Back to Top

 Skip navigation

Extra information
Methodology Previous Releases
International comparison:
Eurostat
For more information on this release:
E-mail: income&modules@cso.ie Maureen Delamere (+353) 21 453 5081 Paul Michael Crowley (+353) 21 453 5090
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN 2009-5791
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Information Society Statistics - Households

2018

Households with internet access
% of households
201020112012201320142015201620172018
727881828285878989

89% of households have access to the internet at home

Households with internet access
go to full release

Summary of main findings:

  • It is estimated that, in 2018, 89% of households have access to the internet at home. See table 1a and figure 1.
  • The main reasons stated for not having a household internet connection were Do not need internet (40%) and Lack of skills (30%). See table 1c.
  • In 2018, 82% of individuals used the internet in the three months prior to interview. See table 2a.
  • Finding information on goods and services (88%) was the most common activity carried out on the internet by individuals. The next most common activities selected were E-mail (84%), followed by Social networking and Reading or downloading online news, both at 73%. See table 3a.
  • The most common types of goods or services purchased by internet users were Clothes or sports goods (50%). The next most common types of internet purchases were Holiday accommodation (44%) and Other travel arrangements (41%). See table 4a.
  • Almost half (49%) of internet users stated that they used storage space on the internet to store files electronically. See table 5.
  • Most internet users (90%) have a smartphone for private purposes. See table 9a.

Households: Type of internet access used

In 2018, 89% of households have an internet connection, unchanged from 2017, but an increase of seventeen percentage points since 2010. Data for 2018 indicates that fixed broadband is the most common type of internet access in the household (82% compared with 52% using mobile broadband). Internet access via narrow broadband connection was just 1%. Note that more than one type of internet connection may be used in households. See tables 1a and 1b and figure 1.

Fixed broadband connection is highest in the Dublin region at 90%, compared with the Border and Midlands regions, at 69% and 67% respectively. See table 1b and figure 2.

There is a notable difference in fixed broadband connection between deprivation quintiles. Fixed broadband connection is most common for households in the Fifth quintile - very affluent deprivation quintile and its prevalence gradually decreases as the level of deprivation increases. Just over three quarters (76%) of households in the First quintile - very disadvantaged deprivation quintile with internet access have fixed broadband connection. Mobile broadband internet connection is most common in households with internet access in the lower deprivation quintiles - 63% and 60% respectively for households with internet access in the First quintile - very disadvantaged and Second quintile - disadvantaged deprivation quintiles. By comparison, mobile broadband connection for households in the Fifth quintile - very affluent deprivation quintile is just 41%. See table 1b.

In 2018, of the 11% of households with no internet access, 40% reported that the reason for no household internet access was that they Do not need internet, while for three in every ten (30%), this was due to a Lack of skills and 8% have Access to the internet elsewhere. Other barriers reported included Broadband internet not available in the area (6%), Equipment costs too high (5%) and Access costs too high (3%). See table 1c.

Table 1(a) Households with internet access, 2010 to 2018
% of households
 201020112012201320142015201620172018
 %Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample%Unweighted sample
 
State 727,826786,3658110,0188210,283829,629859,150878,261897,885895,291
Household composition
 1 adult, no dependent children421,478511,169551,714551,810561,731601,702661,631661,424681,296
 2 adults no dependent children662,139721,727742,771782,686762,879812,475851,714861,609871,501
 3 or more adults no dependent children851,214881,033901,576921,534941,624951,463871,295901,30197644
 1 adult with dependent children614047633678500825328640488361935309549496190
 2 adults with dependent children871,945931,592952,551952,775962,205972,314982,487992,429991,275
 3 or more adults with dependent children906469550896906959469578696835976049862899385
Region
 Border6087466602751,205751,154751,09083910829888387585795
 Midlands664487932174593826268062284568854948639886362
 West708907967082896819707887779731846628475588602
 Dublin781,642841,486862,132872,390882,642902,617912,383942,304941,301
 Mid-East818438754587776861,062861,008871,039895759284692377
 Mid-West7387477759791,085801,0258076286797877898668288523
 South-East651,08771902791,424811,301791,06980968858488793786547
 South-West701,168761,080781,907811,755801,559821,520861,522881,08888784
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Households represent all private households with at least one occupant aged 16-74.
RegionFixed broadbandMobile broadbandNarrowband connection
Border69.3454.920.67
Midlands67.4249.371.36
West70.8846.363.38
Dublin89.6454.820.73
Mid-East85.7960.991.47
Mid-West78.4163.340.27
South-East81.7939.851.16
South-West82.3649.740.18
Table 1(b) Households with internet access classified by type of internet access and characteristics of the household, 2018
% of households
 Fixed broadband1Mobile broadband2Narrowband connection3Type of connection unknownUnweighted sample
 
State8252104,410
Household composition
 1 adult, no dependent children765111740
 2 adults no dependent children8051101,238
 3 or more adults no dependent children825610614
 1 adult with dependent children7657.0179
 2 adults with dependent children8552101,258
 3 or more adults with dependent children865210381
Deprivation quintile
 First quintile - very disadvataged766320885
 Second quintile - disadvantaged786001829
 Third quintile - average814500887
 Fourth quintile - affluent825220977
 Fifth quintile - very affluent904100832
Region
 Border695510600
 Midlands674910283
 West714631479
 Dublin9055101,191
 Mid-East866110329
 Mid-West786300438
 South-East824011440
 South-West825000650
1Examples include e.g. DSL, ADSL, VDSL, cable, optical fibre, satellite, public Wi-Fi connections.
2Connection via mobile phone network with minimum 3G. e.g. UMTS, using (SIM) or USB key, mobile phone or smartphone as modem.
3Either mobile or fixed connection. Examples include less than 3G, GPRS, dial-up access over older type telephone.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Households represent all private households with at least one occupant aged 16-74.
Note 3: More than one type of internet access may be given by households.
Table 1(c) Households without internet access classified by reasons for not having household internet access, 2018
 
  Do not need internetLack of skillsAccess to internet elsewhereBroadband internet not available in the area Equipment costs too highAccess costs too highPrivacy/ security concernsOtherUnweighted sample
 
State4030865317881
Household composition         
 1 adult, no dependent children3934843417556
 2 adults no dependent children44271084106263
 3 or more adults no dependent children********29
 1 adult with dependent children********12
 2 adults with dependent children3526142149.117
 3 or more adults with dependent children********4
Deprivation quintile         
 First quintile - very disadvataged4633216319288
 Second quintile - disadvantaged41281182108221
 Third quintile - average4430374526190
 Fourth quintile - affluent21312198505127
 Fifth quintile - very affluent4731723001155
Region         
 Border481671073010195
 Midlands5025054501279
 West61521534010123
 Dublin30252555118110
 Mid-East[27][40][9][8][4][7][0][5]48
 Mid-West5941207001985
 South-East432244116011107
 South-West3150743322134
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Households represent all private households with at least one occupant aged 16-74.
Note 3: More than one reason may have been given by respondents.
Note 4: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Note 5: Figures in parentheses [ ] indicate percentages based on small numbers (sample size 30 to 49), and are, therefore, subject to a wide margin of error.

Individuals: Frequency of use of the internet

In 2018, an estimated 82% of individuals used the internet in the three months prior to the interview, while 16% of individuals have never used the internet. See table 2a and figure 3.

The percentage of individuals in the 16 to 29 and 30 to 44 years age groups who recently used the internet (within the previous three months) was twice the corresponding figure for persons aged 60 to 74 years - 97% compared with 48% respectively. Marginally more females than males used the internet with the three months prior to interview - 83% compared with 82% of males. This follows the same trend as in previous years. See table 2a.

Table 2(a) Individuals' use of the internet classified by broad frequency of use, 2012 to 2018
% of individuals
 Used within last 3 months Used but not in the last 3 months Never used the internet
2012201320142015201620172018 2012201320142015201620172018 2012201320142015201620172018
 
State77788080828182 5443332 18181617151616
Sex
 Male77787879817982 5443332 18181818161717
 Female77798181838383 5444333 18171515141414
Age group
 16-2992939695969597 4322111 3523242
 30-4489909292949397 4433121 7655452
 45-5970767475767985 6564443 24192021201712
 60-7440464345524848 7566764 53495149414648
Principal economic status
 At work88888889898993 3332221 99109996
 Unemployed73767676767988 8684635 1918161919187
 Student949899999996100 3110010 4201130
 Home duties63666464706972 8576544 30292930252723
 Retired50495251604949 7767775 43444242334447
 Other50515053576055 8896677 42414141373338
Region
 Border72707377757577 6654543 22242219212120
 Midland69767778808180 5533234 27191919181716
 West75757575767681 5453531 20212022202118
 Dublin82858786878790 6433232 1311101110108
 Mid-East84808382847885 3322231 13171517142014
 Mid-West74767980838283 6454332 20211616141515
 South-East73757576828282 5464333 22222019151515
 South-West75787677808084 6454322 20192020171715
Type of household internet connection
 Broadband90919191919193 3232222 8777775
 Narrowband******* ******* *******
 No internet18191913141416 1613111010108 67697077777676
 Unknown internet******* ******* *******
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74.
201620172018
Used within last 3 months82.281.282.1
Used but not in the last 3 months32.82.4
Never used the internet14.915.915.5

Almost three quarters (74%) of internet users used the internet every day, an increase of nine percentage points since 2014. Three quarters (75%) of female internet users used the internet daily, compared with 73% of males. Over six out of every ten persons (62%) whose principal economic status was Home duties accessed the internet daily, compared with 51% in 2017. Frequency of internet use increased for all age groups in 2018. Of the 16 to 29 years age category, most internet users (96%) accessed the internet every day - nearly three times the number of daily internet users in the 60 to 74 years age group (33%), although daily internet use of this age cohort had increased marginally by two percentage points from 31% in 2017. By comparison, 92% of internet users in the 30 to 44 years age group accessed the internet daily, an increase of eight percentage points when compared with the same age cohort in 2017. Over half (52%) of internet users in the 60 to 74 years age group did not use the internet within the three months prior to interview. See table 2b.

Daily internet use internet use increased for all regions in 2018. The Dublin region has the highest daily internet use - 84% of individuals accessed the internet every day, an increase of five percentage points on 2017. In the Border over two thirds of internet users accessed the internet daily, an increase of eleven percentage points on the same period in 2017. See table 2b.

In 2018, respondents who used the internet daily were asked if they used the internet several times during the day. Over two thirds (68%) use the internet several times a day. Students were the most frequent users of the internet - 98% of all Students accessed the internet several times during the day. By comparison, just over one quarter (26%) of Retired persons accessed the internet many times a day. Nearly four fifths (78%) of individuals who used the internet several times a day, have a broadband household internet connection. See table 2b.

Table 2(b) Individuals' use of the internet classified by detailed frequency of use, 2014 to 2018
% of individuals
 Several times a day1 Every day At least once a week (but not every day) At least once a month (but not every week) Didn't use in last 3 months
 2018 20142015201620172018 20142015201620172018 20142015201620172018 20142015201620172018
 
State68 6567707074 12111096 33322 2120181918
Sex 
 Male68 6466696973 1211987 33322 2121192119
 Female69 6668707175 12111095 42333 1919171718
Age group 
 16-2994 8690929296 74431 21110 45453
 30-4487 7779848492 1211974 32121 88674
 45-5965 5456596372 1515131310 54443 2625242115
 60-7426 2629323133 121213129 44756 5755485252
Principal economic status 
 At work81 7476798086 1111985 32221 121111117
 Unemployed74 5661616580 16131198 53440 2424242112
 Student98 9498969499 41220 10000 11140
 Home duties55 4547525162 151413149 53546 3636303151
 Retired26 3434373234 151315128 45753 4849415128
 Other42 3140404746 1391297 73552 5047434045
Region 
 Border64 5560575768 131413126 64563 2723252523
 Midland65 6466676673 10710135 45322 2323201920
 West67 6059616573 131313105 23222 2525242420
 Dublin81 7476777984 108765 32321 1314131310
 Mid-East69 6568726575 141291010 42332 1719162213
 Mid-West71 6164696875 131311117 53342 2120171817
 South-East70 6162707374 1112976 32322 2524181818
 South-West71 6265687277 11101075 32222 2424202016
Type of internet connection 
 Broadband78 7577777784 131211117 33332 999107
 Narrowband* 67706971* 16151417* 2544* 1510158*
 No internet11 978812 64432 52231 8187868684
 Unknown internet* 2620*** 1412*** 51*** 5567***
1This was a new question introduced in 2018 for persons who use the internet every day so there is no corresponding data for previous years.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use the internet.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.

Individuals: Internet access by type of device used

Mobile phones or smartphones were used to access the internet by 86% of individuals in 2018, with over 93% of individuals aged 16 to 44 years doing so versus just 56% of persons in the 60 to 74 years age group. In the Dublin region, 93% of individuals who used the internet in the last three months, used a mobile phone or smartphone. Use of tablets for internet access has increased six percentage points since 2016 - 43% in 2018 compared with 37% in 2016. Nearly one quarter (24%) of individuals who recently used the internet (in the previous three months) used a desktop computer. Note that respondents may use multiple devices to access the internet. See table 2c.

Table 2(c) Individuals who recently used the internet (in the last 3 months) classified by type of device used, 2016 and 2018
% of individuals
 Desktop computer Laptop Tablet Mobile phone or smartphone Other mobile devices1 Smart TV2  
 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 Sample 2018
 
State2524 6756 3743 8486 510 820 4,044
Sex 
 Male2927 7062 3642 8486 712 921 1,713
 Female2222 6552 3944 8486 38 618 2,331
Age group 
16-291822 6856 3336 9693 615 722 465
30-442725 6858 4350 9295 612 1026 1,396
45-593027 6856 3643 7583 47 616 1,244
60-742822 6254 3440 5256 24 36 939
Region 
 Border1722 6555 3839 7985 38 714 536
 Midland2317 6946 4143 8982 68 512 264
 West2230 7157 3542 8288 39 821 444
 Dublin3133 7070 4249 8893 816 1227 1,071
 Mid-East2322 6459 4143 8488 710 618 320
 Mid-West2430 6662 2841 8485 312 426 408
 South-East2026 6558 3146 8388 213 430 412
 South-West2830 6665 3443 8186 310 423 589
1Examples include media or games player, e-book reader, smart watch, etc.
2TV that is directly connected to the internet e.g. via WI‐Fi and not connected via a separate internet enabled device
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the last 3 months.
Note 3: More than one type of device used may have been given by respondents.

Individuals: Internet access away from home or work by type of device used

Mobile phones or smartphones were used to access the internet away from home or work by 85% of individuals in 2018, either via the mobile phone network and/or a the wireless network. The most common form of accessing the internet by mobile phone or smartphone when away from home or work was via the mobile phone network (72%), access via a wireless network (such as Wi-Fi) was 60%. This follows a similar trend for portable computers. When using laptops or tablets to access the internet, the wireless network is the more common option, with 18% of individuals access the internet on laptops using the wireless network, compared with 14% of internet users using tablets. Note that respondents may use multiple devices to access the internet away from home or work. See table 2d.

Just 11% of internet users did not access the internet via any mobile device when away from home or work. See table 2d.

Table 2(d) Individuals who recently used the internet (in the last 3 months) away from home or work classified by type of device used, 2018
% of individuals
 Mobile phone (or smartphone)Mobile phone (or smartphone) via mobile phone networkMobile phone (or smartphone) via wireless network LaptopLaptop via mobile phone networkLaptop via wireless network TabletTablet via mobile phone networkTablet via wireless network Other devicesDidn't access the internet via mobile device away from home or workUnweighted sample
 
State857260 20718 16514 3114,044
Sex               
Male867562 251021 17614 3111,713
Female837059 16514 15514 3122,331
Age group               
16-29948271 26825 928 43465
30-44948065 20817 20717 351,396
45-59806856 17715 18617 3151,244
60-74534337 14611 16714 237939
Region               
Border876961 13611 11410 210536
Midland827444 17813 16713 213264
West836861 22621 17416 312444
Dublin928883 341032 24723 961,071
Mid-East868376 21920 15614 310320
Mid-West847571 17616 14713 313408
South-East856469 21719 17415 412412
South-West836453 26822 15513 212589
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the last 3 months.
Note 3: More than one type of device used may have been given by respondents.

Individuals: Internet activities

Of the internet activities surveyed in 2018, the most popular activity was Finding information on goods and services (88%). The next most common internet activity was E-mail (84%), followed by Social networking and Reading or downloading online news, both 73%. Internet banking was used by seven out of every ten (70%) users of the internet in the previous three months. See table 3a and figure 4.

There were notable differences in type of internet activity between individuals in different deprivation quintiles. Online banking was used by 84% of individuals in the Fifth quintile - very affluent deprivation quintile, compared with 57% of internet users in the First quintile - very disadvantaged deprivation quintile. Nearly one fifth (19%) of persons in the fifth (very affluent) deprivation quintile went online to make an appointment with a health practitioner. This figure compares with just 7% of persons in the first (very disadvantaged) deprivation quintile. Over one quarter (27%) of persons in fifth (very affluent) deprivation quintile used the internet for Buying or renewing existing insurance policies, compared with 18% of individuals in the First quintile - very disadvantaged deprivation quintile. See table 3a.

Online activities analysed by age group shows that Finding information on goods and services and E-mail (sending/receiving e-mails) were the top two activities carried out by all internet users 30 years or older. Those aged 30 to 44 reported the highest use of E-mail at 89%, while 72% of the 60 to 74 years age group used E-mail. Almost eight out of every ten (79%) internet users aged 60 to 74 years used the internet in the previous three months for the purposes of Finding information on goods and services. See table 3a.

Individuals aged 16 to 29 years were more likely to engage in online leisure or recreation activities, such as Social networking (92%), when compared to other age groups. Similarly, over six in every ten (61%) of this age group used the internet in Uploading self-created content (including uploading text, photos, music, videos, software, to any webiste to be shared). This compares with just under one quarter (24%) of the 60 to 74 years age group. See table 3a.

Table 3(a) Individuals who recently used the internet (in the last 3 months) classified by types of internet activities, 2018
% of individuals
 Finding information on goods and servicesE-mail1Social networking2Reading or downloading online newsInternet bankingServices related to travel3Seeking health related informationInternet telephoning/ video callsUploading self created content4Selling of goods or servicesBuying or renewing existing insurance policiesMaking appointment with health practitionerArranging credit with financial institutions5Buying or selling of investment services6Unweighted sample
State88847373706257464629239424,044
Sex 
 Male88847972716149495032258431,713
 Female898367757062654341272110422,331
Age group 
 16-2993859271676055546129181252465
 30-44918981818370635350373010531,396
 45-5986816170676156353727257331,244
 60-747972426350464734241711500939
Principal economic status 
 At work918876798170604747343110532,315
 Unemployed86767370534751414936101001172
 Student7764585161574727342281363184
 Home duties7975416551474734591417511576
 Retired9485896357516255192512500647
 Other7680716852485257472515901150
Region 
 Border8879756072666642283319721536
 Midland91807270827168434527231722264
 West87907477726053464928271143444
 Dublin88917583675955604728325661,071
 Mid-East8883737565544348413320823320
 Mid-West9085707572665649522420852408
 South-East85817777716558455726271453412
 South-West87917277726061474436151262589
Type of household Internet connection 
 Broadband89857474716358474730239423,931
 Narrowband**************18
 No internet798534584524392752141162279
 Unknown internet**************16
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children8180636979666441383319922680
 2 adults no dependent children88786473645655423825217421,040
 3 or more adults no dependent children9088807166635247463417813551
 1 adult with dependent children8382805866605450482721911182
 2 adults with dependent children928778805547494952292910531,230
 3 or more adults with dependent children89867968736655485426241073361
Deprivation quintile 
 First quintile - very disadvataged8682756957525444503218751776
 Second quintile - disadvantaged86837069686255444334221032740
 Third quintile - average9080717073615241423028421799
 Fourth quintile - affluent89867678756659474721211143943
 Fifth quintile - very affluent94927686847373625033271986786
 
1Sending/receiving e-mails.
2Examples include creating user profiles, posting messages or other contributions to Facebook, Twitter, etc.
3Includes travel related accommodation.
4Includes uploading text, photos, music, videos, software, etc. to any website to be shared.
5Includes taking a loan or mortgage or arranging credit from banks or other financial providers.
6Includes buying or selling shares, bonds, funds or other investment services.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the previous 3 months.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Type of internet activity
Finding information on goods and services88
E-mail84
Social networking73
Reading or downloading online news73
Internet banking70
Services related to travel62
Seeking health related information57
Internet telephoning/ video calls46
Uploading self created content46
Selling of goods or services29
Buying or renewing existing insurance policies23
Making appointment with health practitioner9
Arranging credit with financial institutions4
Buying or selling of investment services2

Individuals: Use of e-Government

In 2018, over half of internet users (52%) Obtained information from websites or apps of public authorities or public services, while 43% Downloaded or printed official forms from their websites or apps. Submitting completed forms online was carried out by six out of every ten (60%) of internet users. Nearly three quarters (73%) of internet users aged 30 to 44 years submitted completed forms online, compared with just 42% of internet users in the 16 to 29 years age category. Nearly three quarters (74%) of internet users in this age group who did not submit any completed official forms online cited the reason Did not have to submit official forms at all. For 21% of internet users, another person such as a consultant, tax adviser, relative or family member filled it in on their behalf, while 7% said that they found the process too complicated and cited Lack of skills or knowledge. See tables 3b and 3c.

Table 3(b) Individuals' contact over the internet with public authorities and public services in the last 12 months, 2016 to 2018
% of individuals
 Obtaining information from websites or apps Downloading/printing official forms Submitting completed forms online Unweighted sample 2018
 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018  
State495152 464543 586360 4,088
Sex 
 Male525350 484643 606460 1,727
 Female464953 434542 566260 2,361
Age group 
 16-29314038 293630 374742 466
 30-44576062 545454 677373 1,404
 45-59545254 514542 676864 1,257
 60-74514748 443937 575855 961
Principal economic status 
 At work585962 555352 707472 2,326
 Unemployed313532 243020 374345 173
 Student253726 243423 294128 184
 Home duties383843 343237 454752 587
 Retired544750 483938 625857 658
 Other383641 362928 424137 160
Region 
 Border464643 363933 555855 549
 Midlands494647 463942 555958 268
 West475257 414542 516265 450
 Dublin545763 525055 646776 1,078
 Mid-East525450 515253 616665 320
 Mid-West475459 414348 516465 411
 South-East495353 475039 576253 419
 South-West383949 383439 556057 593
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband505553 474944 616861 3,960
 Narrowband58*53 52*49 53** 18
 No internet293118 272011 303324 94
 Unknown internet**34 **19 *** 16
Household composition 
 1 Adult no dependent children495252 444442 566356 695
 2 Adults no dependent children565450 504838 656759 1,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children415147 404438 495754 553
 1 Adult with dependent children384441 363631 464949 182
 2 Adults with dependent children545358 514852 647071 1,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children394347 374137 495548 363
 
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the previous 12 months.
Note 3: Contacts through manually typed e-mails are excluded.
Note 4: Respondents may have selected more than one option.
Note 5: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Table 3(c) Individuals who did not submit completed official forms online by their reasons for not doing so, 2016 to 2018
% of individuals
 Did not have to submit official forms at all No such website service available Lack of skills or knowledge Concerns about protection/ security of personal data Another person did it on my behalf1 Other reason Unweighted sample 2018
 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018  
State444946 111 677 358 252321 221520 1,377
Sex 
 Male454949 112 677 268 232222 241719 568
 Female434943 111 788 458 282421 201421 809
Age group 
 16-29647274 111 221 123 14912 191316 221
 30-44414734 111 578 3615 272123 231820 346
 45-59253128 013 111310 379 363728 251525 404
 60-74192321 010 151318 9109 394132 211924 406
Principal economic status 
 At work394636 121 766 3510 292521 231627 584
 Unemployed534839 013 61010 1818 191413 212220 82
 Student677887 112 001 101 111012 1999 93
 Home duties313736 111 8119 468 373131 201717 261
 Retired192623 012 151317 10119 333831 261723 260
 Other465033 001 101112 177 212125 241619 97
Region 
 Border343750 010 12109 433 303021 212217 221
 Midlands334345 111 14126 71115 181418 312018 109
 West515838 121 687 356 191621 201230 147
 Dublin556152 211 566 353 231927 141013 268
 Mid-East335138 012 346 1610 282422 361527 92
 Mid-West545051 131 61210 266 202023 191113 134
 South-East413644 003 358 373 303026 232424 188
 South-West364250 111 566 337 323021 241620 218
Household composition 
 1 Adult no dependent children444839 121 131312 378 121423 291920 295
 2 Adults no dependent children313541 231 11129 676 332923 211622 393
 3 or more adults no dependent children585758 010 344 355 191815 171720 202
 1 Adult with dependent children545653 111 7711 249 111621 261823 66
 2 Adults with dependent children354940 112 465 2513 392826 211219 291
 3 or more adults with dependent children524854 102 454 427 212817 201418 130
 
1Examples include consultant, tax adviser, relative, family member, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the previous 12 months.
Note 3: Respondents may have selected more than one option.

Individuals: Shared economy

In 2018, 28% of internet users said that they had arranged accommodation (such as a room, apartment, house, holiday cottage, etc.) from another private individual via a dedicated website or app, such as AIRBNB, an increase of seven percentage points on 2017. One in ten internet users had arranged accommodation in such a way via other websites or apps (including social networks such as Facebook, etc.), while 69% had not arranged accommodation online from another private individual in the previous twelve months. See table 3d.

Use of a dedicated website or app was also the preferred option for using shared economy in arranging transport from another private individual with 14% of internet users using a dedicated website or app (such as UBER, HAILO, etc.) to arrange a transport service (such as car, etc.) from another private individual in the previous twelve months, compared with just 3% who had done so via other websites or apps and 84% had not arranged a transport service online from another private individual in the last twelve months. See Table 3d.

Note that respondents may have arranged accommodation and/or transport from another private individual via both dedicated websites or apps and other websites or apps.

Table 3(d) Individuals who used any website or app to arrange accommodation or transport service from another private individual in the last 12 months, 2017 to 2018
% of individuals
 Arranged accommodation1 from another private individual online Arranged transport4 from another private individual online  
 Via dedicated website or app2Via other website or app3Did not use any website or appVia dedicated website or app5Via other website or app3Did not use any website or app 
 201720182017201820172018 201720182017201820172018 Sample 2018
 
State212810107469 1914437984 4,088
Sex 
 Male212811107469 2015437883 1,727
 Female2129997469 1713428085 2,361
Age group 
 16-29193410137663 2726447173 466
 30-44253312126963 2214537684 1,404
 45-592023977674 1210328789 1,257
 60-741215648383 64229295 961
Principal economic status 
 At work263412116963 2315537584 2,326
 Unemployed1018798579 915528883 173
 Student12307128468 2329137570 184
 Home duties1720857978 78239190 587
 Retired1315668382 65329294 658
 Other1212538685 94318894 160
Region 
 Border1522658074 813238984 549
 Midlands1628688071 78129390 268
 West28321496664 2313837385 450
 Dublin243212147065 3540576459 1,078
 Mid-East2024687874 1014039085 320
 Mid-West25291686568 1915318084 411
 South-East162610158067 610529189 419
 South-West18338127864 1025438675 593
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband222910107368 1815438084 3,960
 Narrowband****** ****** 18
 No internet96538993 85229295 94
 Unknown internet****** ****** 16
Household composition               
 1 Adult no dependent children21191087678 1912457985 695
 2 Adults no dependent children242912117068 2216537684 1,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children233112117166 2924537075 553
 1 Adult with dependent children1221538578 1010308890 182
 2 Adults with dependent children213110107365 1411338487 1,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children17297107969 1715328084 363
 
1Examples include room, apartment, house, holiday cottage, etc
2Examples include AIRBNB, etc.
3Includes social networks such as Facebook, etc.
4Examples include car, etc.
5Examples include UBER , HAILO, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the previous 12 months.
Note 3: Respondents may have selected more than one option.
Note 4: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.

Individuals: Internet purchases

Clothes or sports goods were the most popular online purchase in 2018, purchased by half (50%) of internet users. The next most common types of internet purchases made by individuals in the last twelve months (prior to interview) were Holiday accommodation (44%) and Other travel arrangements (includes travel tickets, car hire, etc.) (41%), followed closely by Tickets for events at 39%. See table 4a and figure 5.

There are clear differences between age groups in the types of goods and services bought online. The largest difference was for Clothes or sports goods, with 63% of individuals aged 16 to 29 years purchasing these, compared with just 18% of those aged 60 to 74. See table 4a.

There were also notable differences between deprivation quintiles in the types of goods and services bought online. Six out of every ten (60%) internet users in the deprivation quintile Fifth quintile - very affluent purchased clothes and/or sports goods online, compared with just 47% of internet users in the First quintile - very disadvantaged group. Similarly, 59% of persons in the Fifth quintile - very affluent deprivation quintile purchased or ordered online Holiday accommodation, compared with 35% of internet users in the first deprivation quintile (very disadvantaged). Twice as many internet users in the fifth deprivation quintile (very affluent) purchased Other travel arrangements and Tickets for events online, compared with internet users in the First quintile - very disadvantaged category. The trend is similar for other purchases made online. Almost twice as many persons in the Fifth quintile - very affluent category purchased Food and groceries online, compared with internet users in the First quintile - very disadvantaged deprivation quintile. The differences between deprivation quintiles for purchases made online, were less notable for purchases of Video games, software and software upgrades, Computer software downloaded or accessed from websites or apps and Computer hardware, for example, 14% of persons in the First quintile - very disadvantaged bought Video games, software and software upgrades online, compared with 16% of the Fifth quintile - very affluent category. See table 4a.

For internet users whose principal economic status was 'At work', 56% purchased Holiday accommodation online compared with just under one quarter (24%) of internet users in the Unemployed category. A half of all persons who purchased online in the previous twelve months, whose principal economic status was At work used the internet to buy or order Other travel arrangements (such as travel tickets, car hire, etc.) online. See table 4a.

Six out of every ten households with dependent children bought Clothes or sports goods online. This figure compares with 37% of households comprising one adult only. See table 4a.

Table 4(a) Individuals who use the internet classified by types of purchases made online during the last 12 months, 2018
% of individuals
 Clothes or sports goodsHoliday accommodationOther travel arrangements1Tickets for eventsHousehold goodsElectronic equipment2Books, magazines and newspapers3E-books4E-magazines/ e-newspapers4Telecommunication services
State5044413927222110318
Sex 
 Male424242372629209422
 Female5845404029172211315
Age group 
 16-29634239432323177218
 30-446055524841302613525
 45-59424239352220218416
 60-7418232116111017814
Principal economic status 
 At work5756504832272512423
 Unemployed312428202321104211
 Student6229384217201510215
 Home duties473226293215187412
 Retired21262415101217816
 Other29232213221811349
Region 
 Border493837351919188313
 Midland464134282820188318
 West5643454824202110518
 Dublin5857605431273117526
 Mid-East5043364432192410318
 Mid-West5346434125292112419
 South-East524544403027197320
 South-West4949474230232812316
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband5145434028232210319
 Narrowband**********
 No internet338551146402
 Unknown internet**********
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children373531251514167412
 2 adults no dependent children4041393420192111415
 3 or more adults no dependent children5140434118262311318
 1 adult with dependent children603026273817136111
 2 adults with dependent children5953474742282511423
 3 or more adults with dependent children604746432223167323
Deprivation quintile          
 First quintile - very disadvataged473532332420177215
 Second quintile - disadvantaged464240342624168416
 Third quintile - average514537382821198219
 Fourth quintile - affluent4944423725212511418
 Fifth quintile - very affluent6059635837303220624
              
1Includes travel tickets, car hire, etc. Excludes holiday accommodation.
2Includes cameras, audio-visual equipment, etc.
3Includes all online purchases of books, magazines and newspapers. Includes e-books, e-magazines and e-newspapers downloaded or accessed from websites or apps.
4Downloaded or accessed from websites or apps
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who made purchases online in the last 12 months.
Note 3: More than one type of purchase may be given by respondents.
 
Table 4(a) contd. Individuals who use the internet classified by types of purchases made online during the last 12 months, 2018
% of individuals
  Food and groceriesFilms/music5Films/music downloaded or accessed from websites/appsVideo games, software and software upgrades6Computer software7 downloaded or accessed from websites/appsComputer hardwareE-learning materialMedicineOtherUnweighted sample
State81713145652114,088
Sex 
 Male720151871052141,727
 Female8151110335292,361
Age group 
 16-294211722685114466
 30-44132417177873111,404
 45-59713983532101,257
 60-743322023111961
Principal economic status 
 At work102217146863122,326
 Unemployed311611353111173
 Student42018278125118184
 Home duties61261021217587
 Retired2321013111658
 Other664712129160
Region 
 Border51399336210549
 Midland615914474211268
 West5181312564310450
 Dublin192420156874101,078
 Mid-East11191415363313320
 Mid-West7221816784213411
 South-East8171415675114419
 South-West717141665529593
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband81814145752123,960
 Narrowband*********18
 No internet21120351894
 Unknown internet*********16
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children51078233111695
 2 adults no dependent children6161292541131,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children4211515765214553
 1 adult with dependent children31410192115316182
 2 adults with dependent children132216197873101,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children513111159416363
Deprivation quintile 
 First quintile - very disadvataged7161114566113791
 Second quintile - disadvantaged5161212585211748
 Third quintile - average5151113442210810
 Fourth quintile - affluent10181314566311950
 Fifth quintile - very affluent13282416696312789
 
5Films/music downloaded or accessed from websites or apps.
6Includes computer software downloaded or accessed from websites or apps.
7Includes computer and video games and software upgrades.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who made purchases online in the last 12 months.
Note 3: More than one type of purchase may be given by respondents.
Type of online purchase
Clothes or sports goods50.4
Holiday accommodation43.6
Other travel arrangements40.7
Tickets for events38.6
Household goods27.3
Electronic equipment22.4
Books, magazines and newspapers20.9
Telecommunication services18
Food and groceries7.5
Films/music17.3
Video games, software and software upgrades13.7
Computer hardware6.4
E-learning material4.7
Medicine2
Other11.4

Individuals: Problems encountered when purchasing online

Two thirds (66%) of persons who made purchases online in the previous twelve months did not experience any problems. Nearly one fifth (18%) stated that Speed of delivery was an issue, while Technical failure of the website and Foreign retailer did not sell to Ireland were both given as a reason by 11% of individuals who made purchases online. Just 3% of respondents cited Problems with fraudulent activity while 7% of individuals had problems with Poor customer service and Wrong or damaged goods or services delivered. See table 4b.

Table 4(b) Individuals who made purchases online in the last 12 months classified by problems encountered when buying online, 2018
% of individuals
 Speed of deliveryTechnical failure of the website1Foreign retailer did not sell to IrelandPoor customer serviceWrong or damaged goods or services deliveredFinal costs higher than indicatedPoor information re guarantees/ other legal rightsProblems with fraudulent activityOtherNo problems encountered Unweighted sample
State181111776531662,824
Sex           
 Male191212865531651,143
 Female181110776431681,681
Age group           
 16-292511959552163388
 30-44171113967541671,150
 45-5915111285444167846
 60-74128753333274440
Principal economic status           
 At work181212866531651,794
 Unemployed95463117080104
 Student271312913470059156
 Home duties189846636070380
 Retired96631234377312
 Other26131281392206578
Region           
 Border1410554333274344
 Midland1711987743168169
 West22131066624061304
 Dublin17101497554266788
 Mid-East153854322.79229
 Mid-West197847453071287
 South-East24212014109103254293
 South-West1881455343064410
Type of household internet connection           
 Broadband181111765531662,779
 Narrowband**********7
 No internet**********28
 Unknown internet**********10
Household composition           
 1 adult, no dependent children1981455655170373
 2 adults no dependent children1391184453167647
 3 or more adults no dependent children23141269942164383
 1 adult with dependent children2294718327153141
 2 adults with dependent children181311865631671,010
 3 or more adults with dependent children2181177652070270
 
1During ordering or payment.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who made purchases online in the last 12 months.
Note 3: More than one reason may be given by respondents.

Individuals: Number of internet purchases

The overall number of purchases made online in 2018 has increased when compared with the same period in 2017. Over one third (34%) of individuals purchased online six or more times in the previous three months, an overall increase of eight percentage points on 2017. Between six and ten internet purchases were made by one fifth (20%) of internet users, while 15% purchased eleven times or more over the internet. Persons purchasing five times or less has decreased on the same quarter in 2017 - 36% had made three to five online purchases, a decrease of five percentage points on 2017, while the number of individuals purchasing only once or twice online fell three percentage points from 33% in 2017 to 30% in the same period in 2018. See table 4c.

Table 4(c) Individuals who purchased over the internet in the last 3 months classified by number of purchases made in this period, 2016 to 2018
% of individuals
 1 to 2 purchases 3 to 5 purchases 6 to 10 purchases More than 10 purchases  
 201620172018201620172018201620172018 201620172018 Sample 2018
 
State383330 414136 141720 8915 2,507
Sex 
 Male383331 414237 131717 8816 991
 Female373329 424135 141722 7914 1,516
Age group 
 16-29463230 404536 111721 3713 336 
 30-44323124 434038 151820 111018 1,070
 45-59383634 413934 141617 8915 751
 60-74434446 403834 131416 544 350
Principal economic status 
 At work343125 434237 141821 9917 1,631
 Unemployed484430 243745 22129 6817 86
 Student533338 354531 91520 3711 137
 Home duties383837 433935 141416 5912 338
 Retired444246 393933 111518 634 247
 Other393847 412628 8279 121016 68
Region 
 Border393733 454137 111618 6613 302
 Midland424330 353639 131021 101110 148
 West373534 494035 111716 4715 280
 Dublin332824 424136 162123 101017 692
 Mid-East384029 383833 181423 6914 207
 Mid-West463030 364337 121614 61119 254
 South-East363827 473933 111817 6522 253
 South-West433128 384635 101424 81013 371
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband383330 414136 141719 8915 2,475
 Narrowband*** *** *** *** 5
 Unknown internet*** *** *** *** 19
 No internet00* 00* 00* 00* 8
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children373836 393737 201416 51110 315
 2 adults no dependent children403234 384330 121825 10711 554
 3 or more adults no dependent children433338 404433 131717 4712 343
 1 adult with dependent children383833 423839 121713 8715 128
 2 adults with dependent children353121 434140 131720 91120 933
 3 or more adults with dependent children373432 463836 122120 5612 234
 
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who made purchases online in the previous 3 months.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.

Individuals: Internet purchases - origin of seller

Online purchasing from National sellers remains by far the most common with three quarters (75%) of persons buying or ordering their goods from National sellers. Purchasing goods or services online from Sellers from other EU countries decreased in 2018 when compared with the same period in 2017, 60% compared with 67% in 2017. Internet purchasing from Sellers from the rest of the world also decreased in 2018, 26% compared with 30% of persons buying online in 2017. See table 4d and figure 6.

Individuals who bought or ordered goods or services online in the previous twelve months from Sellers from other EU countries and/or from Sellers from the rest of the world were asked about the types of goods or services that they bought or ordered online. Note that respondents may have selected more than one option. Over four fifths (81%) purchased physical goods such as electronics, clothes, toys, food, groceries, books, CDs/DVDs, etc. an increase of six percentage points on the same period in 2017. Over half (52%) made holiday arrangements including travel accommodation, while 29% purchased products downloaded or accessed from websites or apps, such products as films, music, apps, games, e-books, e-newspapers, etc. See table 4e.

Table 4(d) Individuals who bought or ordered goods or services online in the last 12 months by origin1 of seller, 2016 to 2018
% of individuals
 National sellers Sellers from other EU countries Sellers from the rest of the world Country of origin of seller is unknown  
 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 Sample 2018
State797475 586760 233026 443 2,824
Sex                 
 Male797473 606763 263330 453 1,143
 Female807578 566656 212823 443 1,681
Age group                 
 16-29736865 556858 213226 563 388
 30-44827681 606964 243228 443 1,150
 45-59807978 606459 252627 445 846
 60-74807675 546046 222319 451 440
Principal economic status                 
 At work827781 636964 243228 343 1,794
 Unemployed745767 535952 193421 334 104
 Student696557 516456 222729 581 156
 Home duties787268 486352 182617 645 380
 Retired798280 566050 272121 431 312
 Other728270 436757 203127 382 78
Region                 
 Border918176 584851 231620 021 344
 Midlands857572 425951 131820 254 169
 West787681 475652 152517 162 304
 Dublin797678 647776 263943 563 788
 Mid-East737269 536264 222534 423 229
 Mid-West827575 637074 263333 354 287
 South-East787379 616465 263528 434 293
 South-West756974 576860 212733 633 410
Type of household Internet connection                 
 Broadband807476 596760 233026 443 2,779
 Narrowband81** 63** 30** 8** 7
 No internet[78][76]* [43][59]* [17][20]* [2][5]* 28
 Unknown internet00* 00* 00* 00* 10
Household composition                 
 1 adult, no dependent children797173 606857 283324 332 373
 2 adults no dependent children817981 607056 243329 434 647
 3 or more adults no dependent children797271 597254 213432 454 383
 1 adult with dependent children757164 495765 182124 574 141
 2 adults with dependent children817676 596566 222924 353 1,010
 3 or more adults with dependent children747077 566550 262924 654 270
 
1Country of origin/residence of seller.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use the internet.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Note 4: Figures in parentheses [ ] indicate percentages based on small numbers (sample size 30 to 49), and are, therefore, subject to a wide margin of error.
201620172018
National sellers79.174.475.2
Sellers from other EU countries58.166.759.6
Sellers from the rest of the world2330.326.3
Country of origin of seller is unknown3.84.43
Table 4(e) Individuals who bought or ordered goods or services online from sellers from other EU countries or the rest of the world by type of purchase, 2017 to 2018
% of individuals
 Physical goods1 Products downloaded or accessed from websites or apps2 Travel accomodation or holiday arrangements3 Other services4  
 20172018 20172018 20172018 20172018 Sample 2018
State7581 3129 5452 3029 1,980
Gender 
 Male7379 3834 5653 3031 850
 Female7683 2625 5152 3127 1,130
Age group 
 16-297779 3831 4440 3526 283
 30-447685 3133 5961 2832 840
 45-597278 2624 5658 2831 587
 60-745972 2215 5940 2413 270
Principal economic status 
 At work7482 3230 6061 3033 1,315
 Unemployed8173 1733 3339 2026 64
 Student8278 4336 3932 4332 118
 Home duties7289 2023 4743 2512 232
 Retired6070 2013 5647 3020 197
 Other7470 3424 2531 2213 54
Region 
 Border6072 2624 4944 2616 192
 Midlands7683 1926 5147 2731 93
 West7489 3136 5960 4137 171
 Dublin7579 4139 6168 3037 656
 Mid-East7478 1827 3949 2633 168
 Mid-West8282 4329 6153 4326 226
 South-East7781 2027 4954 3424 202
 South-West7377 2530 4551 2025 272
Household composition 
 1 Adult no dependent children6980 3623 5644 3119 267
 2 Adults no dependent children7180 3231 6359 3137 423
 3 or more adults no dependent children7571 4228 5850 3936 272
 1 Adult with dependent children7987 2231 3234 2319 97
 2 Adults with dependent children7583 2830 5453 2828 738
 3 or more adults with dependent children8482 2029 3563 2225 183
 
1Examples include electronics, clothes, toys, food, groceries, books, CDs/DVDs, etc.
2Examples include films, music, apps, games, e-books, e-newspapers, etc.
3Includes tickets and documents received via mail or printed by respondent.
4Examples include tickets for events received via mail, telecom subscriptions, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2:Represents individuals who bought or ordered goods or services online from sellers from other EU countries or the rest of the world in the last 12 months.
Note 3: Respondents may have selected more than one option.

Individuals: Internet storage and file sharing

In 2018, almost half (49%) of internet users used storage space on the internet (cloud storage) to save files (such as documents, pictures, music, videos, etc.). When comparing the use of cloud storage by gender, more males than females use this form of file storage (52% versus 47%). This follows the same trend as in previous years. Over six in every ten (62%) of internet users in the 16 to 29 years age group used cloud storage as a method of saving files in 2018, compared with 54% of individuals in the 30 to 44 years age category. By comparison, only 24% of individuals in the 60 to 74 years age group used cloud storage. See table 5.

Over three quarters (76%) of all Students used cloud storage in 2018, an increase of one percentage point on 2017. By comparison, only 27% of Retired persons used the 'cloud' as a form of file storage. Over half (53%) of all persons whose principal economic status was At work used cloud storage in 2018See table 5.

Table 5 Individuals1 that use the internet to store files electronically classified by personal characteristics, 2015 to 2018
% of individuals
 2015201620172018Unweighted sample 2018
 
State444552494,044
Sex 
 Male464755521,713
 Female414249472,331
Age group 
 16-2956566762465
 30-44485057541,396
 45-59333640431,244
 60-7422212524939
Principal economic status 
 At work474956532,315
 Unemployed35353433172
 Student60667576184
 Home duties28263734576
 Retired26232427647
 Other28313535150
Region 
 Border35414041536
 Midland43435648264
 West36365751444
 Dublin515157571,071
 Mid-East48485253320
 Mid-West36385452408
 South-East41504549412
 South-West42374749589
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children38404343680
 2 adults no dependent children454348431,040
 3 or more adults no dependent children48485756551
 1 adult with dependent children37424645182
 2 adults with dependent children454757521,230
 3 or more adults with dependent children42444656361
 
1Individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the last 3 months.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Files include documents, pictures, music, video or other files.

Individuals: ICT learning and skills

Respondents were asked about learning activities which they undertook in the previous twelve months to improve their ICT skills (in the use of computers, software and applications). One in eight (12%) did Free online training or self-study, while 7% undertook Training paid or provided by employer and 6% did On-the-job training. Almost three out of every ten (29%) Students did Free online training or self-study. See table 6a.

Individuals who carried out learning activities in the previous twelve months to improve their ICT skills were asked to specify the field of training. Over three in every ten (31%) such individuals undertook learning activities in the field of Social media, followed closely by Specific software applications for work at 27%. Nearly one fifth (19%) carried out learning in Programming languages (includes learning in the design or management of websites), followed closely by IT security or privacy management and Data analysis or management of databases at 18% and 17% respectively, while 14% undertook learning in the field of Online marketing or e-commerceSee table 6b.

Table 6(a) Individuals who carried out learning activities to improve their ICT skills1 in the last 12 months, by personal characteristics, 2018
% of individuals
 Free online training or self-studyTraining paid or provided by employerOn-the-job training2Free training provided by public programs or organisations3Training paid by yourselfUnweighted sample 2018
 
State1276544,088
Sex 
 Male1387651,727
 Female1176432,361
Age Group 
 16-29186474466
 30-44121110561,404
 45-59975441,257
 60-7442232961
Principal Economic Status 
 At work111210452,326
 Unemployed11.031173
 Student2953146184
 Home duties30022587
 Retired61152658
 Other60050160
Region 
 Border93353549
 Midlands137544268
 West13111066450
 Dublin171210551,078
 Mid-East75553320
 Mid-West76343411
 South-East127854419
 South-West1412775593
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband1286543,960
 Narrowband*****18
 No internet4233394
 Unknown internet*****16
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children115665695
 2 adults no dependent children896541,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children175455553
 1 adult with dependent children75451182
 2 adults with dependent children1198441,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children197553363
 
1Skills relating to the use of computers, software or applications.
2Training from co-workers, supervisors, etc.
3Organisations other than person's employer.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use the internet.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
          
Table 6(b) Individuals who carried out learning activities in the last 12 months to improve their ICT skills1 by field of training, 2018
% of individuals
 Social media2Specific software applications for workProgramming languages3IT security or privacy managementData analysis or management of databasesOnline marketing or e-CommerceMaintenance of computer networks and serversOtherUnweighted sample
 
State3127191817141241770
Sex 
 Male3327232220161643349
 Female292814131412638421
Age Group 
 16-293114261113201042127
 30-442836192421111138346
 45-593832132119121539218
 60-742516759795979
Principal Economic Status 
 At work3236152221131340567
 Unemployed********25
 Student318287122154669
 Home duties[41][22][7][7][2][8][4][42]36
 Retired26917910895658
 Other********15
Region 
 Border292120251715144573
 Midlands[45][19][11][13][10][9][8][38]48
 West1338171528151552108
 Dublin2830202024151245240
 Mid-East292113221911174650
 Mid-West2433291817544959
 South-East302830231612133574
 South-West3034221820321531118
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband3128191817141141760
 Narrowband********1
 No internet********7
 Unknown internet********2
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children2736151518121550131
 2 adults no dependent children2927181615171247173
 3 or more adults no dependent children3226231727131544109
 1 adult with dependent children********27
 2 adults with dependent children3329172114141034258
 3 or more adults with dependent children35192920191292972
 
1Skills relating to the use of computers, software or applications.
2Examples include Google groups, Facebook, Jive, etc.
3Includes design or management of websites.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use the internet.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Note 4: Figures in parentheses [ ] indicate percentages based on small numbers (sample size 30 to 49), and are, therefore, subject to a wide margin of error.
Note 5: More than one field of training may be given by respondents.

Individuals: ICT skills

Respondents were also asked about the computer or mobile device related activities or software related activities which they carried out in the twelve months prior to interview. Installing software or apps was carried out by nearly six in every ten (58%) individuals, an increase of five percentage points on 2017, with 81% of Students carrying out this software-related activity. Nearly two thirds (64%) of individuals whose principal economic status was At work, carried out this activity in the previous twelve months. Over three quarters (77%) of persons in the 16 to 29 years age group also carried out this activity, compared with less than one quarter (24%) of persons in the 60 to 74 years age category. Using software to edit photos, video or audio files was carried out by one third (33%) of individuals in 2018, with 61% of Students carrying out this activity. Transferring files between computers or other devices was carried out by nearly half (46%) of individuals, unchanged from 2017, while Changing the settings of any software (which includes operational systems or security programs) was carried out by 38% of individuals, up one percentage point from 2017. See table 6c.

Table 6(c) Individuals who carried out computer1 or software related activities in the last 12 months, classified by personal characteristics, 2016 to 2018
% of individuals
 Installing software or apps Using word processing software Copying or moving files or folders Transferring files between computers or other devices Creating presentations or documents2 Changing the settings of any software3 Using spreadsheet software Using advanced functions to organise and analyse data4 Using software to edit photos, video or audio files Writing code in a programming language  
 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 201620172018 Sample 2018
 
State505358 505553 485150 434646 344039 323738 314236 212434 273033 566 4,088
Sex                                         
 Male555862 535857 535356 495153 384343 384343 354541 242839 303336 899 1,727
 Female454854 485350 434845 374140 313736 273233 273932 182130 252631 333 2,361
Age group                                         
 16-29626977 596668 576262 555957 475756 395149 325443 213443 364145 8109 466
 30-44565865 535857 525558 485154 374143 374244 364539 262838 313439 678 1,404
 45-59404148 464946 414243 353738 283031 252731 293534 191831 202126 334 1,257
 60-74252524 323729 292824 222019 131712 151514 152021 9715 111012 110 961
Principal economic status                                         
 At work555764 566060 545659 485153 384344 364142 384741 262840 303237 667 2,326
 Unemployed414749 324743 314438 303838 183129 213137 163027 91824 202623 366 173
 Student697081 768079 727370 697066 697775 485553 406859 294259 455161 131311 184
 Home duties303142 262930 232423 212122 111212 151923 91616 5513 121511 111 587
 Retired272628 343427 302522 232019 121216 161616 141618 8613 12917 113 658
 Other324334 303134 252728 222228 16129 212323 161421 9713 121218 411 160
Region                                         
 Border475258 474760 434460 373939 263245 293231 253532 161930 242240 327 549
 Midlands545355 475348 403344 403440 333135 333237 263532 161330 282922 845 268
 West505661 505756 535852 565657 334240 354034 324641 222441 202939 564 450
 Dublin616372 616567 595963 535460 444950 424650 415151 303149 343341 888 1,078
 Mid-East434455 414243 373448 323142 263133 242535 283433 171932 242528 555 320
 Mid-West435555 465850 476242 395648 314535 234636 264835 153533 284531 584 411
 South-East444561 444651 444453 414145 313040 323345 273337 182134 283140 3510 419
 South-West394054 475558 425157 354151 303746 242936 233640 141938 212331 437 593
Type of household Internet connection                                         
 Broadband515460 515655 485152 444747 354040 333839 314237 222536 283034 566 3,960
 Narrowband*** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 18
 No internet252036 252616 261918 171813 13148 141322 191823 1074 111014 612 94
 Unknown internet*** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 16
Household compostion                                         
 1 Adult no dependent children465047 475447 464941 404240 313627 293630 304031 192426 242528 665 695
 2 Adults no dependent children475048 505547 454944 404539 303731 313632 314029 222427 243024 663 1,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children536167 566462 525860 495552 425053 334542 324946 233245 313945 6811 553
 1 Adult with dependent children464860 434945 384147 323538 273232 272835 213537 151937 262233 441 182
 2 Adults with dependent children525363 525656 505253 464849 354143 353744 344337 232436 283037 656 1,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children504767 464458 464256 433857 363247 303335 273441 151841 292034 457 363
 
1Includes mobile device related activities.
2Including integrating text, pictures, tables or charts.
3Including operational systems or security programs.
4Examples include sorting, filtering, using formulas, creating charts, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use the internet.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Note 4: Respondents may have selected more than one option.

Individuals: ICT at work

In 2018, respondents whose principal economic status was At work were asked about their use of computers (including desktop computers, laptops, smartphones, tablets or other portable devices) at work and the type of ICT-related activities which they carry out at least once a week. Exchange e-mails or enter data into databases was carried out by over four fifths (81%) of persons in employment, while six in every ten (60%) Create or edit electronic documents. The Use of occupational specific software (such as for design, data analysis, processing, etc.) was carried out by 41% of persons in employment, while Develop or maintain IT systems or software was carried out by over one in eight (13%). See table 7.

Table 7 Individuals who use computers, laptops, smartphones, tablets or other portable devices at work by type of activity1, 2018
% of individuals
 Exchange e-mails or enter data into databasesCreate or edit electronic documentsUse social media for workUse of applications to receive tasks or instructions2Use of occupational specific software3Develop or maintain IT systems or softwareUnweighted sample 2018
 
State8160234041131,683
Sex       
 Male795823414515768
 Female846223383710915
Age Group       
 16-29745918413311150
 30-44826425444816787
 45-59845523363810623
 60-7477551022225123
Region       
 Border815325273315155
 Midlands805615424111102
 West836323444012224
 Dublin837231425016496
 Mid-East795631463613144
 Mid-West83602626415173
 South-East806124454619163
 South-West836421354216226
 
1Carry out activity at work at least once a week.
2Excludes e-mails.
3Examples include for design, data analysis, processing, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use computers, laptops, smartphones, tablets or other portable devices at work.
Note 3: More than one field of training may be given by respondents.

Individuals: Awareness of internet security and privacy

In 2018, respondents were asked about providing personal information online and how they managed access to their personal information on the internet. Personal identification details (name, date of birth, identity card number, etc.) and Payment details (credit or debit card details, bank account number, etc.) had been provided by up to two-thirds and over of all individuals who had used the internet in the twelve months prior to interview. Contact details (such as home address, phone number, e-mail address, etc.) had been provided by almost three quarters (74%) of internet users, an increase of six percentage points on the same survey period in 2016. Up to four fifths and over of persons in the 16 to 29 years age group provided Personal identification details, Payment details and Contact details in the previous twelve months. See table 8a.

Other personal information (person's photos, current location, health-related information, employment, income, etc.) was provided by one tenth (10%) of individuals. See Table 8a.

Note that more than one option may have been selected by respondents.

Table 8(a) Individuals who used the internet in the last 12 months, classified by the type of personal information they provided, 2016 and 2018
% of individuals
 Personal identification details1 Contact details2 Payment details3 Other personal information4 Did not provide any personal information  
 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 Sample 2018
 
State6465 6874 6368 1810 2420 4,088
Sex 
 Male6667 6971 6367 1711 2319 1,727
 Female6364 6876 6269 199 2520 2,361
Age group 
 16-296979 7082 6180 2716 188 466
 30-447070 7482 6976 2010 1913 1,404
 45-596057 6565 6160 118 2828 1,257
 60-744842 5353 4843 75 4143 961
Principal economic status 
 At work7069 7579 7173 1811 1816 2,326
 Unemployed6158 6265 5256 2411 2628 173
 Student5284 5782 5285 814 375 184
 Home duties5349 5965 5157 146 3530 587
 Retired4347 4654 3548 93 4840 658
 Other8048 7155 6053 2617 1431 160
Region 
 Border6556 7267 5763 2211 2423 549
 Midlands5256 5666 5562 75 3326 268
 West7869 7881 7076 1813 1516 450
 Dublin6968 7482 6977 2218 2114 1,078
 Mid-East7073 7377 6573 178 2317 320
 Mid-West6176 6579 5868 1711 2515 411
 South-East6370 6578 5871 1219 2816 419
 South-West5168 5572 5769 176 2819 593
Household compostion 
 1 Adult no dependent children6152 6262 5757 1412 2932 695
 2 Adults no dependent children6461 6967 6562 179 2525 1,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children6573 6879 6274 2013 2317 553
 1 Adult with dependent children6164 6369 5066 2011 3020 182
 2 Adults with dependent children6768 7380 6773 189 1914 1,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children6174 6577 5975 2213 2713 363
 
1Examples includes name, date of birth, identity card number, etc.
2Examples include home address, phone number, e-mail address, etc.
3Examples include credit or debit card number, bank account number, etc.
4Examples include photos, current location, information related to health, employment, income, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the last 12 months.
Note 3: Respondents may have selected more than one option.

Individuals: Steps taken to protect personal information online

The number of individuals who are taking steps to protect their personal information online and have carried out activities to manage personal information online has increased in 2018, when compared with the same period in 2016. In 2018, 38% of individuals who had used the internet in the previous twelve months restricted access to personal information for advertising purposes, an increase of six percentage points on 2016. Over one third (34%) of individuals surveyed checked that any websites requesting personal information were secure websites, an increase of four percentage points on the same period in 2016. Three in every ten (30%) of individuals read privacy policy statements before providing personal information, while just over one third (34%) limited access to their user profile or content on social networking sites and 27% restricted access to their geographical location. See Table 8b.

In 2018, individuals were also asked about their use of electronic identification procedures for using online services (such as online banking, public services, ordering or buying goods or services online, etc.) in the twelve months prior to interview. Over four fifths (81%) of individuals used a simple login with username and password, while 38% used a procedure involving receiving a code by text message to their mobile phone and almost one third (32%) used a single use PIN code to access such online services. See table 8c.

Note that more than one option may have been selected by respondents.

Table 8(b) Individuals who used the internet in the last 12 months, classified by the actions taken to protect personal information online, 2016 and 2018
% of individuals
 Read privacy policy statements before providing personal information Restricted access to geographical location Limited access to their profile or content on a social network Refused to allow use of personal information for advertising purposes Check security of website if personal information required Asked websites or search engines for information they hold to update or delete it  
 20162018 20162018 20162018 20162018 2016201820162018 Sample 2018
 
State2630 2127 3234 3238 3034 67 4,088
Sex 
 Male2629 2226 3131 3140 3136 68 1,727
 Female2630 2028 3436 3336 2933 66 2,361
Age group 
 16-292429 1927 3741 3140 3135 78 466
 30-443035 2733 3940 3745 3341 77 1,404
 45-592627 2027 2729 3137 3032 57 1,257
 60-742023 1115 1414 2021 1820 21 961
Principal economic status 
 At work2931 2532 3638 3744 3438 78 2,326
 Unemployed2123 1823 3228 2628 2733 56 173
 Student2232 1222 1235 2139 2033 15 184
 Home duties2328 1721 2930 2628 2225 55 587
 Retired2027 1416 2115 2224 1723 22 658
 Other3625 2920 4725 4024 4430 235 160
Region 
 Border2229 2426 3431 3227 2425 35 549
 Midlands2924 1717 3425 3429 2728 65 268
 West2535 2128 3032 2742 2641 55 450
 Dublin2534 2637 3545 3947 3443 88 1,078
 Mid-East2922 1923 3226 3233 3225 38 320
 Mid-West2836 2032 2736 3048 2436 66 411
 South-East2936 1741 3151 2251 3150 1110 419
 South-West2726 1727 3136 3039 2930 49 593
Household compostion 
 1 Adult no dependent children2725 1923 2926 3129 3027 46 695
 2 Adults no dependent children2626 2223 3030 3437 3032 76 1,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children2532 1930 3139 3238 3032 76 553
 1 Adult with dependent children2226 1826 3635 3143 2841 66 182
 2 Adults with dependent children2833 2432 3638 3542 3238 67 1,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children2633 1925 2931 2436 2436 76 363
 
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who used the internet in the last 12 months.
Note 3: Respondents may have selected more than one option.
Table 8(c) Individuals who used electronic identification procedures for using online services1 for private purposes in the last 12 months, 2018
% of individuals
 Simple login with username and passwordSocial media login used for other servicesSecurity token2Electronic identification certificate or card used with a card readerProcedure involving your mobile phone3Single use pin code4Other electronic identification procedureUnweighted sample
 
State81421110383244,088
Sex 
 Male82411310393261,727
 Female794399373232,361
Age group 
 16-29885813745324466
 30-4486471413444151,404
 45-597432911332761,257
 60-7466175620182961
Principal economic status 
 At work85431312443862,326
 Unemployed72408930223173
 Student916112746314184
 Home duties72377626232587
 Retired68155519192658
 Other60377820212160
Region 
 Border6929111220223549
 Midland79367730324268
 West834012741294450
 Dublin85451915474161,078
 Mid-East7449101034263320
 Mid-West844211941385411
 South-East8950151256337419
 South-West8252121441354593
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband81421110393353,960
 Narrowband*******18
 No internet6530452313494
 Unknown internet*******16
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children7536111030284695
 2 adults no dependent children7333108332531,059
 3 or more adults no dependent children864612939376553
 1 adult with dependent children8546171045263182
 2 adults with dependent children84461211423751,236
 3 or more adults with dependent children834891140345363
 
1Examples include online banking, public services, ordering or buying goods or services online, etc.
2Physical device used to gain access to an electronically restricted resource such as online banking. The token is used in addition to or in place of a password. It acts like an electronic access key.
3Involves receiving a code received via text message.
4Examples include plastic card with codes, scratch codes, etc. or random characters of a password.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who made purchases online in the last 12 months.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Note 4: More than one electronic identification procedure may be given by respondents.

Individuals: Use of smartphones

In 2018, respondents were asked about their use of smartphones for private purposes. Overall, more than three quarters (77%) of all individuals aged 16 to 74 years use a smartphone for private purposes. Smartphone usage increases for persons who used the internet within the previous year - nine tenths of persons who have used the internet in the previous twelve months, used a smartphone. Smartphone usage was highest for Students at 98%. For individuals who have used the internet within the last twelve months, there was little difference between deprivation quintiles - 94% of persons in the Fifth quintile - very affluent deprivation quintile who recently used the internet (within the last three months) use a smartphone compared with 90% of persons in the First quintile - very disadvantaged deprivation quintile. See table 9a.

Table 9(a) Individuals who use a smartphone for private purposes, 2018
% of individuals
 All individualsIndividuals who used the internet within last 12 monthsIndividuals who used the internet within last 3 monthsUnweighted sample
 
State7790915,291
Sex    
 Male7690902,312
 Female7890912,979
Age group    
 16-29959697474
 30-449697981,437
 45-597786871,450
 60-743767681,930
Principal economic status    
 At work8994942,509
 Unemployed828991202
 Student989898186
 Home duties678486819
 Retired3765661,284
 Other488082291
Region    
 Border718889795
 Midland768991362
 West759091602
 Dublin8895961,301
 Mid-East819191377
 Mid-West779090523
 South-East769091547
 South-West768990784
Type of household internet connection    
 Broadband8791914,364
 Narrowband***22
 No internet197085876
 Unknown internet***29
Household composition    
 1 adult, no dependent children4980811,296
 2 adults no dependent children6783851,501
 3 or more adults no dependent children849192644
 1 adult with dependent children949797190
 2 adults with dependent children9496971,275
 3 or more adults with dependent children919394385
Deprivation quintile    
 First quintile - very disadvataged7189901,173
 Second quintile - disadvantaged7388891,050
 Third quintile - average7489911,077
 Fourth quintile - affluent8592921,104
 Fifth quintile - very affluent889494887
 
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.

Individuals: Smartphone security

Smartphone users were asked about their usage of security software or service on smartphones used for private purposes. Close to half (48%) of smartphone users had security software installed automatically or was provided with the operating system, while 9% had installed it themselves or were assisted by somebody else or had subscribed to it. Almost four in ten (39%) smartphone users had not used any security software or service on their smartphones. See table 9b.

Respondents were also asked about security precautions which they took when installing applications (apps) on their smartphones. Nearly six tenths (59%) had Restricted or refused access to personal data when using or installing an application (app) on smartphone at least once or was provided by the operating system. Nearly two thirds (64%) of persons in the 16 to 44 age cohort restricted or refused access to personal data when installing or using apps, compared with just 36% of persons in the 60 to 74 years age group. Nearly three tenths (28%) did not restrict or refuse access to personal data when installing or using apps, while 5% did not know they could do so. Almost one in ten (9%) do not use apps. Nearly one quarter (23%) of smartphone users in the 60 to 74 years age group do not use apps, compared with only 2% of smartphone users aged 16 to 29 years. See table 9c.

Table 9(b) Individuals' usage of security software or service1 on smartphones used for private purposes, 2018
% of individuals
 Yes, installed automatically or provided with the operating systemYes, respondent installed it or subscribed to it or somebody else did itNo, did not use any security software or service on smartphoneDo not knowUnweighted sample
 
State4893953,701
Sex     
 Male48114121,551
 Female4963872,150
Age group     
 16-29447455450
 30-4452113531,373
 45-595083951,143
 60-744463911735
Principal economic status     
 At work5393642,219
 Unemployed2811586159
 Student379496180
 Home duties516377521
 Retired467408487
 Other4711386135
Region     
 Border408494493
 Midland4910374243
 West499378398
 Dublin5183951,013
 Mid-East436475296
 Mid-West5612287371
 South-East556365371
 South-West408495516
Household composition     
 1 adult, no dependent children477416581
 2 adults no dependent children498386894
 3 or more adults no dependent children4612386504
 1 adult with dependent children426467177
 2 adults with dependent children5483631,201
 3 or more adults with dependent children379506344
Deprivation quintile     
 First quintile - very disadvataged4311443711
 Second quintile - disadvantaged4310426683
 Third quintile - average557346713
 Fourth quintile - affluent499394849
 Fifth quintile - very affluent547374745
 
1Examples include antivirus, antispam, firewall, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use a smartphone.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.
Table 9(c) Individuals' security precautions taken when installing applications on their smartphones, 2018
% of individuals
 Restricted or refused access to personal data1 when using or installing an application (app) on smartphone 
 Yes, at least once or provided with the operating systemNoDid not know it was possibleNot applicable do not use appsUnweighted sample
 
State5928593,582
Sex 
 Male6029381,495
 Female5727792,087
Age group 
 16-29643042450
 30-446427451,360
 45-5953265151,107
 60-743632923665
Principal economic status 
 At work6327472,176
 Unemployed4432717154
 Student672741180
 Home duties5228911500
 Retired3435922448
 Other4136320124
Region 
 Border563456470
 Midland5132611229
 West662428388
 Dublin632745986
 Mid-East662158287
 Mid-West5927410360
 South-East652447359
 South-West552888503
Type of household internet connection 
 Broadband5928583,493
 Narrowband****13
 No internet442523063
 Unknown internet****13
Household composition 
 1 adult, no dependent children5332412540
 2 adults no dependent children5327812847
 3 or more adults no dependent children592759493
 1 adult with dependent children533737176
 2 adults with dependent children6327461,188
 3 or more adults with dependent children632639338
 
1Examples include person's location, contact list, etc.
Note 1: Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.
Note 2: Individuals represent all individuals aged 16-74 who use a smartphone and have accessed the internet within the last 12 months.
Note 3: * Sample occurrence too small for estimation, i.e., less than 30.

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The annual Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Household Survey 2018 contributes to the EU requirement under Regulation (EC) No 808/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 concerning Community Statistics on the Information Society (OJ L143, 30.04.2004, p. 49). It covers a range of topics related to internet penetration and use of ICT by households and individuals.

The survey is conducted annually in the first quarter of the year and asks respondents about their ICT activities over the previous 12 months. Each year, the survey includes a specific group of questions relating to a particular area of ICT. In 2018, additional questions relating to the ICT at work were included.

Questionnaire Design

In previous years, the Information and communications Technology (ICT) was carried out as a module of the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017. With this change, modules previously carried out as modules of the QNHS, are now carried out as part of the General Household Survey (GHS). The GHS is a national survey that place takes place three or four times each year. The survey usually has a core of common demographic questions that are always asked (e.g. age, sex, education, etc.). Each survey also has a specific theme: for example, in the second half of 2017, the survey measured participation rates of adults in further education; in the first quarter of 2018 the GHS covered the ICT Household Survey and a survey of Cross Border Shopping.

Here below are the topics we have covered so far:

Year    

Quarter    

Topic

2017

Quarter 3 and Quarter 4

Adult Education Survey

2018

Quarter 1

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 

 

Quarter 2 and Quarter 3

Household Financial Consumption Survey (HFCS)

You can find more information here: https://www.cso.ie/en/aboutus/takingpartinasurvey/surveysofhouseholdsindividuals/generalhouseholdsurvey/

The ICT Household Survey was based on the implementing Regulation (EU) No 808/2004 and the Model Questionnaire provided by Eurostat https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/0a29aaab-924a-4b88-851d-db28bf144748/ICT-HH 2018_Model Questionnaire V1.4.pdf

Reference Period

The Information Communications Technology (ICT) Household Survey is carried out in the three months from January to March each year (Quarter 1). The questionnaire asks questions about ICT activities for the reference period of twelve months prior to the interviews taking place.

Survey Coverage

The ICT Household Survey data is collected directly from private households. Institutional households, (e.g. nursing homes, barracks, boarding schools, hotels etc.) are not covered by the survey. A household is defined as a single person or group of people who usually reside together in the same accommodation and who share the same catering arrangements. The household members are not necessarily related by blood or marriage.

A person is defined as a "Usual Resident" of a private household if he or she

  1. Lives regularly at the dwelling in question, and
  2. Shares the main living accommodation (i.e. kitchen, living room or bathroom) with the other members of the household.


Survey Questionnaire

The ICT Households Survey 2018 was designed in line with the European Community Survey on ICT Usage in Households and By Individuals 2018 Model Questionnaire. The collection of the data under the aforementioned European Regulation implies that harmonised data can be obtained across the European continent.

The 2018 ICT household questionnaire is available at

ICT - Information And Communications Technologies

Data Collection

The data was collected by a team of up to one hundred Field Interviewers and ten Field coordinators (each with a team of ten interviewers). Interviewers were provided with a map of each of their interview areas as well as a listing of the address of each of the selected households. These interviewers also working on CSO surveys such as the Survey on Income and Living Conditions and the Labour Force Survey. Interviewers received a manual with information such as detailed explanations about the questionnaire, definitions of the concepts involved and examples.

It was conducted using a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). This enabled the use of extensive checks in the BLAISE interviewing software to make sure correct and coherent data was collected.

One person from each household was selected. Information was collected directly from respondents - proxy responses from other members of the household were not accepted.

Sample Design

The sample for the General Household Survey (GHS) is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index (quintile). A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

The total sample size for the ICT Household survey was 9,900 households. The number of valid responding households for the ICT Household Survey in Q1 2018 was 5,291.

The survey results were weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality totals

Derivation of Results

To provide national population results, the survey results were weighted to represent the entire population of 16 to 74 year olds. The survey results were weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age group, sex and region and were also calibrated to nationality totals.

Household weights were calculated for all households in the initial sample. The design weights are computed as the inverse of the selection probability of the unit. The purpose of design weights is to eliminate the bias induced by unequal selection probabilities.

These design weights were then adjusted for non-response. This eliminated the bias introduced by discrepancies caused by non-response, particularly critical when the non-responding households are different from the responding ones in respect to some survey variables as this may create substantial bias in the estimates. Design weights are adjusted for non-response by dividing the design weights of each responding unit in the final/achieved sample by the (weighted) response probability of the corresponding group or strata.

To obtain the final household weights for the results, after the previous steps were carried out, the distribution of households by deprivation, NUTS3 region, sex and age was calibrated to the population of households in Quarter 1 2018 (as derived from the LFS Survey). The CALMAR2-macro, developed by INSEE, was used for this purpose.

Note on Tables

The sum of row or column percentages in the tables in this report may not add to 100.0% due to rounding.

Percentage breakdowns exclude cases where the interviewee did not respond.

Disclosure Control


Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.

Classifications Used

Principal Economic Status Classification

The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation regarding employment and given the following response categories:

  • At work
  • Unemployed
  • Student
  • Engaged on home duties
  • Retired
  • Other


Degree of Urbanisation

This classification is created from an aggregation of population density estimates derived from the Census of Population. The categories included in each aggregate are explained below:

  • Thinly populated area refers to rural areas
  • Intermediate density area refers to towns and suburbs
  • Densely populated area refers to cities, urban centres and urban areas


Region

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994. The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. The composition of the regions is set out below.

The composition of the regions is set out below.

Border, Midland and Western NUTS2 Region     

Southern and Eastern NUTS2 Region          

Border

Cavan

Dublin

Dublin City

 

Donegal

 

Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown

 

Leitrim

 

Fingal

 

Louth

 

South Dublin

 

Monaghan

 

 

 

Sligo

Mid-East

Kildare

 

 

 

Meath

Midland

Laois

 

Wicklow

 

Longford

Mid-West

Clare

 

Offaly

 

Limerick City

 

Westmeath

 

Limerick County

 

 

 

North Tipperary

West

Galway City

 

 

 

Galway County

South-East

Carlow

 

Mayo

 

Kilkenny

 

Roscommon

 

South Tipperary

 

 

 

Waterford City

 

 

 

Waterford County

 

 

 

Wexford

 

 

 

 

 

 

South-West

Cork City

 

 

 

Cork County

 

 

 

Kerry

Deprivation Index

The Pobal Haase-Pratschke Deprivation Index is used to create the underlying sample and is used to analyse the data. The Index uses Census data to measure levels of disadvantage or affluence in a geographical area. More detailed information on the index can be found here: https://www.pobal.ie/research-analysis/

The results are presented by quintiles, five equal-sized groups of households, with the first quintile representing the the most disadvantaged areas and the fifth quintile representing the least deprived/most affluent area.

The five quintiles are described below:

First Quintile - Very disadvantaged

Second Quintile - Disadvantaged

Third Quintile - Average

Fourth Quintile - Affluent

Fifth Quintile - Very affluent (least deprived)

Household composition

For the purposes of deriving household composition, a child was defined as any member of the household aged 17 or under.  Households were analysed as a whole, regardless of the number of family units within the household.  The categories of household composition are:

1 adult aged 18+ with no dependent children

2 adults aged 18+ with no ependent children

3 adults aged 18+ with no dependent children

1 adult aged 18+ with dependent children aged <18

2 adults aged 18+ with dependent children aged <18

3 adults aged 18+ with dependent children aged <18

 
QNHS Social Modules


While the main purpose of the QNHS was the production of quarterly labour force estimates, there is also a provision for the collection of data on social topics through the inclusion of special survey modules. The selection of the major national modules undertaken to date has been largely based on the results of a canvass of users (over 100 organisations) that was conducted by the CSO in 1996, 2002, 2006, 2008 and most recently 2011. The results of the canvass are presented to the National Statistics Board and they are asked to indicate their priorities for the years ahead.

The schedule for social modules in any given year is based on the following structure:

Quarter 1   Accidents and Illness module and  Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Survey

Quarter 2   EU module (always covered under EU legislation)

Quarter 3   National module

Quarter 4   National module

Some of the social modules published to date in the QNHS are outlined below:

Q2 Households and Family Units 2017

Q2 2016 Households and Family Units

Q2 2016 QNHS Union Membership

Irish Health Survey 2015

Q4 2015 Pensions

Q3 2015 Crime and Victimisation

Q2 2015 Households and Family Units

Q3 2014 Equality Module

Q2 2014 Environment Module

Q3 2013 Volunteering and Wellbeing

Q2 2013 Sport and Physical Exercise

Q3 2012 Effect on Households of the Economic Downturn

Q2 2012 Retirement Planning

Q2 2012 Parental Involvement in Children’s Education

Q2 2012 Union Membership

Q1 2012 Unemployment Thematic Report

Q2 2011 Response of Households to the Economic Downturn - Pilot Module

Q2 2011 Voter Participation

Q4 2010 Equality

Q3 2010 Health Status and Health Service Utilisation

Q2 2010 Cross Border Shopping

Q2 2010 Educational Attainment

Q1 2010 Crime and Victimisation

Q4 2009 Pension Provision

Q3 2009 Carers

Q2 2009 Union Membership

Q2 2009 Cross Border Shopping

Q3 2008 Lifelong Learning

Q4 2007 Childcare

Q3 2007 Health Status and Health Service Utilisation

Q3 2006 Sport and Physical Exercise
 

More historical social modules published are available at:

http://www.cso.ie/en/qnhs/releasesandpublications/qnhs-specialmodules/qnhs-specialmodulesarchive/.

Acknowledgement

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the ICT 2018 Household Survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

upArrowHide Background Notes