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Appendices

Table A1.1 Data sources for Table 1.1
 IndustryConstructionDistributionServices (excl. Finance)Financial & Insurance Activities
Business DemographyCSO Central Business RegisterCSO Central Business RegisterCSO Central Business RegisterCSO Central Business RegisterCSO Central Business Register
Business OperationsCensus of Industrial Production (CIP)Building and Construction Inquiry (BCI)Annual Services Inquiry (ASI)Annual Services Inquiry (ASI)CSO/Central Bank survey of credit institutions (CRS1) CSO Balance of Payments surveys of insurance corporations (BOP42/43)

Business Demography

The data for Business Demography are based on the CSO Central Business Register. The Business Register is a register of all enterprises that are active in the State. There is no lower size limit, but for practical reasons, Business Demography data are based on enterprises that are registered with the Revenue Commissioners. New businesses are identified by Employer, Corporation Tax or Income Tax registrations. 

Business Demography 2017

Census of Industrial Production (CIP)

The Census of Industrial Production (CIP) covers all enterprises which are wholly or principally involved in industrial production. This survey is carried out on an annual basis. Administrative data are used for some micro enterprises which are not surveyed as well as non-respondents across all case sizes. 

The scope of the Census extends to NACE Rev. 2 sections B, C, D and E, namely:

Section B  Mining & Quarrying

Section C  Manufacturing

Section D  Electricity, Gas, Steam & Air Conditioning Supply

Section E  Water Supply; Sewerage, Waste Management & Remediation Activities

Census of Industrial Production/Structural Business Statistics 2017

The Building & Construction Inquiry (BCI) was introduced in 2009 for reference year 2008 onwards and replaced the Census of Building and Construction (CBC). The CBC covered all private firms with 20 or more persons engaged whose main activity was building, construction or civil engineering (i.e. Section F of NACE Rev. 2). The BCI extended this coverage to also include a sample of private firms with less than 20 persons engaged. Administrative data are used for some micro enterprises which are not surveyed as well as non-respondents across all case sizes. 

The Business Register is used as the sampling frame for the BCI.

Building and Construction Inquiry/Structural Business Statistics 2017

Annual Services Inquiry (ASI)

The Annual Services Inquiry has been conducted as an annual survey of both distributive and non-distributive services since 1991. Results are published aggregated by the type of activity (NACE), region, size class, etc. All enterprises with one or more persons engaged are included. Administrative data are used for some micro enterprises which are not surveyed as well as non-respondents across all case sizes.

The survey covers all enterprises in the Retail, Wholesale, Transport & Storage, Accommodation & Food, Information & Communication, Real Estate, Professional, Scientific & Technical Activities, Administrative & Support Activities and Other Selected Services sectors (NACE Rev. 2 sectors G, H, I, J, L, M, N, R and S). Enterprises that traded for at least 6 months in the reference year are included in the survey.

Since 1995 the CSO’s Central Business Register provides the sampling frame, from which the Annual Services Inquiry sample is selected each year.  

Annual Services Inquiry/Structural Business Statistics 2017

Outward Foreign Affiliates Statistics 2017

Surveys of Credit Institutions and Insurance Corporations

Accounting data on credit institutions was taken from the joint CSO/Central Bank survey of credit institutions (CRS1). Accounting data on insurance corporations was taken from CSO Balance of Payments (BOP) surveys of insurance corporations (BOP42 and BOP43). These are quarterly surveys that form part of the wider data collection in the area of BOP. The credit institutions data are collected by the Central Bank and supplied to the CSO for statistical compilation purposes. The insurance data are collected by the CSO directly. 

There are differences in the coverage of the Business Operations data (credit institutions and insurance companies) and the Business Demography data (all financial companies on the CSO Business Register excluding financial holding companies) in Table 2.1 for the Financial & Insurance Activities sector – NACE Section K (excluding K642). The main Financial sectors excluded from the Business Operations analysis are Other Financial Service Activities except Insurance & Pension Funding (K649) and Activities Auxiliary to Financial Services & Insurance Activities (K66).   

International Accounts Q2 2019

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Active enterprises

The population of active enterprises contains all enterprises that were active at some point during the reference year. Enterprises are counted as active if they satisfy at least one of the conditions below:

  • Employees registered
  • Corporation Tax returns
  • Income Tax returns

Enterprise Births

An enterprise birth amounts to the creation of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Births do not include entries into the population due to mergers, break-ups, split-off or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include entries into a sub-population resulting only from a change of activity.

A birth occurs when an enterprise starts up and begins trading. An enterprise creation can be considered an enterprise birth if new production factors, in particular new jobs, are created. If a dormant unit is reactivated within two years, this event is not considered a birth.

The population of enterprise births in 2017 contains all enterprises that started at some stage during the year 2017.

Enterprise Deaths

An enterprise death amounts to the dissolution of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Deaths do not include exits from the population due to mergers, takeovers, break-ups or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include exits from a sub-population resulting only from a change of activity.

Preliminary enterprise deaths are those enterprises that are active during the reference year but not in the following year. Final enterprise deaths are those enterprises that are active during the reference year but not in either of the next two subsequent years.

The population of enterprise deaths in 2016 contains all enterprises that ceased at some point during the year 2016. The population of enterprise deaths for 2016 contained in this release are preliminary deaths (final death data for 2016 will be available in June 2020) while enterprise death data for the period 2012 - 2015 are final population deaths. 

Persons engaged

Persons engaged include employees, proprietors and family members. 

Employees are persons who are paid a fixed wage or salary.  Persons at work or temporarily absent because of illness, holidays, strike, etc. are included. Persons working on a labour-only subcontract basis are excluded with the exception of Irish Construction data.

Proprietors and family members; included here are those proprietors, partners, etc and members of their families who work regularly in the firm and are not paid a definite wage or salary.

Turnover

Turnover comprises the totals invoiced by the enterprise during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. The sale of goods includes the goods produced by the enterprise as well as the merchandise purchased by a retailer or land and other property held for resale (if land and other property were initially purchased for investment purposes they should not be included in turnover). The rendering of services typically involves the performance by the enterprise of a contractually agreed task over an agreed period of time. The revenue of long-term contracts (eg building contracts) should be recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the contract and not the finished contract method. Goods produced for own consumption or investment should be excluded from turnover.

Turnover includes all duties and taxes on the goods or services invoiced by the unit with the exception of the value added type taxes (VAT). VAT are collected in stages by the enterprise and fully borne by the final purchaser.

Turnover also includes all other charges (transport, packaging, etc) passed on to the customer, even if these charges are listed separately in the invoice. Reduction in prices, rebates and discounts as well as the value of returned packing must be deducted.

Income classified as other operating income, financial income and extra-ordinary income in company accounts according to the 4th Accounting Directive (78/660/ EEC) and revenue from the use by others of enterprise assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends and other income according to IAS/IFRS 1 is excluded from turnover. Operating subsidies received from public authorities or the institutions of the European Union are also excluded.

For the statistics on activities of insurance companies, turnover is taken to equal ‘Gross premiums written’.

Production Value

Production value measures the amount actually produced by the unit, based on sales, including changes in stocks and the resale of goods and services.

Production value is defined as turnover or revenue from sales of goods and rendering of services, plus or minus the changes in stocks of finished products, work in progress and goods and services purchased for resale, minus the purchases of goods and services for resale (only for the goods and services sold during the reporting period and excluding the costs of storage and transport of the goods purchased for resale), plus capitalised production, plus other (operating and extra-ordinary) income (excluding subsidies). Income and expenditure classified as financial or as revenue in the form of interests and dividends in company accounts is excluded from production value. Included in purchases of goods and services for resale are the purchases of services purchased in order to be rendered to third parties in the same condition.

Capitalised production includes the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers as investment. The latter includes the production of fixed tangible assets (buildings, etc) as well as intangible assets (development of software, etc). Capitalised production is unsold production and is valued at production cost. Note that these capital goods are also to be included in investment.

Other (operating and extra-ordinary) income is a company accounting heading. The contents of this heading may vary between sectors and over time and as such cannot be defined precisely for statistical purposes.

For the statistics on activities of insurance companies, production value is defined as gross premiums earned, plus total portfolio investment income, plus other services produced, minus gross claims incurred, excluding claims management expenses, plus capital gains and provisions.

For the statistics on credit institutions, production value is defined as interest receivable and similar income, less interest payable and similar charges, plus commissions’ receivable, plus income from shares and other variable-yield securities, plus net profit or net loss on financial operations, plus other operating income.



(1) International Accounting Standard (IAS) and International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS).

Table A2.1 Calculating production value using 2017 data for Industry
 €m
 Variable 
1Total Turnover238,601
2Purchases - Goods for resale without further processing 36,640
3Capital assets manufactured by enterprise for own use8,685
4Stock changes during year - Finished goods and work in progress -1,833
5Stock changes during year - Goods for resale without further processing -12
 Production value = (1 - 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)208,802 

Total purchases of goods and services

Purchases of goods and services include the value of all goods and services purchased during the accounting period for resale or consumption in the production process, excluding capital goods the consumption of which is registered as consumption of fixed capital. The goods and services concerned may be either resold with or without further transformation, completely used up in the production process or retained as stock.

Included in these purchases are the materials that enter directly into the goods produced (raw materials, intermediary products, components), plus non-capitalised small tools and equipment. Also included are the value of ancillary materials (lubricants, water, packaging, maintenance and repair materials, office materials) as well as energy products. Included in this variable are the purchases of materials made for the production of capital goods by the unit.

Services paid for during the reference period are also included regardless of whether they are industrial or non-industrial. In this figure are payments for all work carried out by third parties on behalf of the unit including current repairs and maintenance, installation work and technical studies. Amounts paid for the installation of capital goods and the value of capitalised goods are excluded.

Also included are payments made for non-industrial services such as legal and accountancy fees, patents and licence fees (where they are not capitalised), insurance premiums, costs of meetings of shareholders and governing bodies, contributions to business and professional associations, postal, telephone, electronic communication, telegraph and fax charges, transport services for goods and personnel, advertising costs, commissions (where they are not included in wages and salaries), rents, bank charges (excluding interest payments) and all other business services provided by third parties. Included are services which are transformed and capitalised by the unit as capitalised production.

Expenditure classified as financial expenditure or as revenue in the form or interests and dividends is excluded from the total purchases of goods and services.

Purchases of goods and services are valued at the purchase price, ie the price the purchaser actually pays for the products, including any taxes less subsidies on the products bought excluding however value added type taxes

All other taxes and duties on the products are therefore not deducted from the valuation of the purchases of goods and services. The treatment of taxes on production is not relevant in the valuation of these purchases.

Purchases of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received

Purchases for resale are purchases of goods for resale to third parties without further processing. It also includes purchases of services by "invoicing" service companies, ie those whose turnover is composed not only of agency fees charged on a service transaction (as in the case of estate agents) but also the actual amount involved in the service transaction, e.g. transport purchases by travel agents. The value of goods and services which are sold to third parties on a commission basis are excluded since these goods are neither bought nor sold by the agent receiving the commission.

When services for resale are referred to here, the services concerned are the output from service activities, rights to use predetermined services, or physical supports for services. Purchases of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received are valued at the purchase price excluding deductible VAT and other deductible taxes linked directly to turnover. All other taxes and duties on the products are therefore not deducted from the valuation of the purchases of goods and services.

The treatment of taxes on production is not relevant in the valuation of these purchases.

Gross value added (GVA) at factor cost

GVA at factor cost is the gross income from operating activities after adjusting for operating subsidies and indirect taxes.

It can be calculated from turnover, plus capitalised production, plus other operating income (including operating subsidies), plus or minus the changes in stocks, minus the purchases of goods and services, minus other taxes on products which are linked to turnover but not deductible, minus the duties and taxes linked to production. The duties and taxes linked to production are compulsory, unrequited payments, in cash or in kind which are levied by general government, or by the Institutions of the European Union, in respect of the production and importation of goods and services, the employment of labour, the ownership or use of land, buildings or other assets used in production irrespective of the quantity or the value of goods and services produced or sold. Alternatively it can be calculated from gross operating surplus by adding personnel costs.

Income and expenditure classified as financial in company accounts according to the 4th Accounting Directive (78/660/ EEC) is excluded from value added. Income and expenditure classified as interest income, dividend income, foreign exchange gain from foreign currency borrowings related to interest costs, gains on redemption and extinguishment of debt or finance costs according to Commission Regulation (EC) 1725/2003 are excluded from value added.

Value added at factor cost is calculated ‘gross’ as value adjustments (such as depreciation and impairment losses) are not subtracted.

For the statistics on insurance companies, value added at factor cost is defined as production value, minus gross value of reinsurance services received, minus commissions, minus other external expenditure on goods and services.

For the statistics on credit institutions, value added at factor cost is defined as production value less total purchases of goods and services.

Table A2.2 Calculating value added at factor cost using 2017 data for Industry
  €m
 Variable 
1Total Turnover238,601
2Total Purchases143,882
3Capital assets manufactured by enterprise for own use8,685
4Total Stock changes during year-374
5Indirect taxes (excluding VAT) - Excise duty and other indirect taxes1,169
6Operating subsidies31
 Value added at factor cost = (1 - 2 + 3 + 4 - 5 + 6)101,892

Personnel costs

Personnel costs are defined as the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an employer to an employee (regular and temporary employees as well as home workers) in return for work done by the latter during the reference period.

Personnel costs also include taxes and employees' social security contributions retained by the unit as well as the employer's compulsory and voluntary social contributions.

Personnel costs are made up of:

  • wages and salaries
  • employers' social security costs

All remuneration paid during the reference period is included, regardless of whether it is paid on the basis of working time, output or piecework, and whether it is paid regularly or not. Included are all gratuities, workplace and performance bonuses, ex gratia payments, thirteenth month pay (and similar fixed bonuses), as well as taxes, social security contributions and other amounts owed by the employees and retained at source by the employers.

Also included are the social security costs for the employer. These include employer's social security contributions to schemes for retirement pensions, sickness, maternity, disability, unemployment, occupational accidents and diseases, family allowances as well as other schemes. These costs are included regardless of whether they are statutory, collectively agreed, contractual or voluntary in nature.

Table A2.3 Calculating personnel costs using 2017 data for Industry
€m
 Variable 
1Personnel Costs - Wages and salaries 11,480
2Personnel Costs - Other labour costs 1,449
 Total personnel costs = (1 + 2)12,929

Gross operating surplus (GOS)

Gross operating surplus is the surplus generated by operating activities after the labour factor input has been recompensed.

It can be calculated from the value added at factor cost less the personnel costs.  It is the balance available to the unit which allows it to recompense the providers of own funds and debt, to pay taxes and eventually to finance all or a part of its investment.

Table A2.4 Calculating gross operating surplus using 2017 data for Industry
€m
 Variable 
1Value added at factor cost (from above)101,892
2Total personnel costs (from above)12,929
 Gross operating surplus = (1 - 2)88,963
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NACE Rev. 2 Classification

NACE Rev. 2 is the statistical classification of economic activities. NACE is an acronym for ‘Nomenclature Généraile des Activités Économiques dans les Communautés Européenes’ (General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Communities).

Broad Structure of NACE Rev. 2

Section A  Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Section B  Mining and quarrying

Section C  Manufacturing

Section D  Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

Section E  Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

Section F  Construction

Section G  Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

  G45  Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

  G46  Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles

  G47  Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles

Section H  Transportation and storage

Section I  Accommodation and food service activities

Section J  Information and communication

Section K  Financial and insurance activities

  K64  Financial service activities except insurance and pension funding

  K65  Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding

  K66  Activities auxiliary to financial services and insurance activity

Section L  Real estate activities

Section M  Professional, scientific and technical activities

Section N  Administrative and support service activities

Section O  Public administration and defence; compulsory social security

Section P  Education

Section Q  Human health and social work activities

Section R  Arts, entertainment and recreation

Section S  Other service activities

Section T  Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use

Section U  Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies

The information presented in this report covers the industry, construction, distributive trade, services and financial & insurance services sectors.  The following highlights the composition of these sectors in this report:

Industry                                  

Section B  Mining and quarrying

Section C  Manufacturing

Section D  Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

Section E  Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

Construction                         

Section F  Construction

Distributive Trade                    

Section G  Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

Services                                  

Section H  Transportation and storage

Section I  Accommodation and food service activities

Section J  Information and communication

Section L  Real estate activities

Section M  Professional, scientific and technical activities

Section N  Administrative and support service activities

Section R  Arts, entertainment and recreation*

Section S  Other service activities*

Financial and insurance activities

Section K  Financial and insurance activities**

 *The Business Operations data includes the productive sectors of NACE Sections R and S (R92, R93, S95 and S96). These are excluded from the Business Demography tables.

 *The Business Operations data covers credit institutions and insurance corporations. The Business Demography data includes all of NACE Section K except K6420 (financial holding companies).

Table A3.1 Employment size classes
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs)Less than 250 persons engaged
    MicroLess than 10 persons engaged
    SmallBetween 10 and 49 persons engaged
    MediumBetween 50 and 249 persons engaged
LargeGreater than 249 persons engaged

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