Distribution

Open in Excel:

In 2018, 39.4% of all employments earned between €400 and €800 per week

As is typical in earnings distributions, a relatively small number of high earners result in a positively skewed earnings distribution of employees in Ireland. In a positively skewed earnings distribution, mean earnings are greater than median earnings as the mean is increased by those higher earners. In such cases median earnings (the middle earner in the economy or sector) may be a more reflective figure of the average earnings of employees in the economy or sector.

Figure 3.1 below shows the weekly earnings at each percentile on the earnings distribution for 2018. It also highlights the Mean and Median earnings for that year.

In 2018 the median weekly earnings were €592.60 (half of all jobs earned more than this amount and half earned less).

Mean weekly earnings in 2018 were €740.72. Figure. 3.1 below illustrates that 63% of employees earned less than the mean, while 37% earned more than the mean.

X-axis label 1 2 Gross pay Mean Median 74 741 593 95 741 593 111 741 593 127 741 593 142 741 593 155 741 593 168 741 593 181 741 593 192 741 593 203 741 593 215 741 593 225 741 593 236 741 593 248 741 593 259 741 593 271 741 593 283 741 593 295 741 593 305 741 593 317 741 593 328 741 593 339 741 593 349 741 593 358 741 593 367 741 593 376 741 593 385 741 593 394 741 593 402 741 593 412 741 593 421 741 593 430 741 593 439 741 593 447 741 593 455 741 593 464 741 593 473 741 593 481 741 593 490 741 593 499 741 593 507 741 593 517 741 593 526 741 593 535 741 593 544 741 593 554 741 593 564 741 593 574 741 593 583 741 593 593 741 593 602 741 593 612 741 593 622 741 593 633 741 593 644 741 593 655 741 593 666 741 593 676 741 593 688 741 593 700 741 593 712 741 593 723 741 593 735 741 593 746 741 593 759 741 593 771 741 593 784 741 593 799 741 593 814 741 593 830 741 593 847 741 593 864 741 593 882 741 593 901 741 593 921 741 593 942 741 593 962 741 593 985 741 593 1009 741 593 1034 741 593 1061 741 593 1088 741 593 1116 741 593 1146 741 593 1176 741 593 1211 741 593 1248 741 593 1285 741 593 1327 741 593 1374 741 593 1428 741 593 1490 741 593 1561 741 593 1643 741 593 1750 741 593 1891 741 593 2100 741 593 2463 741 593 3198 741 593

Figure 3.2 presents the distribution of employments by weekly earnings and sex.

It shows a greater proportion of female employees at the lower end of the distribution, when compared to male employees.

X-axis label 50 Males Females 0.23 0.42 3.55 6.86 9.05 16.67 13.37 18.41 17.49 15.49 14.6 12.45 10.46 8.79 7.07 6.23 5.37 4.85 4.34 3.31 3.22 2.02 2.56 1.33 1.82 0.8 1.34 0.53 0.97 0.38 0.71 0.26 0.57 0.19 0.45 0.16

Figure 3.3 presents the distribution of employees by weekly earnings and age group.

The 15-24 year-old age group has the highest proportion of employees at the lower end of the distribution.

As age increases the distribution of earnings flattens out, meaning a smaller proportion of employees in the lower end of the distribution. This trend continues up to the 60 years and over age group, where the number of employments at the lower end of the distribution has increased when compared to the previous age group (50-59 years).

X-axis label 50 150 300 450 600 750 15 - 24yrs 25 - 29yrs 30 - 39yrs 40 - 49yrs 50 - 59yrs 60yrs and over Total 0.83 0.15 0.15 0.19 0.27 0.97 0.33 16.85 2.82 2.43 2.91 4.08 9.49 5.22 33.42 10.61 8.27 8.52 10.58 17.81 12.88 26.33 20.68 13.79 12.37 13.31 15.88 15.9 13.86 23.83 17.96 15.04 14.38 13.73 16.48 5.55 17.08 15.6 13.79 13.91 12.35 13.52 1.89 11.71 11.79 10.37 9.92 8.52 9.62 0.65 5.49 9.02 7.78 7.02 5.25 6.65 0.27 2.83 6.59 6.92 5.71 4.07 5.11 0.15 1.82 4.35 5.63 4.92 2.78 3.82 0.08 1.05 2.79 3.77 3.83 2.09 2.62 0.04 0.61 1.94 2.88 3.01 1.82 1.95 0.02 0.41 1.31 2.04 1.89 1.15 1.31 0.01 0.26 0.91 1.48 1.4 0.79 0.94 0.01 0.17 0.65 1.08 0.98 0.61 0.67 0.01 0.12 0.48 0.78 0.7 0.39 0.48 0 0.09 0.37 0.63 0.53 0.33 0.38 0 0.06 0.29 0.53 0.44 0.23 0.3
Show Table: Table 3.1 Weekly earnings by every 10th percentile and year

Table 3.1 above shows the earnings at every 10th percentile in each of the years 2011 to 2018.

Figure 3.4 and Table 3.2 below present the percentage change in earnings (year on year) at every 10th percentile.

In Figure 3.4 earnings decreased across the distribution from 2011 to 2012, with the exception of the 80th percentile which increases 0.2%. There were increases of up to 1% in all percentiles shown between 2012 and 2013, with the exception of the 90th which decreased 0.1%.

Between 2013 and 2014 there were increases in the lower percentiles and decreases in the higher percentiles.

In the 2014-2015 period there were increases in all the percentiles displayed, with the highest increase (2.0%) in the 90th percentile.

Between 2015 and 2016 there were again increases in all the percentiles displayed, but the most significant increases were in the lowest 3 percentiles shown (10th, 20th and 30th), which experienced increases in earnings of 4.4%, 4% and 3.4% respectively.

There were significant increases in all percentiles displayed for both the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 periods. The highest of these were the 30th percentile which increased by 3.2% in the year to 2017 and the 90th percentile which increased 3.8% in 2018.

 10th 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 -1.9 0.466848218751736 0.774464789511531 0.933194269089332 4.36721596780334 2.8608650338718 2.796494249962 -0.6 0.821362537334669 0.938106154117424 0.786136053946396 4.00055466962492 2.2 3.28440965427266 -1.2 0.709805216242976 0.77856089165711 0.929766067604554 3.43771821453511 3.22739782936075 3.5138466182056 -0.8 0.959056519804191 0.412157545568759 0.796786513894365 2.31266740706866 2.73716024945194 3.3831237440179 -0.5 0.98008453459828 0.232133065253159 0.421248427156828 1.73058763710323 2.77395976508807 2.92661745549283 -0.4 0.632580188388854 -0.197298992092754 0.269715266497061 0.962861072902355 2.56736300333029 3.24694492000708 -0.3 0.654021399682581 -0.663759012245202 0.162568323498169 0.716951231980367 2.30176756461826 2.93588678168761 0.2 0.542802685008703 -0.301875128786322 0.611778808891472 0.654279522180801 2.43377280705335 3.04738944620995 -0.1 -0.101355631572297 -0.678503487634741 1.95444678541787 0.697439590459714 2.93600945244239 3.75393630919567
Show Table: Table 3.2 Percentage change in weekly earnings at every 10th percentile (year on year)

Figure 3.5 and Table 3.3 show that 28.7% of all employments earned less than €400 per week. Jobs earning between €400 and €800 per week accounted for 39.4% of all employments. Almost a third (31.9%) of all employments earned more than €800 per week. In 2018, 6.5% of employments earned €1,600 or more per week.

The economic sector with the highest proportion of employments earning less than €400 per week was the Accommodation and Food Services sector (68.1%) while the Information and Communication sector (23%) had the highest proportion of employments earning €1,600 or more per week.

X-axis label B-E Industry F Construction G Wholesale & retail H Transporation & storage Less than €400 €400-<€800 €800-<€1200 €1200-<€1600 €1600 or more 11.9 46.2 21.6 10.3 10 23 47.4 21.2 5.4 3 43.9 39.6 9.1 3.6 3.7 19.7 48.5 21 6.1 4.7 68.1 28.6 2.4 0.5 0.3 8.5 29.5 22.8 16.2 23 12.3 36.3 22.7 11.9 16.8 18 41.1 19.5 9.6 11.8 35.7 47.9 9.6 3.1 3.7 6.7 38.9 29.4 17.5 7.4 24.1 32.4 25.3 13.4 4.9 25 41.2 23.2 6.7 3.8 55.9 32.9 6.9 2.2 2.2 28.7 39.4 17.6 7.8 6.5
Show Table: Table 3.3 Distribution of employees by weekly earnings in each NACE principal activity 2018

Table 3.4 below presents the proportion of employments for each main economic sector by decile for the year 2018. The deciles are calculated based on the earnings of all employments.

Looking at the table we see that the sectors with the highest proportion of employments whose earnings are in the bottom decile of earnings are the Accommodation and Food Services sector (28%) and the Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities sector (24%).

At the other end of the earnings distribution, the sectors with the highest proportion of employments whose earnings are in the top decile of earnings are the Information and Communication sector (31%) and the Financial, Insurance and Real Estate sector  (23%).

Show Table: Table 3.4 Proportion of employees in each NACE principal activity by decile 2018

Go to: Industry