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Appendix 1

A Census of Population was taken on the night of Sunday, 24 April 2016, in accordance with the Statistics (Census of Population) Order 2015 (S.I. No. 445 of 2015)

Coverage of the Census

The census figures relate to the de facto population i.e. the population recorded for each area represents the total of all persons present within its boundaries on the night of Sunday, 24 April 2016, together with all persons who arrived in that area on the morning of Monday, 25 April 2016, not having been enumerated elsewhere.  Persons on board ships in port are included with the population of adjacent areas. The figures, therefore, include visitors present on Census Night as well as those in residence, while usual residents temporarily absent from the area are excluded.

De facto versus Usual Residence

The date of the census was chosen to coincide with a period when passenger movements were at a minimum and, consequently, the figures closely approximate to those for the normally resident population. The de facto measure of the population, referred to throughout this report, was 4,761,865 in April 2016 while the usually resident and present total was 4,689,921, a difference of 71,944 or 1.5%. The usually resident measure is used when analysing topics such as commuting patterns, nationality and households and families.

Conduct of the Census

A temporary field force consisting of 6 Census Liaison Officers, 44 Regional Supervisors, 430 Field Supervisors and some 4,663 part-time enumerators carried out the census enumeration. During the four weeks before Census Night the enumerators visited some 2 million private residences and delivered census questionnaires to 1.7 million of these dwellings as well as to 4,140 communal establishments capable of accommodating people (such as hotels, nursing homes, etc.,) that were expected to be occupied on census night. Approximately 250,000 residences were vacant at the time of the census, while in the remaining cases the household was either enumerated elsewhere or temporarily absent from the State. The collection of completed questionnaires took place between Monday 25 April and Sunday 22 May, 2016.

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) wishes to record its appreciation of the public-spirited co-operation received from households and the work carried out by the census field force.

Production of results

Each enumerator first prepared and returned to the CSO a summary of the population of his/her enumeration area. These summaries formed the basis for the preliminary 2016 census results published in July 2016. The completed questionnaires for individual households were subsequently transported to the CSO for processing. The population summaries, dwelling listings and enumeration maps for individual enumeration areas were checked for consistency and used to determine the boundaries of census towns and suburbs. The capture and processing of the responses to questions on the questionnaires proceeded concurrently.

The planned publication schedule is contained in Appendix 3. Two summary reports will present highlight results primarily for the State; Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 1, looks at overall population change by county; it also examines age, marriage, households and families as well as including first results on nationality, foreign languages, the Irish language, religion and housing. The second summary report, Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 2, looks at other social and economic factors such as employment, occupations, education and skills as well as travel and health-related topics. A further five profile reports will provide more detailed results on individual topics; the details are listed in the publication schedule.


All maps in this release are © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001. 

Appendix 2 - Definitions


Census Towns

Historically, for the censuses of 1926 to 1951, a census town was defined simply as a cluster of twenty or more houses and the precise delimitation of the town was left to the discretion of the individual enumerator concerned. As part of the general review of towns for the 1956 Census, the boundaries for the census towns were drawn up in consultation with the various Local Authorities applying uniform principles in all areas of the country. The definition of a census town was changed at the 1956 Census, from twenty houses to twenty occupied houses; this definition was also applied at the 1961 and 1966 Censuses.

From 1971 to 2006, Census towns were defined as a cluster of fifty or more occupied dwellings where, within a radius of 800 metres there was a nucleus of thirty occupied dwellings (on both sides of a road, or twenty on one side of a road), along with a clearly defined urban centre e.g. a shop, a school, a place of worship or a community centre. Census town boundaries were extended over time where there was an occupied dwelling within 200 metres of the existing boundary.

To avoid the agglomeration of adjacent towns caused by the inclusion of low density one off dwellings on the approach routes to towns the 2011 criteria were tightened, in line with UN criteria.

In Census 2016, a new Census town was defined as there being a minimum of 50 occupied dwellings, with a maximum distance between any dwelling and the building closest to it, of 100 metres, and where there was evidence of an urban centre (shop, school etc). The proximity criteria for extending existing 2006 Census town boundaries was also amended to include all occupied dwellings within 100 metres of an existing building. Other information based on OSi mapping and orthogonal photography was also taken into account when extending boundaries. Boundary extensions were generally made to include the land parcel on which a dwelling was built or using other physical features such as roads, paths etc.

Census towns which previously combined legal towns and their environs have been newly defined using the standard census town criteria (with the 100 metres proximity rule). For some towns the impact of this has been to lose area and population, compared with previous computations.

The population of towns is given in Tables E2014 and E2016. Table E2014 contains towns of 1,500 population and over arranged in order of size. An alphabetical list of all towns in the country, with their populations, is given in Table E2016.

Urban and Rural Areas

The term Aggregate Town Area or Urban Area refers to settlements with a total population of 1,500 or more.  The term Aggregate Rural Area refers to the population outside Aggregate Town Areas and includes the population of settlements with a population of less than 1,500 persons.

Historically census towns were defined as a cluster of fifty or more occupied dwellings where, within a radius of 800 metres, there was a nucleus of thirty occupied dwellings (on both sides of a road, or twenty on one side of a road), along with a clearly defined urban centre e.g. a shop, a school, a place of worship or a community centre.  Census town boundaries were extended over time where there was an occupied dwelling within 200 metres of the existing boundary.

In 2011 the proximity criteria were tightened, in line with UN criteria. This was done in order to avoid the agglomeration of adjacent towns caused by the inclusion of low density one off dwellings on the approach routes to towns.

First introduced in 2011 therefore, and continuing for Census 2016, a new census town was defined as having a minimum of 50 occupied dwellings, with a maximum distance between any dwelling and the building closest to it of 100 metres, and where there was evidence of an urban centre (shop, school etc.). The 100m proximity rule was also applied when extending existing 2011 Census town boundaries. 

Private Household

private household comprises either one person living alone or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address with common housekeeping arrangements - that is, sharing at least one meal a day or sharing a living room or sitting room.  In order to be included in the household, a person had to be a usual resident at the time of the census.  Therefore, visitors to the household on Census Night were excluded, while usual residents temporarily absent (for less than 12 months) were included.

A permanent private household is a private household occupying a permanent dwelling such as a house, flat or bed-sit.

A temporary private household is a private household occupying a caravan, mobile home or other temporary dwelling.

Size of Household

The number of persons in a household consists of the total number of persons usually resident there on the night of Sunday, 24 April 2016, including those absent from the household for less than twelve months.  Visitors present in the household on census night are excluded.

Household Reference Person

The reference person in each private household is the first person in the household identified as a parent, spouse, cohabiting partner or head of a non-family household containing related persons. Where no person in the household satisfied these criteria, the first usually resident person was used as the reference person.

For the purposes of expressing the household reference person in simple terms for the reader, the terms head of household or householder are used instead of the household reference person in this report.


Family Units

A family unit or nucleus is defined as:

(1)          a husband and wife or a co-habiting couple; or

(2)          a husband and wife or a co-habiting couple together with one or more usually resident never-married children (of any age); or

(3)          one parent together with one or more usually resident never-married children (of any age).

Family members have to be usual residents of the relevant household.

The determination of household and family composition is based on responses to the question on the census form dealing with relationships within the household.


The term industry used for Census of Population purposes is not confined to manufacturing industry. It is synonymous with the term “sector of economic activity”. The basis of the industrial classification is, in the case of employees, the business or profession of their employer and in the case of self-employed persons, the nature of their own business or profession.

In Census 2016, industry is coded using NACE – the General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Communities. The current version, NACE Rev. 2, is a 4-digit activity classification that was first used in Census 2011 and is a revision of the version originally published by Eurostat in 1970. The previous version, NACE Rev. 1, was in use in the censuses of 2002 and 2006.

NACE Rev. 2 is a hierarchical classification, with 88 Divisions at 2-digit level, 272 Groups at 3-digit level and 615 Classes at 4-digit level. The NACE Rev.2 classification is shown in Appendix 3 while a breakdown of the NACE Rev. 1 classification is available on our CSO website. 

The industry in which a person is engaged is determined (regardless of their occupation) by the main economic activity carried out in the local unit in which he or she works. If, however, the local unit provides an ancillary service to another unit in the business (e.g. administration, storage, etc.) then the persons in the ancillary unit are classified to the industry of the unit it services. Thus, while the occupational classification is concerned only with the particular work performed by an individual regardless of the activity carried on at the local unit, the industrial classification is concerned only with the ultimate purpose of the unit or end product regardless of the precise nature of the work performed by each individual.

A manufacturing or commercial unit may employ persons with many different occupations for the purpose of making a particular product or for giving a particular 78 Appendices service. Conversely, there are cases in which particular occupations are largely confined to a single industry. For example, the majority of persons with agricultural occupations are in the agriculture industry and most miners are in the mining industry.

Socio-economic group

The entire population was classified to one of ten specific socio-economic groups (introduced in 1996). In addition, a residual group entitled. “All others gainfully occupied and unknown” was used where sufficient details were not provided. The classification aims to bring together persons with similar social and economic statuses on the basis of the level of skill or educational attainment required. In defining socio-economic group no attempt is made to rank groups in order of socio-economic importance.

The socio-economic group of persons aged 15 years or over who are at work is determined by their occupation (coded using Soc90) and employment status. Unemployed or retired persons aged 15 years or over are classified according to their former occupation and employment status.  

Persons looking after the home/family or at school/ college, who are members of a family unit, were classified to the socio-economic group of another person in the family unit using a priority table based on the relationships within the family. Thus, if the reference person1 of a family was at work, unemployed or retired, other persons were assigned to his/her socio-economic group. If the reference person was neither at work, unemployed nor retired (e.g. never worked, permanently disabled, etc.), they were assigned to the socio-economic group of the other parent, spouse or cohabiting partner in the family unit. If there was no such spouse or partner or if the spouse, in turn, was neither at work, unemployed or retired, they were assigned to the socio-economic group of a working son/ daughter. If there were no persons in the family unit with a socio-economic group then they were assigned to the unknown socio-economic group. Other persons looking after the home/family or at school/college who were not members of a family unit, such as relatives of the reference person (e.g. widowed grandparents, etc.) were assigned a socio-economic group using the above method. Unrelated persons or persons living alone who are looking after the home/family or at school/college were assigned to the unknown group.

The socio-economic groups used in the census are as follows:

A Employers and managers

B Higher professional

C Lower professional

D Non-manual

E Manual skilled

F Semi-skilled

G Unskilled

H Own account workers

I Farmers

J Agricultural workers

Z All others gainfully occupied and unknown 

1The reference person in each private household is the first person identified as a parent, spouse or cohabiting partner in the first family in the household. Where no person in the household satisfies these criteria, the first usually resident person is used as the reference person.

Appendix 3


Detailed list of Industries (NACE Rev 2)

Code Industry   Code Industry
  Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing   1500 Manufacture of leather and related products 
190 Farming (Farming of animals, mixed farming)   1600 Manufacture of wood and products of wood and cork, except furniture; Manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
191 Growing of crops, fruits, plants, flowers and vegetables   1700 Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products
192 Other agricultural activities and agricultural activities n.e.c   1800 Printing activities and reproduction of recorded media
200 Forestry and Logging   1900 Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products 
300 Fishing and Aquaculture   2000 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products 
400 Horseracing Activities   2100 Manufacture of pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemicals and botanical products
      2210 Manufacture of rubber products
  Mining and Quarrying   2220 Manufacture of plastic products
500 Mining and quarrying of coal and lignite   2310 Manufacture of glass and glass products
600 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas   2360 Manufacture of articles of concrete, plaster and cement
700 Mining of metal ores   2380 All other manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products
800 Other mining and quarrying   2400 Manufacture of basic metals
892 Extraction and agglomeration of peat   2500 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
900 Mining support service activities   2610 Manufacture of electronic components and boards
      2620 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment
  Manufacturing   2690 Manufacture of other computer, electronic and optical products
1010 Production, processing and preserving of meat, meat products and poultry   2700 Manufacture of electrical equipment
1020 Processing and preserving of fish and fish products   2800 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c
1030 Processing and preserving of fruit and vegetables   2900 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
1040 Manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats   3000 Manufacture of other transport equipment
1050 Manufacture of dairy products   3100 Manufacture of furniture
1060 Manufacture of grain mill products, starches and starch products   3250 Manufacture of medical and dental instruments and supplies
1070 Manufacture of bakery and farinaceous products   3280 All other manufacturing n.e.c
1080 Manufacture of other food products n.e.c   3300 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment
1090 Manufacture of prepared animal feeds      
1100 Manufacture of beverages     Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning supply
1200 Manufacture of tobacco products   3510 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
1300 Manufacture of textiles   3520 Manufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mains
1400 Manufacture of clothes; dressing and dyeing of fur 3530 Steam and air conditioning supply
Detailed list of Industries (NACE Rev 2)
Code Industry   Code Industry
  Water supply; Sewerage, Waste management and Remediation Activities   4772 Retail sale of footwear and leather goods in specialised stores
3600 Water collection, treatment and supply   4795 Retail trade n.e.c. 
3700 Sewerage      
3800 Waste collection, treatment and disposal activities, materials recovery     Transportation and Storage
      4932 Taxi Operations
  Construction   4935 Other Passenger land transport
4110 Development of building projects   4940 Freight transport by road
4120 Construction of residential and non-residential buildings   4950 Transport via pipeline
4200 Civil Engineering   4980 Transport via railways
4310 Demolition and site preparation   5000 Water transport
4321 Electrical installation   5100 Air transport
4322 Plumbing, heat and air-conditioning installation   5229 Activities of other transport agencies 
4329 Other construction installation   5280 Warehousing, storage and Cargo Handling
4330 Building completion and finishing   5290 Service activities related to land, water and air transportation
4390 Other specialised construction activities   5300 Post and courier activities
  Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles     Accommodation and Food Service Activities
4500 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles   5510 Hotels and similar accommodation
4630 Wholesale of food, beverages and tobacco   5580 Other provision of short-stay accommodation
4640 Wholesale of household goods   5610 Restaurants and mobile food service activities
4673 Wholesale of wood, construction materials and sanitary equipment   5620 Event catering and food service activities
4680 All other wholesale trade and commission trade and wholesale not specified   5630 Beverage serving activities, including bars and coffee shops
4710 Retail sale in non-specialized stores with food, beverages or tobacco predominating      
4720 Retail sale of food, beverages or tobacco in specialised stores     Information and Communication Activities
4730 Retail sale of automotive fuel in specialised stores   5810 Publishing of books, newspapers, magazines and other publishing services
4740 Retail sale of information and communication equipment in specialised stores   5820 Software publishing
4751 Retail sale of textiles in specialised stores   5900 Movie, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities
4752 Retail sale of hardware, paints and glass in specialised stores   6000 Programming and broadcasting activities
4754 Retail sale of electrical household appliances in specialised stores   6100 Telecommunications
4759 Retail sale of furniture, lighting equipment and household articles n.e.c.    6200 Computer programming, consultancy and related services
4760 Retail sale of cultural and recreation goods in specialised stores   6300 Information service activities
4771 Retail sale of clothing in specialised stores      
Detailed list of Industries (NACE Rev 2)
Code Industry   Code Industry
  Financial and Insurance Activities     Education
6400 Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding   8510 Pre-Primary Education
6500 Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security   8520 Primary Education
6610 Activities auxiliary to financial intermediation, except insurance and pension funding   8530 Secondary Education
6620 Activities auxiliary to insurance and pension funding   8540 Higher Education
6630 Fund Management Activities   8590 Adult and Other Education not elsewhere classified
  Real Estate Activities      
6800 Real Estate Activities     Human Health and Social Work Activities
      8610 Hospital Activities
  Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities   8623 Dental practice activities
6910 Legal Activities   8629 Medical practice activities
6920 Accounting, book-keeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy   8690 Other human health activities
7000 Activities of head offices; management consultancy services   8700 Residential Care activities
7110 Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy   8800 Social work activities
7120 Technical testing and analysis      
7200 Scientific research and development     Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
7300 Advertising and market research   9000 Creative arts and entertainment activities
7400 Other professional, scientific and technical activities   9100 Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities
7500 Veterinary activities   9200 Gambling and betting activities
      9300 Sports activities and amusement and recreation activities
  Administrative and Support Service Activities     Other Service Activities
7700 Rental and leasing activities   9400 Activities of membership organisations 
7800 Employment activities   9500 Repair of computers and personal and household goods
7900 Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation service and related activities   9601 Washing and dry-cleaning of textile and fur products
8000 Security and investigation activities   9602 Hairdressing and other beauty treatment
8100 Services to buildings and landscape activities   9603 Funeral and related activities
8200 Miscellaneous office and business activities   9604 Physical well-being activities
      9609 Other service activities n.e.c.
  Public Administration and Defence; Compulsory Social Security     Activities of Households as Employers
8422 Defence Activities   9700 Private households with employed persons
8424 Garda Siochana      
8490 All other public administration; compulsory social security     Activities of Extra-territorial organisations and bodies
      9900 Extra-territorial organisations and bodies
      9999 Industry not stated


Appendix 4

Census 2016 Publication Schedule                                                                           

Description                                        Publication Date
Preliminary Results                                 14 July 2016
Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 1               06 April 2017
Profile 1 - Housing in Ireland                     20 April 2017
Profile 2 - Population Distribution and Movements   11 May 2017
Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 2               15 June 2017
Profile 3 - An Age Profile of Ireland               06 July 2017
Small Area Population Statistics (SAPS)           20 July 2017
POWSCAR - Research micro data file                 20 July 2017
Profile 4 - Households and Families                 27 July 2017
Profile 5 - Homeless Persons in Ireland             10 August 2017
Profile 6 - Commuting in Ireland                   31 August 2017
Profile 7 - Migration and Diversity                 21 September 2017
Profile 8 - Irish Travellers, Ethnicity and Religion 12 October 2017
Profile 9 - Health, Disability and Carers         02 November 2017
Profile 10 - Education, Skills and the Irish Language 23 November 2017
Profile 11 - Employment, Occupations and Industry   14 December 2017


Interactive web tables will accompany each publication