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Social cohesion & lifestyles

3.1 Ireland: Principal economic status, 2003 and 2013
 
persons aged 15 years and over (000s)
 20032013
Principal Economic StatusMenWomenMenWomen
At work1,012.0709.6974.4829.0
Unemployed80.735.0227.7102.3
Total in labour force1,092.7744.61,202.1931.3
% in labour force70.446.668.351.0
     
Student179.6197.6212.7202.6
Looking after home/family4.2555.08.7478.0
Retired202.866.6255.3148.7
Other72.434.281.265.7
Total not in labour force459.0853.4557.9895.0
% not in labour force29.653.431.749.0
     
Total aged 15 and over1,551.71,597.91,759.91,826.3
Source: CSO, QNHS

 

  • Just over half (51%) of women aged 15 years and over were in the labour force (at work or unemployed) in 2013, compared to 46.6% in 2003.
  • The proportion of men in the labour force over the same time period dropped slightly from 70.4% to 68.3%.
  • More than half (54%) of those who were at work in 2013 were men while over two-thirds (69%) of those who were unemployed were men.
  • Nearly all those (98.2%) who were looking after home or family in 2013 were women. Close to two-thirds (63.2%) of those who described themselves as retired in 2013 were men.
3.2 Ireland: Income1 liable for social insurance, 2011
     
 persons aged 15-84 %
Income bandMenWomenMenWomen
Under €5,000181,592178,79814.615.8
€5,000 - €9,999123,306139,5459.912.4
€10,000 - €19,999214,993249,54117.322.1
€20,000 - €29,999211,123209,21817.018.5
€30,000 - €39,999173,666152,68314.013.5
€40,000 - €49,999112,31292,6949.08.2
€50,000 & over225,917107,12918.29.5
Total1,242,9091,129,608100.0100.0
Average income €33,36424,515  
Source: Department of Social and Family Affairs, Revenue Commissioners
     
1 These tables are based on income data which covers 70.9% of men and 83.2% of women aged 15-84. See Appendix 1 for further information.

 

  • Closing the gender pay gap has long been a priority for the EU and is central to Europe 2020 Strategy, the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade.
  • In 2011, men had an average income of €33,364 while the average income for women was €24,515 or 73.5% of men's income. When these figures are adjusted to take account of the average hours per week spent in paid employment, women's average hourly income was about 94.1 % of men's in 2011.
  • Just under two out of ten (18.2%) men earned €50,000 or over in 2011 while just under one in ten (9.5%) women earned this amount. 41.8% of men earned under €20,000 in 2011 while more than half (50.3%) of women were in this category.
  • In interpreting this table it should be born in mind that no account has been taken of the number of hours being worked or of the occupations being performed by men and women (see tables 2.6 and 2.8). Also, income used for private pension contributions is not included in the figures.
3.3 Ireland: Average income1 liable for social insurance by age, 2011
  
average income (€) 
Age groupMenWomenWomen's income as % of men's
15-2410,2089,68494.9
25-3427,40725,25192.1
35-4442,17330,84673.1
45-5447,40429,76862.8
55-6440,70025,74963.3
65-8422,05115,11068.5
Total aged 15-8433,36424,51573.5
Source: Department of Social and Family Affairs, Revenue Commissioners
    
1 These tables are based on income data which covers 70.9% of men and 63.2% of women aged 15-84. See Appendix 1 for further information.

 

  • Closing the gender pay gap has long been a priority for the EU and is central to Europe 2020 Strategy, the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade.
  • The difference between male and female average income for persons aged 15-54 increased with age.  The average income of women aged 15-24 was 94.9% of men's in the same age group while for the 45-54 age group women's average income was 62.8% of men's.
  • In interpreting this table it should be born in mind that no account has been taken of the number of hours being worked or of the occupations being performed by men and women (see tables 2.6 and 2.8).  Also, income used for private pension contributions is not included in the figures.
3.4 EU: Gender pay gap, 2010-2012
    
Difference between male and female gross hourly earnings as % of average gross hourly male earnings
Country201020112012
Slovenia0.92.32.5
Malta7.26.26.1
Poland4.55.56.4
Italy5.35.86.7
Luxembourg8.78.78.6
Romania8.811.09.7
Belgium10.210.210.0
Lithuania14.611.912.6
Latvia15.513.613.8
Ireland13.911.714.4
Bulgaria13.013.014.7
France15.615.014.8
Denmark15.916.314.9
Portugal12.812.515.7
Sweden15.415.815.9
Cyprus16.816.416.2
EU:16.416.4
Netherlands17.817.916.9
Spain16.217.817.8
Croatia15.517.618.0
United Kingdom19.520.119.1
Finland20.319.619.4
Hungary17.618.020.1
Slovakia19.620.521.5
Czech Republic21.622.622.0
Germany22.322.222.4
Austria24.023.723.4
Estonia27.727.330.0
Greece15.0::
    
Norway16.115.915.1
Iceland17.718.318.7
Switzerland17.817.9:
Source: Eurostat, EU SES

 

  • On average, female employees were paid 14.4% an hour less than male employees in Ireland in 2012 while the aveage EU gender pay gap was 16.4%.
  • Of those EU countries for which data were available in 2012, Slovenia had the lowest gender pay gap at 2.5% while Estonia had the highest at 30%.
3.5 EU: At risk of poverty rates, 20121
  
%
 MenWomen
CountryBefore pensions and social transfersAfter pensions and social transfersBefore pensions and social transfersAfter pensions and social transfers
Czech Republic3594111
Netherlands34104011
Denmark39134313
Slovakia35134113
Finland39134314
Hungary47145214
France42144615
Slovenia40134415
Ireland48155315
Austria41144715
Belgium40144516
Luxembourg43154816
Sweden39134416
Malta36144116
Cyprus31133716
United Kingdom43164817
Poland41174417
Germany41154617
EU42164618
Estonia37174318
Portugal44184718
Lithuania43184719
Latvia42194719
Italy41184721
Croatia44194722
Spain45224822
Bulgaria40204423
Romania49225123
Greece48235224
     
Iceland338368
Norway36104011
Switzerland32143817
Source: Eurostat, CSO SILC
  
1 2011 data used for Ireland.

 

  • 53% of women in Ireland were considered to be at risk of poverty before income from social transfers was taken into account in 2011, compared with 48% of men.
  • The at risk of poverty rate after pensions and social transfers was 15% for both men and women in Ireland, which was lower than the 2012 EU average rates of 16% of men and 18% for women.
  • The lowest at risk of poverty rates in the EU in 2012, after pensions and social transfers, were in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands.
  • The highest at risk of poverty rates, after pensions and social transfers, were in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Spain.
  • Social transfers and pensions reduced the at risk of poverty rate for women in Ireland by 38 percentage points in 2011, the joint highest reduction in the EU along with Hungary. The average reduction in the EU was 28 percentage points.
3.6 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate1 by most frequent economic activity, 2006 and 2011
     
    %
 20062011
Economic activityMenWomenMenWomen
Employed6675
Unemployed49333029
Retired2433117
Other inactive32312922
Total population aged 18 & over16191514
Source: CSO SILC
1This table refers only to persons aged 18 and over.

 

  • The at risk of poverty rate for both men and women aged 18 and over in Ireland fell between 2006 and 2011. The rate for men fell from 16% to 15% while the rate for women fell from 19% to 14%.
  • People in employment had a lower at risk of poverty rate with a rate of 7% for men and 5% for women in 2011.
3.7 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate by age, 2006 and 2011
 
%
 20062011
Age groupMenWomenMenWomen
0-1723211718
18-2416192724
25-4911151113
50-6417181814
65 & over24311011
Total18201515
Source: CSO SILC

 

 

  • In 2011, men aged 65 and over had an at risk of poverty rate of 10% while women had a rate of 11%, below the overall rate of 15%.
  • There have been sharp falls in the at risk of poverty rates for people aged 65 and over between 2006 and 2011, with the rate for men in this age group falling from 24% to 10% while the rate for women decreaed from 31% to 11%.
  • The age groups with the highest at risk of poverty rate were those aged 18-24 with about a quarter of men and women in this age group at risk of poverty.
3.8 EU: Early school leavers, 2007 and 2012
     
% of 18-24 age group
 20072012
CountryMenWomenMenWomen
Croatia5.12.64.63.6
Slovenia5.82.25.43.2
Slovakia7.25.86.04.6
Czech Republic5.74.76.14.9
Poland6.23.87.83.5
Austria11.410.17.97.3
Lithuania9.65.18.14.6
Sweden9.56.58.56.3
Finland11.27.29.88.1
Netherlands14.09.310.27.3
Luxembourg16.68.410.75.5
Denmark16.29.510.87.4
Ireland14.68.411.28.2
Germany13.111.911.39.9
Bulgaria15.214.712.113.0
Hungary12.610.112.210.7
France14.910.313.49.8
Greece18.610.613.79.1
Estonia21.77.114.07.1
EU16.912.814.410.9
Belgium13.910.314.49.5
Latvia20.010.114.76.3
United Kingdom17.615.614.712.4
Cyprus19.56.816.57.0
Romania17.117.418.016.7
Italy22.916.420.514.5
Portugal43.130.427.114.3
Malta36.928.127.517.6
Spain36.625.228.820.8
     
Switzerland8.56.75.75.3
Macedonia17.922.011.112.3
Norway22.714.117.611.9
Iceland27.218.723.616.5
Turkey39.054.136.143.0
Source: CSO QNHS, Eurostat LFS

 

  • In all EU countries in 2012 , except Bulgaria, higher proportions of men than women aged 18-24 had left school with at most lower secondary education and were not in further education or training.
  • The target on early school leavers in the Europe 2020 strategy from the European Commission is a rate of less than 10% by 2020.
  • In Ireland 11.2% of men and 8.2% of women aged 18-24 were early school leavers in 2012. The EU averages were 14.4% for men and 10.9% for women.
  • The lowest rates for early school leavers in the EU in 2012 was 4.6% in Croatia for men and 3.2% in Slovenia for women.
  • The highest rates for both men and women in 2012 in the EU were in Spain, at 28.8% for men and 20.8% for women.
3.9 Ireland: Lone parents1, 2003-2013
  
000s
YearMenWomen% women
20039.6107.191.9
200410.8114.991.4
20059.8113.592.1
200610.1115.692.0
200710.0125.292.6
200810.7124.992.1
200912.1132.591.6
201011.3142.592.7
201112.6141.391.8
201211.5147.892.8
201312.8139.391.6
Source: CSO QNHS
1 Refers to persons living as lone parents whose children are less than 20 years of age.

 

  • More than nine out of ten lone parents were women in 2013 and this proportion has remained stable over the period 2003 to 2013.
  • The number of women living as lone parents increased by 30.1% from 107,100 to 139,300 between 2003 and 2013.
  • The number of men living as lone parents rose by a third from 9,600 in 2003 to 12,800 in 2013.
3.10 Ireland: Lone parents1 by age of youngest child, 20132
  
000s
Age of youngest childMenWomen% women
0-9[4.0]86.595.6
10-14[3.6]30.989.6
15 -195.221.880.4
Total12.8139.391.6
 Source: CSO QNHS
  
1 Refers to persons living as lone parents whose children ae less than 20 years of age.
2 Data in parentheses [] should be treated with caution as the QNHS sample size is small
and considered to have a wider margin of error.

 

  • More than nine out of ten lone parents were women in 2013.
  • The age of the youngest child was under 10 for 62.1% of women living as lone parents.
  • For 40.6% of male lone parents, the age of the youngest child was between 15 and 19 years of age.
3.11 Ireland: Recipients of one-parent family payment by age, 2012
    
number
Age groupMenWomen% women
under 251910,66599.8
25-3432233,69799.1
35-491,19636,69696.8
50 & over4474,87691.6
Total1,98485,93497.7
Source: Department of Social Protection

 

  • The vast majority (97.7%) of the 87,918 persons in receipt of the one-parent family payments in 2012 were women.
  • Almost one in eight (12.4%) women receiving the one-parent family payment was aged under 25 years.
3.12 EU: Representation in national parliaments, 2009-20131
 
% female representatives
Country20092010201120122013
Sweden46.445.044.744.745.0
Finland40.040.042.542.542.5
Belgium38.039.338.038.041.3
Spain36.636.636.036.039.7
Denmark38.038.039.139.139.1
Netherlands42.040.740.738.738.7
Germany32.832.832.932.936.5
Austria27.927.927.927.933.3
Slovenia14.414.432.232.233.3
Italy21.321.321.621.431.4
Portugal27.427.428.728.731.3
Luxembourg20.020.025.021.728.3
EU224.024.224.925.827.5
France18.918.918.926.926.2
Latvia22.020.023.023.025.0
Bulgaria20.820.820.822.924.6
Poland20.020.023.723.724.3
Croatia::::23.8
United Kingdom19.522.022.322.522.6
Greece17.317.318.721.021.0
Lithuania19.119.119.124.524.1
Czech Republic15.522.022.022.019.5
Estonia22.822.819.820.819.0
Slovakia18.015.316.018.718.7
Ireland13.913.915.115.115.7
Malta8.78.78.78.714.3
Romania11.411.411.213.313.5
Cyprus12.512.510.710.712.5
Hungary11.19.18.88.89.4
Source: Inter-parliamentary union database
1 Lower house or single chamber female representation December 31.
2 EU27 for years 2009-2012 and EU28 for 2013.

 

  • Just under one in six (15.7%) of the TD's in the Dail were women in 2013, the fifth lowest proportion in the EU and well below the EU average of 27.5%.
  • The only countries with lower female participation in Parliament than Ireland were Hungary, Cyprus, Romania and Malta.
  • Three countries had female participation of over 40% - Sweden, Finland and Belgium.
Open in Excel:
WomenMen
State Boards36.263.8
Seanad Eireann31.768.3
Ministers of State26.773.3
Dail Eireann15.784.3
Government Ministers13.386.7

 

  • Men significantly out-numbered women in all national decision-making structures in Ireland in 2013.
  • Only 13.3% of Government Ministers were female in 2013 while 15.7% of TDs were female.
  • Over a quarter of Ministers of State were female while close to a third of the membership of the Seanad were female.
WomenMen
Vocational Education Committees3565
County Development Boards29.670.4
County Enterprise Boards25.374.7
Local Authorities1882
Regional Authorities14.585.5

 

  • Men also out-numbered women in all regional decision-making structures in Ireland in 2013.
  • Less than one in five members of Local Authorities were female in 2013 while women accounted for 35% of those on Vocational Education Committees.
3.14 Ireland: Civil Service general service grades, 2013
number% of grade
GradeMenWomenTotalMenWomen
Secretary General1521788.211.8
Deputy & Assistant Secretary1263215879.720.3
Principal Officer44422066466.933.1
Assistant Principal1,0757981,87357.442.6
Administrative Officer9612321943.856.2
Higher Executive Officer1,4841,6863,17046.853.2
Executive Officer1,6743,3385,01233.466.6
Staff Officer3381,2391,57721.478.6
Clerical Officer2,4578,38310,84022.777.3
Services Officer4266148787.512.5
Services Attendant1241213691.28.8
Total8,25915,89424,15334.265.8
Source: Department of Finance

 

  • In 2013, close to two-thirds (65.8%) of Irish civil servants in general service were women.
  • Over three-quarters of Staff Officers and Clerical Officers were female in 2013. In contrast, about one in eight of those at Secretary General level (11.8%) were women while a fifth (20.3%) of those at Deputy & Assistant Secretary level were women.
  • A clear majority of those in the four most senior general service grades were men in 2013.
  • The middle management grade of Higher Executive Officer was the most gender-balanced of all grades.
  • The vast majority of those in the Services Officer and Services Attendant grades were male.
3.15 Ireland: Religion by age group, 2011
       
%
 0-1920-6465 & over
ReligionMaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
Roman Catholic85.885.980.483.889.491.7
Church of Ireland2.62.62.72.73.93.7
Other Christian3.03.12.73.11.21.1
Muslim1.61.51.30.80.10.1
Other1.31.32.22.11.00.9
No religion4.13.98.96.03.11.3
Not stated1.71.71.81.41.31.2
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population

 

  • In 2011 about nine out of every ten men (89.4%) and women (91.7%) aged 65 and over described themselves as Roman Catholic in the Census of Population.
  • The proportions of those aged under 20 who described themselves as Roman Catholic were lower, with 85.8% of males and 85.9% of females in this category.
  • The age group with the lowest proportion of people describing themselves as Roman Catholics were those aged between 20 and 64. Four out of five (80.4%) men and 83.8% of women aged 20-64 said they were Roman Catholic.
  • Just under one out of ten (8.9%) men and 6% of women aged between 20 and 64 had no religion. 
3.16 Ireland: Religion by nationality, 2011
         
%
           Irish          Other EU1          Non-EU     Total1
ReligionMenWomenMenWomenMenWomenMenWomen
Roman Catholic88.690.959.161.829.133.083.986.4
Church of Ireland2.42.46.56.82.83.22.72.8
Other Christian 1.31.38.99.418.221.52.62.7
Muslim 0.50.40.60.620.313.81.20.9
Other 1.00.84.45.113.813.81.71.6
No religion5.43.418.114.512.411.96.84.7
Not stated0.90.72.41.93.32.81.10.8
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population
1 Excludes 'no nationality' and 'nationality not stated'.

 

  • In the population usually resident in Ireland in 2011, 83.9% of males and 86.4% of females described themselves as Roman Catholic.
  • About six out of ten people with 'Other EU' nationality were Roman Catholic while close to nine out of ten Irish people were Roman Catholic.
  • 5.4% of Irish males and 3.4% of Irish females stated that they had no religion compared to 18.1% of males and 14.5% of females with 'Other EU' nationality.
  • Irish residents with non-EU nationality had varied religions. 20.3% of males and 13.8% of females described themselves as Muslim while close to an eighth stated that they had no religion, (12.4% of males and 11.9% of females).
3.17 Ireland: Grants to high-performance athletes by age of athlete1, 2013
    
number
 2013
Age of athleteMenWomenTotal
19 and under325
20-24191231
25-2913720
30-349817
35-446511
45-64101
Total1513485
Source: Irish Sports Council
1 Grants to junior athletes are not included in this data, see Appendix 1.

 

  • In 2013 the Irish Sports Council awarded grants under the International Carding Scheme to 51 male and 34 female athletes.
  • Over 40% of grants were to athletes aged under 25.
3.18 Ireland: Grants to high-performance athletes by size of grant, 2013
 
recipientsaverage allocation (€)
Size of grantMenWomenMenWomen
Less than €5,000203,0000
€5,000 - €9,9990000
€10,000 - €14,999252012,00012,000
€15,000 - €19,9990000
€20,000 & over241430,00027,143
Total1513420,11818,235
Source: Irish Sports Council
1 Grants to junior athletes are not included in this data, see Appendix 1.

 

  • In 2013 the Irish Sports Council awarded grants under the International Carding Scheme to 51 male and 34 female athletes.
  • The average grant amount allocated was €20,118 to men and €18,235 to women.
  • Grants of €20,000 or more were allocated to 47.1% of male athletes and 41.2% of female athletes.