an anti-Treaty officer, was abducted in June 1923 and murdered the following October when he was 25. Another of Lemass's brothers, Patrick, died of natural causes at the age of 19 in 1926.
Lemass was first elected as a Sinn Féin Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin South constituency in a by-election in 1924 and was returned at each election until the constituency was abolished in 1948, when he was re-elected for Dublin South–Central until his retirement in 1969. He was a founder-member of Fianna Fáil in 1926, and served as Minister for Industry and Commerce, Minister for Supplies and Tánaiste in successive Fianna Fáil governments.
Michael Logue, Cardinal and Primate of All Ireland, Archbishop of Armagh
Aged 70 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 1, Cathedral Hill (Armagh North Urban, Armagh)
The Census 1911 return shows the head of household was Michael Logue (70), Cardinal and Primate of all Ireland, Archbishop of Armagh, who was originally from Donegal. He was proficient in Irish and English according to the census. Also recorded on the census form were the housekeeper Mary McCluskey (44) and Margaret McCluskey (37), a servant, both from Co. Louth. All those in the household were Catholic.
Michael Logue was born in Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal in 1840. He became Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland in 1887, later becoming Cardinal. He supported Home Rule and later the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921. Logue maintained an attitude loyal to the British Crown during the First World War. On 19 June 1917, when numbers of the younger clergy were beginning to take part in the Sinn Féin agitation he warned the clergy against belonging to "dangerous associations" and reminded priests that it was strictly forbidden by the statutes of the National Synod to speak of political or kindred affairs in the church. He did however speak out against conscription in 1918. He died in 1924.
Aged 17 at the time of Census 1901
Address: 60, Great Britain Street (Cork Urban No. 4, Cork)
The 1901 Census return for the Curtin family
The 1901 Census return recorded the head of the family as John Curtin (21) an insurance agent. Also in the household were his sister Mary (18), a housekeeper, and Thomas (17), a clerk in the Steam Packet Company. There was also a boarder Hannah Murphy (24) who was a dressmaker. All members of the household were Catholic and from Cork City.
Tomás Mac Curtáin was born at Ballyknockane townland in the Parish of Mourne Abbey in March 1884. He attended Burnfort National School. In 1897 Thomas moved to Blackpool in the northside of Cork City to live with his brother John and sister Mary where he attended The North Monastery School. MacCurtain became active in numerous cultural and political movements from the turn of the nineteenth century when he joined the Blackpool, Cork branch of Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League), becoming its secretary in 1902. He had diverse interests in music, poetry, Irish history and archeology. After Thomas left school he worked as a clerk for the City of Cork Steam Packet Company.
In 1907 MacCurtáin secured work at Marks Mills in Crosses and in his free time he gave Irish lessons. In 1911 he joined the Fianna Eireann and was a founding member of the Irish Volunteers. He met Eilish Walsh (Eibhlís Breathnach) at a Gaelic League meeting and they married in 1908. They had six children, five of whom survived into adulthood. The family lived over number 40 Thomas Davis Street where Tomás had a small clothing and rainwear factory. (now the premises is called The Pantry and it is a Subway takeaway. There is a plaque to commemorate MacCurtain on the Upper Story).
MacCurtáin was in command of the Irish Volunteers in Cork during the 1916 Rising. From the volunteers headquarters in Sheare’s Street in the city, MacCurtáin and his officers waited for orders from the volunteer leadership in Dublin. Telegram boys were intercepted and relieved of any messages for British Amy officers in Cork barracks. One of the telegrams gave news of the Rising in Dublin. This was the first information that the volunteers had that the Rising had taken place. The information came through London via Rosslare to the Cork General Post Office. With conflicting instructions, confusion prevailed and a stand-off developed between the Cork Volunteers and the British forces who surrounded the volunteer hall and this continued for a week until a negotiated agreement led to the surrender of the volunteers’ arms to the Lord Mayor of Cork, Thomas Butterfield. Though no rising took place in Cork, MacCurtáin was arrested and imprisoned in Frongoch in Wales. Tomás MacCurtáin took an active role in the War of Independence becoming Commandant of the Irish Republican Army. Following Sinn Féin’s victory in the local elections of January 1920, MacCurtáin was elected Lord Mayor of Cork, the first Republican to take office. He began a process of political reform within the city, making changes to the way in which the council operated and was run. On the morning of 20th March 1920 members of the RIC and the military, with fixed bayonets, forced their way into his house and shot him dead. It was thought that the murder was a reprisal for the shooting of Constable Murtagh at Pope’s Quay on the 19thMarch. One of the last acts of MacCurtáin was to phone the North Infirmary Hospital to make enquiries about Constable Murtagh and to offer his sympathies. Also present at the house were Mrs. MacCurtáin, her 5 children and her brother James Walsh, her three sisters, two nieces and a nephew plus her elderly mother. The brutal murder brought universal condemnation. A jury passed a verdict of wilful murder against the inspectors of the RIC, one of whom, District Inspector Oswald Swanzy, was subsequently shot dead in Lisburn in August 1920.
Census 1911 return for Inspector Oswald Swanzy Address: 9, Athy Street (Carlow Urban, Carlow)
The head of the household was Oswald Ross Swanzy (29). Also living in the house was his mother Elizabeth (51) and his sister Irene Frances Evelyn. There were also two servants.
Aged 27 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 19, Nicholas Street (Cork No.5 Urban (part of), Cork
This Census 1911 return was in Irish and showed the head of the household as Tomás MacCurtáin, an Irish Teacher with Conradh na Gaeilge (Gaelic League). He had been married for 3 years to Eilís bean Uí Churtáin. Both Tomás and his wife were proficient in Irish and English. They had 2 young children - Siobhán Ní Churtáin (2) who was, according to the Census report, also proficient in Irish and English and a young son Padraig MacCurtáin who was under 1 month old.
Tomás MacCurtáin is buried in the Republican plot at St. Finbarr’s Cemetery in Glasheen. The street previously known as King Street was renamed MacCurtain Street.
MacCurtáin and his wife had six children, five of whom survived into adulthood. Tomás MacCurtáin's son Tomás Óg later became a leading republican and member of the IRA. In January 1940, he was sentanced to death by the de Valera government for mortally wounding Garda John Roache at the end of St. Patrick Steet on the 3rd of January 1940. Garda Roache had been following him for weeks and following a confrontation, he was shot. Tomás was granted clemancy due to the fact that his father had been killed by the British Army. He was released after 7 years.
Aged 39 at the time of the 1911 Census
Photo: Funeral of Terence MacSwiney
Address: 66, Knockrea, Cork
The Census 1911 return for the MacSwiney household was completed in Irish and the head of the household was Máire nic Suibhne or Mary MacSwiney. Included on the form are her younger brothers, Terence and Seán. Mary was aged 39 at the time of the 1911 Census and her occupation was listed as a teacher or muinteoir. Her brother Terence, or Toirdealbhachis, was aged 32 and her youngest brother Seán, or Seaghan, was 24.
Terence MacSwiney was an Irish author and politician. He was elected Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920 and died after 74 days on hunger strike in October 1920.
Terence's father John MacSwiney emigrated to Australia in 1885 leaving Terence and his siblings in the care of their mother. After the death of Terence's mother Mary, his eldest sister Mary took care of the family. He was educated at North Monastery School in Cork City. He left school at an early age but he later continued his studies and graduated from University in 1907. He was one of the founders of the Cork Brigade of the Irish Volunteers in 1913 and was President of the Cork branch of Sinn Féin. He was intended to be second in command to Tomás MacCurtáin of the Cork and Kerry forces during the Easter Rising. A force of up to 1,000 men of the Irish Volunteers assembled at various locations around County Cork. From the volunteers headquarters at Sheares Street in the city, MacCurtáin, MacSwiney and officers awaited orders from the volunteer leadership in Dublin but as a result of Eoin MacNeill’s countermanding orders the Cork volunteers never entered the Rising. A stand-off developed when British forces surrounded the volunteer hall and this continued for a week until a negotiated agreement led to the surrender of the volunteers' arms to the then Lord Mayor of Cork, Thomas Butterfield.
Following the Rising, MacSwiney was interned in various prison camps. In 1917 he was released and married Muriel Murphy of the Cork distillery owning family. After the murder of the Lord Mayor of Cork, Tomás MacCurtáin, during the War of Independence, MacSwiney was elected Lord Mayor. He was arrested for possession of seditious articles and documents, tried by court martial and sentenced to two years imprisonment in Brixton prison. He immediately started a hunger strike and was joined by eleven others imprisoned in Cork Gaol. MacSwiney’s hunger strike gained world attention including from the United States of America which threatened to boycott British goods. After 74 days on hunger strike he died and his body was brought to Cork where he was buried in the Republican Plot at St. Finbarr’s Cemetery, Glasheen Road in Cork. Arthur Griffith delivered the graveside oration. Terence MacSwiney's only child Máire MacSwiney married Ruairi Brugha, the son of Cathal Brugha, in 1945.
John Francis, Count McCormack
Address: 5, Goldsmith Terrace (Athlone Urban (W), Westmeath)
This is the Census 1901 return for the family of John McCormack. His father Andrew (45) was recorded as a tweed finisher and his mother Hannah was aged 44. Both are originally from Scotland. He had four sisters: Jane Anne (20) a dressmaker, Mary (12), Agnes (5), Marjory Florence (3) and one brother James (7). John McCormack was a world-famous Irish-American tenor, celebrated for his performances of the operatic and popular song repertoires. He was also a Papal Count. Count McCormack was born in Athlone, County Westmeath. He is buried in Deansgrange Cemetery, Dublin.
Aged 18 at the time of the Census 1911
Census 1911 address: 21, Mount Shannon Road (Usher's Quay, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Liam Mellows recorded William Joseph (52) as head of the family. William was born in India, and was an invoice clerk and an army pensioner and had been married for 25 years to Sarah (45) from Co. Wexford. They had three sons - William Joseph (18), born in England and a book-keeper, Frederick Jordan (16), also born in England and a clerical worker and Herbert Charles (15) who was born in Dublin City and was still at school.All in the household are Roman Catholic.
Liam (William Joseph) Mellows was an Irish republican and a Sinn Féin politician. Born in England to William Joseph Mellows, a British Army non-commissioned officer and Sarah Jordan of Inch, Co. Wexford, he grew up in County Wexford in Ireland. He attended the military school in Wellington Barracks in Cork and the Portobello garrison school in Dublin, but instead of a military career chose to work as a clerk. He was active with the Irish Republican Brotherhood and a founder member of the Irish Volunteers, and participated in the Easter Rising in County Galway. He led less than a thousand Volunteers on attacks on Royal Irish Constabulary stations but they were badly armed and dispersed within a week. During the War of Independence he was Director of Supplies for the Irish Republican Army and was responsible for the purchase of arms. Elected as a TD to the First Dáil, he rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty and was captured by pro-Treaty forces during the Irish Civil War. Mellows was executed by Free State forces in 1922.
John Laird Musgrave
Aged 35 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 1, Hayfield (Cork No. 5 Urban, Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the Musgrave family recorded the head of household as John Laird (35), a tea merchant from Limerick, his wife Margaret Johnson (31) and their daughter Aileen Marjorie (3). Also present was a visitor from Belfast, Lydia Johnson (39) and a domestic servant Mennie Sheehan (20). All in the household were Wesleyan Methodists with the exception of Mennie Sheehan who was Roman Catholic.
The Musgrave Company is essentially a wholesaler which supplies groceries to a network of franchisees who run its retail brands. These brands range from SuperValu and Centra in Ireland to Budgens and Londis in the UK and Dialprix in Spain. It dates back to 1876, when Thomas and Stuart Musgrave, brothers from Leitrim, set up a trading company in Cork. Over the years it has been involved in many sectors, including tea, sweets and hotels, before settling on running cash-and-carrys and supplying the grocery trade. No. 1 Hayfield is now Hayfield Manor Hotel.
Thomas Alphonsus O’Callaghan OP (Bishop of Cork 1914 - 1916)
Aged 72 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 31.2, Farranferris (St. Mary's, Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the Bishop of Cork Thomas Alphonsus O’Callaghan (72) also includes his two sisters Hannah (68) and Margaret (57) O’Callaghan. They were all born in Cork City. There are three general domestic servants, Mary Horan (34), Ellen Horgan (32) and Margaret Horgan (28) and they are all from Co. Kerry.
The Census return shows that the premises also houses St. Finbarr’s College where there are 55 males and 12 females and has six rooms with 52 windows. The building also had the following outbuildings: a stable, a coach house, a cow house and a fowl house.
Aged 31 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 18.2, Abercorn Road, Off Sheriff Street, Upper (North Dock, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Seán O’Casey (Seaghan O’Cathasaigh) and family. O’Casey was involved with the Irish Citizen Army, the Gaelic League (hence the Irish language return) and the trade union movement. He was living at Abercorn Rd., East Wall with his mother Susan and his brother Michael.
Frank O'Connor, born Michael Francis O'Donovan
Aged 8 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 8.1, Harringtons Avenue (Cork No. 3 Urban, Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the O’Donovan household recorded Michael living with his father Michael (45), a chemical labourer and his mother Minnie (42). Frank O’Connor was a well-known Cork author. He was born Michael Francis O’Donovan and used Frank O’Connor as his pseudonym. He is best known for his various short stories but he also wrote poems, plays and novellas. He is buried in Deansgrange Cemetery, Dublin.
The O'Rahilly Micheál ua Rathghaille
Aged 35 at the time of the Census 1911
Address: 40, Herbert Park Road (Pembroke West, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the O’Rahilly household was completed in Irish and the head of the household was Micheál ua Rathghaille (35) from Co. Kerry, who had been married 12 years to Áine bean uí Rathghaille (30) from America. There are three children - Ristéard ua Rathghaille (7) who was born in Dublin, Aodhgháin ua Rathghaille (6) (born in England) and Niall ua Rathghaille (4) (born in America). There are three other people in the house: Síghle Brún (21) from America, Sorcha ní Fhaircheallaigh (45) from Co. Cavan and Gobnait ní Fhlaithbheartaigh (20) from Co. Galway.
Michael Joseph O’Rahilly was born in Co. Kerry in 1875. He was a member of the Gaelic League and spent time in America and Europe. He was one of the founding members of the Irish Volunteers. He was also involved in the landing of arms at Howth. He was one of those chosen to send out Eoin MacNeill’s countermanding order which he brought to Limerick. Though he disagreed with the Rising, he joined those at the GPO and when it caught fire he was one of those who attempted to exhinguish the flames. When the order came to evacuate, he led a charge up Moore Street and was shot down. In his dying moments he wrote a note to his wife Hannah. According to the Witness Statement of the ambulance driver Albert Mitchel, which is included below, O’Rahilly still appeared to be alive after the surrender but Albert was told by a young English officer to leave the body.
Joseph Ferguson Peacocke, (Protestant Archbishop of Dublin)
Aged 75 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 16.1, St. Stephen's Green, North (Mansion House, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Archbishop Peacocke (75) from Queen’s County (Co. Laois), his wife Caroline Sophie from Co. Fermanagh, who was a little bit older than him at 82 and their daughter Sarah Josephine (38) who's martial status was single and does not list an occupation. In addition there were five female servants recorded on the census: Margaret Irvine (58) from Fermanagh was the domestic upper servant, Annie McClean (42) from Tyrone was the cook, Susan Bolton (22) from Wexford was a housemaid, Anne Faulkiner (20) from Dublin was also a housemaid and Amelia Duke (18) was the kitchen maid. There were two male servants recorded on this Census form, Robert Johnson (32) from Cavan was the butler and John Lennon (17) from Belfast was the pantry boy.
Joseph Ferguson Peacocke (1835 – 1916) was a Church of Ireland cleric. He was the Bishop of Meath from 1894 to 1897 and then Archbishop of Dublin from 1897 until 1915. He was also briefly the professor of pastoral theology at Trinity College, Dublin.
Noel Purcell (Actor), born Patrick Joseph Noel Purcell
Age 3 months at the time of Census 1901
Address: 12.1, Mercer Street Lower (Royal Exchange, Dublin)
The Census 1901 return for the Purcell household showed Patrick Noel (three months old at the time of the Census) and his parents Pierce and Kate aged 30 and 29 respectively. He also had a 7 year old brother Thomas. His father’s occupation was an auctioneer and he was born in Queen’s County (Co. Laois). Noel Purcell was a distinguished Irish actor of stage, screen and television. He appeared in the 1956 movie 'Moby Dick'.
Address: 12, Mercer St. Lower (Royal Exchange, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Purcell family recorded them still living at the same address. Now however the head of the family was the grandmother Julia Hoban (64), a furniture dealer. She also had a daughter called Julia Hoban (33) and two other grandchildren. Noel’s mother’s name was now recorded as Catherine and he also had a younger sister, Kathleen aged 2. His brother Thomas was not recorded here – the return states that of the three children who born only two were still living and therefore we can assume that Thomas had died.
Aged 40 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 22, Great Blasket Island (Dunquin, Kerry)
The Census 1911 return for Margaret Guiheen (Peig Sayers), recorded her living on the Great Blasket Island with her husband Patrick (49), her brother-in-law Michael (40) and her six surviving children out of ten born to her. She became famous as the author of her autobiography, Peig, which generations of Irish schoolchildren studied for the Leaving Certificate.
Arthur Shields (Actor and brother of the actor Barry Fitzgerald)
Aged 15 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 12, Vernon Terrace (Clontarf East, Dublin)
Census 1911: Return for the Shields family in Clontarf, Dublin. The father Adolphus (54) is Church of Ireland and his occupation is that of a proof-reader. The mother Fanny (55), born in Germany is Agnostic. The household, including boarders, is an interesting mix of beliefs. Adolphus was heavily involved in the Trade Union movement. He introduced the Gasworkers Union to Ireland and would have known James Connolly. Arthur “Boss” Shields is the brother of Barry Fitzgerald the actor and was an actor himself in the Abbey Theatre in Dublin; he was also an Irish Volunteer. On Easter Sunday 1916 Arthur went to collect his rifle at the Abbey Theatre where it was hidden under the stage. He spent the week of the Rising in and around the GPO and Moore Street. After the surrender he was interned with Michael Collins at Kent and then later in Wales. In 1936 he played Pearse in the 1936 film adaption of Seán O’Casey’s “The Plough and the Stars”. He moved to Hollywood and was reunited with his brother Barry Fitzgerald when they both starred in the movie “How Green Was My Valley” in 1941. Another cast member was John Loder who was also involved in the Rising. Loder was the son and aide-de-camp to his father General William Lowe, who accepted Pearse’s surrender. In the famous picture of Pearse's surrender John Loder was pictured beside his father and opposite Elizabeth O’Farrell and Pearse. Arthur Shields is buried beside his brother Barry at Deansgrange Cemetary, Blackrock in Dublin.
James Simcox (Lord Mayor of Cork 1911 - 1912)
Aged 53 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 3, Monfieldstown (Douglas, Cork)
The Census 1911 return for the Simcox family recorded James Simcox (53) as the head of the family. He was a merchant and was proficient in Irish and English. He had been married for 13 years to Kathleen (35) and both Kathleen and James were from Co. Cork.
James's marriage to Kathleen appears to be his second marriage as the census report records that the couple had 4 children of which only 2 are still living. James had two older sons Richard (22) who was also a merchant and John Vincent (17) who was at school. The two younger sons were from his marriage to Kathleen, Francis Joseph (10) and Redmond (7), who were both at school. James had three daughters, Helena (26), Mary Gertrude (20), (who is proficient in Irish and English) and Eveline (18). There are three servants in the household - James Hannigan (30) was the coachman while Katherine Powell (24) and Ellen Kelleher (23) were domestic servants. Everyone in the household was Catholic.
James Simcox was Lord Mayor of Cork between 1911 and 1912. He was a member of the All for Ireland League which was an Irish political party based in Munster. It was founded by William O'Brien MP and was a national movement with the aim of achieving Home Rule in Ireland. The Crawford Municipal Technical Institute was opened by James Simcox in January 1912.
Aged 55 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 18.3, Rutland Street, Upper (Mountjoy, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Matthew Talbot and his mother. Matt was revered by many Catholics for his piety, charity and mortification of the flesh. Talbot was an unskilled labourer. Though he lived alone for most of his life, Talbot did live with his mother for a time. His life would have gone unnoticed were it not for the cords and chains discovered on his body when he died suddenly on a Dublin street in 1925. Matt was one of Dublin’s poorest. He lived in a tenement, died in a laneway and was buried in a pauper’s grave. He had an alcoholic father and worked for a while in a wine merchant’s store. He was a hopeless alcoholic by the age of 13. Talbot may be considered a patron of men and women struggling with alcoholism. In 1975 Pope Paul VI declared him to be Venerable Matt Talbot. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery.
Sir William Thompson
Aged 47 at the time of the Census
Address: 59, Fitzwilliam Square, North (Mansion House, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for Sir William John Thompson (49) from Co. Fermanagh whose occupation was recorded as Knight and Registrar General for Ireland. He was a widower who lives with his daughter Louisa Jane (23) from Co. Dublin. They were both Methodists. There were two servants in the household: Mary Anne Nolan (28) from Co. Dublin was the cook and Mary Ellen O’Connor (22) was the housemaid. Both of the servants were Roman Catholic.
The collection of the 1911 Census was to begin Monday the 3rd of April and all forms were to be forwarded to Charlemont House on Rutland Square where the Census Commissioners for Ireland led by Sir William Thompson, the Registrar-General, had established a system of dealing with them. There were almost 200 specialist workers, including 100 boy assistants, engaged in the work of tabulation.
Michael and John Walker (Olympic Cyclists)
Aged 25 and 23 respectively at the time of the 1911 Census
Address: 27, Bayview Avenue (Mountjoy, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return for the Walker family recorded the head of the family as Richard, aged 60 and a cook-cutter and his wife of 33 years Anne. He had 6 daughters; Catherine (30) and Anne (20) (who were both shop assistants), Mary (18) was an assistant in a photographic studio and Agnes (15) was a national school monitress. Two other sisters Gertrude (13) and Angela (10) were students. There were three sons, Richard (27) was a solicitor’s general clerk, Michael (25) was a printer-compositor and John (23) was a brass finisher. All members of the household can read and write and all are Roman Catholic. One other person was recorded on the Census form, Catherine Gogarty (44) who was Richard Walkers sister-in-law. The House and Building return for the Census shows that this household of 12 people lived in a dwelling with 5 rooms.
Both Michael and John Walker were Irish cyclists who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. Both brothers were Irish Volunteers and fought in the 1916 Rising. They were posted at Jacob’s Biscuit Factory under the command of Thomas Mac Donagh and Major John MacBride. They spent much of their time conveying messages around the city. After the Battalion surrendered they were arrested and Michael and John managed to escape, but were subsequently arrested and sent to Stafford Jail.
Bureau of Military History Witness Statement: Michael Walker
William Joseph Walsh, (Catholic Archbishop of Dublin)
Aged 70 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 83, Drumcondra Road (Drumcondra, Dublin)
The Census 1911 return shows the Archbishop of Dublin, William Joseph Walsh (70) from Dublin City, a strong nationalist whose politics were more Sinn Féin than Irish Nationalist Party and who was the first chancellor of the National University of Ireland. His record shows that he was proficient in Irish and English.
The following people recorded on the Census are all also from Dublin City: Michael Francis Dwyer (31) the Chaplain, Michael Joseph Curran (30) who is proficient in Irish and English, is a Secretary to the Archbishop and Julia Corless (44), is the housekeeper and nurse.
The Census return also records Margaret Goulding (29) the cook, from Co. Kildare, Winifred Aberton (26) the housemaid, from Galway, Catherine McCarthy (21) the kitchen maid, from Wicklow, Edmund Stephen Keely (15) from Blackrock, Co. Dublin is the page and Patrick Walsh (37) from Co. Clare is a Catholic Clergyman, Secretary to the Archbishop and Master of Arts from RUI. All members of the household are Catholic.
Ernest (Thomas S.) Walton
Aged 7 at the time of Census 1911
(1903 – 1995)
Address: 7, Riverview Terrace (Banbridge West Urban, Down)
Census return for the Walton family shows the head of the family, John Arthur Walton (36) originally from Co. Tipperary, a Methodist Minister, married to Mary Elizabeth (30) from Co. Dublin. They have 2 children, Ernest (7) born in Co. Waterford and Dorothy Letitia (5) born in Co. Limerick. All family members are Methodists but Annie O’Hare (29), the Domestic Servant from Co. Down is Catholic.
Ernest Walton was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with “atom smashing” experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930’s. Walton and Cockcroft were recipients of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on the “transmutation of the atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”,popularly known as splitting the atom. Walton is the only Irishman to have won a Nobel Prize in science. Ernest Walton was born in Abbeyside, County Waterford, Ireland, to a Methodist minister father, Rev. John Walton and Anna Sinton. In those days a general clergyman's family moved once every three years, and this practice carried Ernest and his family, while he was a small child, to Rathkeale in County Limerick (where his mother died) and to County Monaghan. He attended day schools in counties Down, Tyrone, and Wesley College Dublin before becoming a boarder at Methodist College Belfast in 1915, where he excelled in science and mathematics.
In 1922 Walton won scholarships to Trinity College, Dublin for the study of mathematics and science. He was awarded bachelor's and master's degrees from Trinity in 1926 and 1927, respectively. During these years at college, Walton received numerous prizes for excellence in physics and mathematics (seven prizes in all), including the Foundation Scholarship in 1924. Walton died in 1995 and is buried in Deansgrange Cemetery.
W. B. Yeats
Aged 45 at the time of Census 1911
Address: 16, Frederick Street, South (Royal Exchange, Dublin)
The Census 1911 Return for W.B Yeats recorded him staying at Nolan’s Hotel in South Frederick St. in 1911, accompanied by Lady Augusta Gregory. A poet and dramatist, Yeats was one of the foremost figures of 20th century literature and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923. He was the driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival and along with Lady Gregory and others, founded the Abbey Theatre. He was a great admirer of Maud Gonne and proposed to her a number of times. She was his muse but she turned him down each time and married John MacBride instead. In 1917 Yeats also proposed to Maud Gonne’s daughter Iseult but she also refused him. The same year Yeats proposed to 25-year-old Georgie Hyde-Lees. Their marriage was a success and the couple went on to have two children, Anne and Michael. Yeats served as a senator for two terms. He retired from the Senate in 1928 because of ill health. He died in France in 1939 and was buried there. However in 1948 his body was moved to Drumsliff, County Sligo. The person in charge of this operation for the Irish Government was Sean MacBride, son of Maud Gonne MacBride and then Minister of External Affairs. Yeats wrote one of the most iconic poems “Easter 1916” about the Rising, where the ordinary citizen is transformed into a revolutionary with the words “All changed, changed utterly: a terrible beauty is born”. Another poem “Sixteen Dead Men” documents Yeat’s emotional response to the events and aftermath of Easter 1916.
Go to Appendices