## A CSO Frontier Series Output

A CSO Frontier Series Output- What is this?

## Respondents’ expectations related to behaviours of public sector employees, politicians, and public institutions

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Respondents were asked to rate on a 0-10-point scale from ‘0 Very unlikely’ to ’10 Very likely’ their expectations of the likely behaviours of public sector employees, politicians, and public institutions in certain situations. The mean score for each likelihood scenario was calculated by adding individual scores and dividing the total by the number of individuals. In line with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD’s) recommended groupings, responses were also grouped as Unlikely (0-4)Neutral (5) or Likely (6-10).

## Likelihood of politicians or public servants behaving in an unethical manner

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Respondents were asked to rate the likelihood of a senior politician refusing the prospect of a well-paid job in the private sector in exchange for a political favour. On the 0-10-point scale, one in four (24.2%) respondents believe it would be ‘0 Very unlikely’ and less than one in 20 (4.7%) believe it would be ‘10 Very likely’ that the senior politician would refuse the job offer. When response scores are grouped as Unlikely (0-4)Neutral (5) or Likely (6-10), one in four (26%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10) and almost six in 10 (59%) believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that a senior politician would refuse the job offer. See Table 4.1 and view Tables TRA42 and TRA43 in PxStat.

 Table 4.1 Likelihood that a senior politician would refuse the prospect of a well-paid job in the private sector in exchange for a political favour on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 24.2 4.5 9.4 10.7 10.2 14.7 6.5 7.9 5.7 1.4 4.7 0.1

Analysis by age shows that younger respondents are less likely to believe that a senior politician would refuse the offer of a well-paid job in exchange for a political favour. Seven in 10 (70%) respondents aged 18-44 believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that a senior politician would refuse the prospect of a well-paid job. This compares with half (50%) of respondents aged 65 and over. See Figure 4.1 and view Table TRA44 in PxStat.

X-axis label 18-44 45-64 65 and over Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 20 11 70 0 28 17 55 0 33 17 50

Respondents were asked to rate the likelihood that a court would make a decision that could negatively impact on the government’s image, free from political influence. Analysis of the distribution of scores on the 0-10-point scale shows that a higher percentage of respondents (13.9%) believe a court would ‘10 Very likely’ make the decision free from political influence than the percentage who believe it would be ‘0 Very unlikely’ (11.7%). Almost six in 10 (58%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10) that a court would make the decision free from political influence. This is almost double the rate (30%) that believe it is Unlikely (0-4)See Table 4.2 and view Tables TRA34 and TRA35 in PxStat.

 Table 4.2 Likelihood that a court would make a decision that could negatively impact on the government’s image, free from political influence on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 11.7 2.1 4.6 3.9 7.8 11.8 6.9 11.3 16.0 9.8 13.9 0.3

Four in 10 (40%) respondents who voted in the last general election for a party not currently in government believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that a court would make a decision that could negatively impact on the government’s image, free from political influence. The comparable rate for respondents who voted for a government party is 16 percentage points lower (24%). See Figure 4.2 and view Table TRA41 in PxStat.

 X-axis label Voted for a party NOT in Government Voted for a Government party Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 48 12 40 0 65 10 24

Respondents were asked a series of questions about their expectations as to the likely behaviour of public servants in certain situations. Respondents were asked to rate on a 0-10-point scale from ‘0 Very unlikely’ to ’10 Very likely’ the likelihood that:

• a public sector employee would refuse money if offered by a citizen or a firm to speed up access to a public service.
• the respondent’s application (or a family member’s application) for a government benefit or service (e.g. unemployment benefit) would be treated fairly.
• a public sector employee treats both rich and poor people equally.
• a public sector employee treats all people equally regardless of their gender, sexual identity, ethnicity, or country of origin.
• the respondent’s personal data shared with a public office is exclusively used for legitimate purposes.

More than one in 10 (12.5%) respondents answered ‘0 Very unlikely’ when asked the likelihood (on a 0-10-point scale) that a public sector employee would refuse money to speed up access to a public service, while 6.5% believe it would be ‘10 Very likely’ that the offer of money would be refused. Overall, almost four in 10 (39%) respondents believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that a public sector employee would refuse money, while a similar proportion (43%) believe it is Likely (6-10) that the offer of money would be refused. See Table 4.3 and view Tables TRA42 and TRA43 in PxStat.

 Table 4.3 Likelihood that a public sector employee would refuse money to speed up access to a public service on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 12.5 3.1 4.3 10.9 7.9 17.6 8.5 13.6 8.9 5.5 6.5 1.0

Analysis of the distribution of scores on the 0-10-point scale shows that more than one in five (20.5%) respondents believe it would be ‘10 Very likely’ that their application (or a family member’s application) for a government benefit or service (e.g. unemployment benefit) would be treated fairly. The rate for those who believe it would be ‘0 Very unlikely’ was 2.8%. See Table 4.4 and view Table TRA42 in PxStat.

 Table 4.4 Likelihood that an application for a government benefit or service would be treated fairly on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 2.8 1.6 1.5 2.9 3.5 10.8 9.9 17.3 19.0 9.5 20.5 0.6

Overall, three in four (76%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10)  that their application for a government benefit or service would be treated fairly whereas 12% believe it is Unlikely (0-4). More than eight in 10 (83%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10) that the information they need about an administrative procedure (for example applying for benefits) is easily available, whereas one in 10 (10%) believe it is Unlikely (0-4). View Tables TRA35 and TRA43 in PxStat.

Analysis by sex shows that male respondents are more likely to believe that their application for a government benefit or service would be treated fairly. Eight in 10 (81%) male respondents and seven in 10 (71%) female respondents believe it would be a Likely (6-10) that their application would be treated fairly. See Figure 4.3.

 X-axis label Male Female Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 1 81 11 8 1 71 11 17

More than one in 10 (11.5%) respondents gave a ‘0 Very unlikely’ response, when asked on a 0-10-point scale, the likelihood of a public sector employee treating both rich and poor people equally. This is more than double the rate (4.8%) that gave a ‘10 Very likely’ response to this question. See Table 4.5 and view Tables TRA42 and TRA43 in PxStat.

 Table 4.5 Likelihood that a public sector employee would treat both rich and poor people equally in the area where respondents live on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 11.5 2.2 6.6 8.4 12.3 16.5 10.9 12.4 10.9 3.3 4.8 0.3

A similar percentage of respondents gave a ‘0 Very unlikely’ and a ‘10 Very likely’ response when asked on the 0-10-point scale the likelihood of a public sector employee treating all people equally regardless of their gender, sexual identity, ethnicity or country of origin (6.8% and 6.6% respectively).  See Table 4.6 and view Table TRA42 in PxStat.

 Table 4.6 Likelihood that a public sector employee would treat all people equally regardless of their gender, sexual identity, ethnicity or country of origin in the area where respondents live on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 6.8 3.5 3.8 10.8 8.7 16.0 8.8 14.7 14.8 4.9 6.6 0.4

Analysis by age shows that older respondents are more likely to believe that a public sector employee would treat all people equally regardless of their gender, sexual identity, ethnicity, or country of origin. Almost six in 10 (58%) respondents aged 65 and over believe it is Likely (6-10)  and one in four (25%) believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that a public sector employee would treat all people equally. The percentage of respondents aged 18-44 who believe it is Likely (6-10) that a public sector employee would treat all people equally regardless of their gender, sexual identity, ethnicity, or country of origin is almost the same as the percentage who believe it is Unlikely (0-4) (42 and 44% respectively). See Figure 4.4 and view Table TRA44 PxStat.

X-axis label 65 and over 45-64 18-44 Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 1 58 17 25 0 53 17 30 0 42 14 44

Respondents were asked to rate on a 0-10-point scale the likelihood that the personal data they share with a public agency is exclusively used for legitimate purposes. The percentage of respondents with a ‘10 Very likely’ response was almost double the rate with a ‘0 Very unlikely’ response (12.3% and 6.3% respectively). Almost two in three (65%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10) and one in five (21%) believe it is Unlikely (0-4) the data is exclusively used for legitimate purposes. One in three (33%) respondents who voted in the last general election for a party not currently in government believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that their shared personal data is used exclusively for legitimate purposes. This is more than double the rate (15%) for respondents who voted for a government party. See Figure 4.5 and view Tables TRA34TRA35 and TRA41 in PxStat.

 X-axis label Voted for a party NOT in Government Voted for a Government party Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 55 12 33 0 71 13 15

## Likelihood of public opinion influencing policy decisions and public services

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Respondents were asked a series of questions about the likelihood of public opinion influencing policy decisions and public services. Respondents were asked to rate on a 0-10-point scale from ‘0 Very unlikely’ to ’10 Very likely’ the likelihood that:

• a public service would be improved if many people complained about a service that is working badly.
• a national policy would be changed if more than half of the people clearly express a view against the policy.
• the respondent would have an opportunity to voice their views if a decision affecting a respondent's community is to be made by the Local Authority.
• the government would adopt the opinions expressed in a public consultation on reforming a major policy area (e.g. taxation, healthcare, environmental protection).

One in 50 (2.1%) respondents believe it would be ’10 Very likely’ that a public service would be improved if many people complained about a service that is working badly. The rate for those who believe it would be ‘0 Very unlikely’ was 16.5%. When responses were grouped as Unlikely (0-4)Neutral (5) or Likely (6-10), one in three (33%) respondents believe it is Likely (6-10) and more than half (55%) believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that the public service would be improved. See Table 4.7 and view Tables TRA50 and TRA51 in PxStat.

 Table 4.7 Likelihood that a public service would be improved if many people complained about a service that is working badly on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 16.5 3.9 10.4 10.8 12.9 12.5 10.3 11.3 7.6 1.6 2.1 0.1

Overall, 13.6% of respondents believe it would be ‘0 Very Unlikely’ that a national policy would be changed if more than half the people clearly express a view against the policy. This is five times the rate (2.7%) who believe it would be ‘10 Very Likely’ that the policy would be changed. Female respondents were less likely to believe the policy would be changed with 44% believing it would be Unlikely (0-4) compared with 30% of male respondents. See Figure 4.6 and view Tables TRA50 and TRA51 in PxStat.

 X-axis label Male Female Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 40 29 30 0 36 20 44

Respondents with a third level degree or higher education level are more likely to believe they would have an opportunity to voice their views if a decision affecting their community is to be made by their Local Authority. More than five in 10 (55%) respondents with a third level degree believe it is Likely (6-10) they would have opportunity to express their views if a decision affecting their community is to be made by their Local Authority. This is 14 percentage points higher than the rate for respondents who do not have a third level degree (41%). See Figure 4.7 and view Table TRA54 in PxStat.

 X-axis label Lower than third level bachelor Third level bachelor or higher Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 41 12 47 0 55 14 30

When asked on a 0-10-point scale the likelihood that the government would adopt the opinions expressed in a public consultation on reforming a major policy area (e.g. taxation, healthcare, environmental protection), more than one in 10 (10.7%) respondents gave a ‘0 Very unlikely’ response and one in 50 (2.0%) gave a ‘10 Very likely’ response. See Table 4.8 and view Table TRA50 in PxStat.

 Table 4.8 Likelihood that the government would adopt the opinions expressed in a public consultation on reforming a major policy area on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 10.7 3.2 5.0 10.6 9.7 20.7 13.9 14.3 8.3 1.4 2.0 0.2

Almost half (48%) of respondents aged 65 and over believe it is Likely (6-10)  that the government would adopt the opinions expressed in a public consultation on reforming a major policy area. The comparable rate for respondents aged 18-44 was one in three (33%). See Figure 4.8 and view Table TRA52 in PxStat.

X-axis label 65 and over 45-64 18-44 Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 48 20 32 0 41 21 37 0 33 20 47

Overall, 14.2% of respondents believe it is ‘0 Very unlikely’ that an innovative idea that could improve a public service would be adopted by the responsible public agency/office. This is more than 10 times the rate that believe it would be ’10 Very likely’ that the innovative idea would be adopted (1.2%). See Table 4.9 and view Table TRA50 in PxStat.

 Table 4.9 Likelihood that an innovative idea that could improve a public service would be adopted on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 14.2 4.3 12.0 12.8 11.4 18.6 11.7 8.7 4.2 0.5 1.2 0.6

Respondents were asked to rate on a 0-10-point scale the likelihood of government institutions being prepared to protect people’s life if a new serious contagious disease spreads. Overall, 8.2% of respondents rated the likelihood of government institutions being prepared as ‘0 Very unlikely’ and 12.8% rated the likelihood as ’10 Very likely’. See Table 4.10 and view Table TRA34 in PxStat.

 Table 4.10 Likelihood that government institutions will be prepared to protect people’s life if a new serious contagious disease spreads on a 0-10 point score, December 2021 Likelihood Score 0 - very unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - very likely Don't know % of Respondents 8.2 2.4 3.2 8.3 6.5 11.3 12.8 12.8 15 6.6 12.8 0

More than four in 10 (42%) respondents who voted in the last general election for a party not currently in government believe it is Unlikely (0-4) that government institutions will be prepared. This is almost double the rate (22%) of respondents who voted for a government party. See Figure 4.9 and view Table TRA41 in PxStat.

 Voted for a party NOT in Government Voted for a Government party Don't know Likely (6-10) Neutral (5) Unlikely (0-4) 0 46 12 42 0 69 9 22

For further analysis on expections in behaviour view Tables TRA34-TRA57 in PxStat

Go to next chapter >>>  Opinions on Government Policy Priority levels and Other results

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