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Poverty, Peace and Justice

Table 6.1 EU: At risk of poverty rates, 20171
    %
CountryBefore pensions and social transfersAfter pensions and social transfers
 MenWomenMenWomen
Czechia31.838.47.610.7
Finland42.145.311.511.4
Denmark39.141.813.011.7
Slovakia35.339.512.412.3
Netherlands35.540.313.213.3
France43.447.312.913.6
Hungary43.150.013.113.7
Slovenia39.043.912.014.5
Poland42.045.115.114.9
Austria40.546.113.515.3
Sweden42.546.115.416.2
Ireland41.243.914.716.5
Cyprus35.339.514.616.8
Belgium40.946.614.916.9
Germany39.844.415.017.1
Malta36.138.916.117.3
EU 2841.645.816.317.6
United Kingdom41.245.016.117.9
Portugal43.446.817.818.7
Luxembourg44.949.117.919.4
Greece48.752.820.220.2
Croatia41.245.018.920.9
Italy43.147.719.421.1
Spain43.546.521.022.2
Estonia36.241.918.423.3
Lithuania39.844.521.424.2
Romania45.549.522.924.2
Latvia36.242.919.124.6
Bulgaria42.646.921.824.9
     
Iceland30.032.78.59.1
Norway38.244.211.113.5
Switzerland35.039.914.916.1
North Macedonia40.041.522.422.0
Turkey38.141.821.622.8
Serbia49.952.625.426.0
Source: Eurostat, CSO SILC
1 2016 data for Iceland
  • In Ireland, 43.9% of women were at risk of poverty in 2017, before income from pensions and social transfers was taken into account, compared to 41.2% of men.
  • The at risk of poverty rate, after social transfers and pensions, was 16.5% for women and 14.7% for men.
  • The lowest at risk of poverty rates in the EU in 2017, after pensions and social transfers, were in Czechia at 10.7% for women and 7.6% for men.
  • The highest at risk of poverty rate for women, after pensions and social transfers, was in Bulgaria at 24.9% and the highest for men was in Romania at 22.9%.
Table 6.2 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate1 by most frequent economic activity, 2013 and 2018
%
Economic activity20132018
MenWomenMenWomen
Employed5.74.85.34.9
Unemployed38.232.843.149.0
Retired12.110.517.122.4
Other inactive26.424.034.728.1
Total population aged 18 & over15.314.813.116.0
Source: CSO SILC
1This table refers only to persons aged 18 and over.
  • People in employment had a lower at risk of poverty rate in 2018, at 5.3% for men and 4.9% for women, and these rates were very similar to the rates in 2013.
  • Unemployed people had the highest at risk of poverty rates in 2018. For men, the at risk of poverty rate was 43.1% in 2018, compared with 38.2% in 2013, an increase of almost five percentage points. Women who are unemployed had an at risk of poverty rate of 49% in 2018, a rise of almost 16 percentage points since 2013.
Table 6.3 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate by age, 2013 and 2018
%
Age group20132018
MenWomenMenWomen
0-1717.119.414.217.0
18-2427.020.214.115.7
25-4911.413.69.812.4
50-6418.918.016.515.8
65 & over10.510.615.224.6
Total15.816.013.416.3
Source: CSO SILC
  • The at risk of poverty rate for males in 2018 was 13.4%, dropping from the 2013 rate of 15.8%. For females, the at risk of poverty rate in 2018 of 16.3% was slightly higher than the 2013 rate of 16%.
  • The highest at risk of poverty rate in 2018 was for those aged 65 and over, with 15.2% of men and 24.6% of women in this age group at risk of poverty.
  • Children aged under 18 years of age had at risk of poverty rates slightly above the overall rate.
  • Men and women aged between 25 and 49 had at risk of poverty rates below the overall rates.
Table 6.4 Ireland: Offence group of sentenced commitals to prison, 2018
     
Offence groupMenWomenTotal% Women
Homicide offences313348.8
Sexual offences17111720.6
Attempts/threats to murder, assaults, harassment and related offences427384658.2
Dangerous or negligent acts15451593.1
Kidnapping and related offences220220.0
Robbery, extortion and hijacking offences534577.0
Burglary and related offences287173045.6
Theft and related offences72621393922.7
Fraud, deception and related offences7288010.0
Controlled drug offences373213945.3
Weapons and explosives offences14631492.0
Damage to property and to the environment245172626.5
Public order and other social code offences322333559.3
Road and traffic offences5576261910.0
Government, justice procedures and organised crime offences6289972713.6
Offences not elsewhere classified55197425.7
Total4,2695434,81211.3
Source: Irish Prison Service
  • There were 4,812 persons committed to prison under sentence in 2018, of whom just over one in ten (11.3%) were women.
  • Of the 172 people committed to prison for sexual offences only one was female while of the 34 committed for homicide offences only three were female.
  • None of the 22 people committed to prison for kidnapping and related offences were female.
  • Nearly four in ten women (39.2%) and two in ten men (17.0%) were committed for theft and related offences.
Table 6.5 EU: Victims of selected crimes, 20171
%
CountryHomicideSerious assaultSexual assault
MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
Austria83.216.860.839.212.987.1
Bulgaria68.431.666.034.010.289.8
Croatia83.116.957.842.27.492.6
Czechia73.426.6::3.396.7
Denmark71.628.469.230.815.384.7
Estonia::72.427.6::
Finland76.823.255.144.93.296.8
France51.148.962.637.415.284.8
Germany73.426.655.544.56.293.8
Greece::72.028.014.985.1
Hungary75.324.773.326.715.484.6
Ireland73.626.469.630.419.081.0
Italy61.039.065.534.510.189.9
Latvia72.327.750.649.414.685.4
Lithuania80.319.762.837.216.683.4
Malta::60.040.0::
Slovakia79.220.874.325.710.090.0
Slovenia82.617.466.733.316.783.3
Spain76.024.065.434.612.088.0
Sweden75.224.876.123.910.189.9
United Kingdom::68.731.313.786.3
       
Iceland::33.366.7:..
Serbia92.37.769.430.65.494.6
Switzerland82.117.961.238.817.083.0
Turkey64.635.478.821.214.585.5
Source: UNECE Gender statistics database
1 Reference year is 2013 for Czechia, 2015 for France, Germany and Turkey and 2016 for Malta.
: Data not available
  • The majority of homicide and serious assault victims were male in all the reporting countries in 2017.
  • Most victims of sexual assault were female in all the reporting countries.
  • In Ireland about seven in ten victims of both homicide and serious assault were male but eight in ten victims of sexual assault were female.
  • When examining this data please note that levels of reporting of particular crimes may vary across countries.
Table 6.6 Ireland: Religion, 2011 and 2016
% 
Religion20112016
MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal
Roman Catholic83.485.984.777.380.378.8
Church of Ireland, England, Anglican, Episcopalian2.72.82.72.62.62.6
Muslim (Islamic)1.20.91.11.51.11.3
Orthodox (Greek, Coptic, Russian)1.01.01.01.31.31.3
Other stated religion3.33.43.43.83.83.8
No religion6.74.75.710.88.59.6
Not stated1.71.41.52.72.42.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population
  • The number of males and females in the usually resident population who described themselves as Roman Catholic decreased between 2011 and 2016.
  • In 2011 85.9% of females were Roman Catholic but this had dropped to 80.3% by 2016 while 83.4% of males were Roman Catholic in 2011 but this decreased to 77.3% by 2016.
  • There was an increase in the numbers of people with no religion between 2011 and 2016. Over this time period the number of males with no religion increased from 6.7% to 10.8% while the number of females increased from 4.7% to 8.5%.
Table 6.7 Ireland: Religion by nationality, 2016
%
ReligionIrishOther EUNon-EUTotal
MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal
Roman Catholic82.485.183.853.456.655.024.527.726.177.380.378.8
Church of Ireland, England, Anglican, Episcopalian2.32.42.35.65.85.71.82.01.92.62.62.6
Muslim (Islamic)0.90.80.81.10.91.014.49.612.11.51.11.3
Orthodox (Greek, Coptic, Russian)0.50.50.57.98.07.94.24.74.41.31.31.3
Other stated religion2.82.72.87.58.07.715.316.916.13.83.83.8
No religion9.77.38.521.017.719.312.413.713.010.88.59.6
Not stated1.41.21.33.63.03.327.325.326.32.72.42.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population
  • In the population usually resident in Ireland in 2016, 80.3% of females and 77.3% of males described themselves as Roman Catholic.
  • Just over half of males (53.4%) and females (56.6%) with 'Other EU' nationality were Roman Catholic compared to more than eight out of ten Irish males (82.4%) and females (85.1%).
  • Around a quarter of males (27.3%) and females (25.3%) with 'Non EU' nationality did not state their religion compared just 1.4% of Irish males and 1.2% of Irish females.
  • Irish residents with non-EU nationality had varied religions - 14.4% of males and 9.6% of females described themselves as Muslim while around an eighth stated they had no religion, (12.4% of males and 13.7% of females).