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Labour Market Insight Bulletin

Series 12

CSO statistical release, , 11am

Supplementary Labour Market Analysis Q2 2022

This release was compiled during the COVID-19 pandemic. For further information see Technical Note – Impact of COVID-19 on the Earnings and Labour Costs release - updated Quarter 2 2022

Editor's Note

The Labour Market Insight Bulletin series was developed to complement existing outputs such as the Earnings & Labour Costs release and the Labour Force Survey, and to provide insight into the impact of the COVID 19 related restrictions and income support schemes on the labour market.

As the COVID 19 restrictions and income support schemes introduced in response to the pandemic have now ended, the Labour Market Insight Bulletin will be discontinued.

Elements of the analysis presented in the bulletin may be included in future outputs.

Key findings

Comparing Q1 2022 to Q2 2022:

  • The number of active employments increased by 5.1%.
  • The largest increases in active employments were in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (15.8%) and the Education sector (10.2%).
  • Average weekly earnings, (including Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme (EWSS) payments where applicable), fell by 3.1% across all employments.
  • The sectors showing the largest percentage decrease in average weekly earnings were the Financial Insurance & Real Estate Activities sector (-12.6%), the Administrative & Support Services Activities sector (-9.6%) and the Industry sector (-5.8%).

Comparing Q2 2021 and Q2 2022:

  • The number of active employments increased by 13.8%.
  • The number of active employments rose in all 13 economic sectors, with the largest rises in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (64.7%) and the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (26.7%).
  • Average weekly earnings decreased by 0.4% across all employments.
  • Average weekly earnings rose in seven of the 13 economic sectors with the largest rates of increase recorded in the Transportation & Storage sector (8.0%), the Professional, Scientific & Technical Activities sector (5.9%) and the Industry sector (4.5%).
  • For employments that were active in both Q2 2021 and Q2 2022, average weekly earnings rose by 9.3%.

In Q2 2022:

  • The EWSS directly supported 10.4% of active employments. 
  • The proportion of employments supported by the EWSS varied across the sectors, from 53.5% in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector and 28.9% in the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector to 0.2% in the Public Administration & Defence sector.
  • EWSS payments accounted for 0.5% of total earnings across all sectors.
  • In the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector, 7.7% of total earnings were EWSS payments compared with 2.1% in the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector, 0.7% in the Transportation & Storage sector and 0.4% in the Administrative & Support Services Activities sector.

Note 1: Introduction

This bulletin is part of a series of outputs designed to provide high-level supplementary labour market analysis to users alongside the standard labour market outputs and metrics. The data used is sourced from administrative datasets, namely Revenue's employee level tax data (PMOD), which includes information in relation to the EWSS, as well as data provided from Revenue in relation to the TWSS. This bulletin is specifically designed to complement the standard Earnings & Labour Costs (ELC) results for Q2 2022.

The analysis in this bulletin relates to those employees working in enterprises with three or more employees in the NACE Rev 2 (see background notes) Industrial Sectors B–S inclusive.

Please Note: The data included in this bulletin are subject to revision as more information relating to employments and earnings are lodged by employers with the Revenue Commissioners and the data is subsequently made available to the Central Statistics Office (CSO) for statistical analysis purposes.

Percentage change in employment 

The number of active employments increased by 5.1% between Q1 2022 and Q2 2022. The largest increases were in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (15.8%), the Education sector (10.2%) and the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (9.9%).

The number of active employments rose by 13.8% in the period from Q2 2021 to Q2 2022.  A quarterly increase in active employments of 7.6% in Q3 2021, was followed by an increase of 0.8% in Q4 2021, and a decrease of 0.3% in Q1 2022.

The number of active employments increased in all 13 economic sectors between Q2 2021 and Q2 2022. The largest increases were recorded in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (64.7%) and the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (26.7%). See Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2.

Note: An active employment is one that was active at any point in the quarter, not active throughout the quarter.

Change in employment Q221 - Q222
Health & social4.80321289940864
Transportation5.85275848632789
Financial & real estate6.22299747236152
Wholesale & retail7.77449131191328
Industry7.94491810333235
Information and communication9.81636760020124
Public admin & defence9.89377498572244
Construction11.5999643461984
Education12.8215163177005
Professional & technical13.3614333906364
All sectors13.8015091483092
Admin & support service21.6965721185199
Arts & entertainment26.6701863531292
Accommodation & food64.6548622785042
Change in employment Q221 - Q321Change in employment Q321 - Q421Change in employment Q421 - Q122Change in employment Q122 - Q222
Industry3.5978437527616-0.108296152890430.8090176320547653.47196134326269
Construction8.18789553436135-2.192360928025312.042707324263993.3547961036817
Wholesale & retail5.823358924468722.88404492543115-2.741060731844321.77869552106067
Transportation3.145843361067182.0532648911703-3.036439450849753.70865239945206
Accommodation & food43.52731863344690.911469014610855-1.8015047916685515.7696252247778
Information & communication5.71021298004359-0.0872531133497279-0.9137821530644694.93393905888198
Financial & real estate3.78257463801472-0.07003073571177910.7887872299007231.62162579767919
Professional & technical5.973659792702150.1635761409605421.61208351121145.10229940247546
Admin & support service10.27589635646353.76481334020329-1.260565843969717.71024298809062
Public admin & defence0.6061298305729991.678764163153474.108263423131043.18894879091649
Education0.6444458939403931.136761331968010.61475234750809610.1618991410386
Health & social4.27340722125438-0.6680001834063140.1967566881406540.985306778231121
Arts & entertainment18.2329271424902-0.512913347815591-2.044034694001349.93560371517028
All sectors7.63741060079330.842296966592682-0.2893584771794585.14788464197435
Table 1 Percentage change in employment by sector and quarter

Note 2: Earnings

When considering the change in earnings, it should be noted that there may be a compositional effect due to the significant changes in the number of active employments in certain sectors. The composition of the labour market in Q2 2022 was very different to the composition of the labour market in previous quarters, with significant changes in the number of employments in certain sectors across the various quarters analysed in this Bulletin. The changes in average weekly earnings in any sector may be impacted to some degree by those employments that have left/joined the sector having lower/higher average earnings than those employments that remained in the sector in quarters being analysed.

Any payments related to the Pandemic Unemployment Payment (PUP) scheme are not included in this analysis. Such payments were paid by the Department of Social Protection (DSP) to a person who lost income from employment and where no attachment in the form of an employment contract was maintained between the employer and employee. Payments related to the TWSS and EWSS have been included in earnings for this analysis.

Earnings included in this analysis are gross earnings, before deductions such as income tax, and include any taxable benefit in kind.

Percentage change in earnings

Between the first and second quarter of 2022, average weekly earnings decreased by 3.1% across all employments.

Earnings decreased in seven of the 13 economic sectors. The largest decrease was in the Financial Insurance & Real Estate Activities sector (-12.6%) followed by the Administrative & Support Services Activities sector (-9.6%), the Industry sector (-5.8%) and the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (-5.2%).

Comparing Q2 2021 and Q2 2022, average weekly earnings decreased by 0.4% across all employments. A quarterly decrease of 4.4% in Q3 2021 was followed by  increases of 3.5% and 4.0% in Q4 2021 and Q1 2022, followed by a decrease of 3.1% in Q2 2022. 

Average weekly earnings fell in six of the 13 economic sectors between Q2 2021 and Q2 2022. The largest rates of decrease were recorded in the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (-4.5%), the Administrative & Support Services Activities sector (-2.2%) and the Education sector (-2.1%). See Table 2 and Figures 3 and 4.

Change in earnings Q221 - Q222
Transportation8.0106371829805
Professional & technical5.93211691696891
Industry4.45520822930192
Construction3.9301588110187
Information and communication2.6412807433968
Health & social2.60657507229383
Wholesale & retail1.37778401209459
All sectors-0.36334179145372
Financial & real estate-0.396800984312529
Public admin & defence-0.581810758395429
Accommodation & food-1.84428376820707
Education-2.11369981088626
Admin & support service-2.23432942600847
Arts & entertainment-4.48337860066563
Change in earnings Q221 - Q321Change in earnings Q321 - Q421Change in earnings Q421 - Q122Change in earnings Q122 - Q222
Industry-6.043143912913219.999043357178547.23769398759253-5.75349625144175
Construction1.631410705416373.17535901355857-4.102701127088993.35494820030902
Wholesale & retail-5.797914621031473.975778031468711.484628604162671.98817755617229
Transportation-0.1467197652483719.67149454240135-6.09478922436485.03178303461103
Accommodation & food-0.400817353033645-3.74812593703149-0.04645570312072912.43595702217241
Information & communication-0.7303924044240180.7128730500918894.97373273053316-2.19971247947356
Financial & real estate-8.368963395878210.94354507078912.1666906208159-12.6496314430035
Professional & technical-6.383866868268969.57679769324524.35950301123109-1.04759676622734
Admin & support service-8.187496560453471.3336729953695916.2385578871094-9.59747595542211
Public admin & defence-1.605593549045630.0809153811840657-1.256284011401922.24326338662439
Education3.68192870283413-2.42949139503430.624403891396952-3.83944594697065
Health & social1.37658080249463-0.3141677839997861.436012395331980.094898861213677
Arts & entertainment-5.923644849087644.576598556470462.38743292635508-5.17621145374449
All sectors-4.443491416794723.450812212484244.03947891686049-3.12163367426129
Table 2 Percentage change in earnings by sector and quarter

Percentage change in earnings for employments active in more than one quarter

An analysis of earnings for employments that were active in more than one quarter is shown below, which takes into consideration the compositional effect mentioned in Note 1 above. A matched dataset was created of all employments that were active in both quarters for each set of quarters analysed.

For employments that were active in both Q1 2022 and Q2 2022, average weekly earnings increased by 0.3%. Average weekly earnings increased in eight of the 13 economic sectors between Q1 2022 and Q2 2022. The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Transportation & Storage sector (6.5%), the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (5.8%) and in the Construction sector (5.1%). The sectors recording decreases were the Financial Insurance & Real Estate Activities sector (-10.2%) and the Administrative & Support Services Activities sector (-4.7%) and the Industry sector (-0.8%).

For employments that were active in both Q2 2021 and Q2 2022, average weekly earnings increased by 9.3%. Average weekly earnings rose in all 13 economic sectors between Q2 2021 and Q2 2022. The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (14.6%), the Information & Communication sector (14.3%), the Transportation & Storage sector (14.2%) and the Industry sector (12.4%). See Table 3 and Figures 5 and 6.

Change in earnings Q221 - Q222
Accommodation & food14.6499734645631
Information and communication14.2622058350449
Transportation14.2136692091529
Industry12.4424275920916
Professional & technical12.0329771313046
Financial & real estate10.672983140588
Construction10.1007029748729
Arts & entertainment9.91307164839912
Wholesale & retail9.27501992485482
All sectors9.25649647064064
Admin & support service7.73140559217895
Public admin & defence5.65368553559653
Education4.7191011235955
Health & social4.23903894712678
Change in earnings Q221 - Q321Change in earnings Q321 - Q421Change in earnings Q421 - Q122Change in earnings Q122 - Q222
Industry-1.5711944315169611.431002247757511.0127062208957-0.794963404270876
Construction4.840515885498593.21368486977023-3.260622449834275.10820363365783
Wholesale & retail-1.192390968141059.065530651433721.500692627366473.5784014643075
Transportation2.8449855983241811.0868113303912-1.540654102267996.4606600891471
Accommodation & food9.00573021527025-2.344383617193830.4422332780541725.80018624451242
Information & communication7.686213930643865.405803222874986.755867787059230.705060661709367
Financial & real estate-2.0852373851556112.798772399802323.2037254870365-10.1558062160188
Professional & technical-2.851175127771459.275058432002457.083109439369541.38311031148095
Admin & support service-4.039348944215995.5555555555555617.4383795428475-4.69194312796208
Public admin & defence-0.8577504964067171.416224629815482.133979440806164.12213581735767
Education0.5346138834021242.012345238520011.18908358558145-0.00367899538900041
Health & social2.079890890969651.768154929025691.459769374476581.74138617421566
Arts & entertainment2.256381060821715.539421109053723.53200045525248-0.00558773678034363
All sectors0.6364697146494126.218352701176655.989987307855030.329208763764322
Table 3 Percentage change in earnings by sector and quarter for employments that were active in both quarters

The Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme (EWSS) has ended for most businesses on 30 April 2022 and on 31 May 2022 for businesses directly impacted by the public health restrictions introduced in December 2021. 

The timing of the end of the EWSS scheme should be taken into account when considering the results presented below. 

Impact of Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme

In the second quarter of 2022 the EWSS directly supported 10.4% of active employments. 

The sectors with the highest proportion of employments supported by this scheme were the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (53.5%), the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (28.9%) and the Transportation & Storage sector (19.2%).

The proportion of employments supported by the EWSS decreased between the first and second quarter of 2022 from 12.1% to 10.4%. All sectors, with the exception of the Public Administration & Defence sector, which remained unchanged, showed decreases in the proportion of employments supported by the EWSS. The decreases in the proportion of employments supported by the EWSS include falls from 64.9% to 53.5% in the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector, from 36.0% to 28.9% in the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector, from 21.7% to 19.2% in the Transportation & Storage sector and from 8.4% to 6.5% in the Construction sector.

EWSS payments accounted for 0.5% of total earnings in all sectors in Q2 2022. The sectors where EWSS payments represented the highest proportion of total earnings were the Accommodation & Food Services Activities sector (7.7%) and the Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities sector (2.1%).

Q2 2021Q3 2021Q4 2021Q1 2022Q2 2022
Industry11.56.54.43.22.5
Construction31.518.411.28.46.5
Wholesale & retail16.910.27.25.94.5
Transportation28.926.223.321.719.2
Accommodation & food74.97465.964.953.5
Information & communication5.54.43.73.32.3
Financial & real estate87.75.75.94
Professional & technical11.38.36.75.44.5
Admin & support service15.812.59.386.5
Public admin & defence0.30.30.20.20.2
Education5.665.45.34.4
Health & social76.86.36.15.4
Arts & entertainment46.845.438.93628.9
All sectors17.215.913.212.110.4
Q2 2021Q3 2021Q4 2021Q1 2022Q2 2022
Industry2.793356366666181.818399850576971.1671754407320.5447126438061990.0849320599355704
Construction10.4708111794525.857776246455323.899943672443831.989648921199790.293794074378981
Wholesale & retail5.838228801969243.890033649247762.764675054007411.55490028585780.253358213926215
Transportation11.412280314633510.28512134153739.092645462924125.371738570611820.728816750253841
Accommodation & food49.925112128510151.008701889682445.257562298402335.60010874088737.70643675093851
Information & communication0.9523118880377110.7559914373515990.6356583569562090.3532222474959610.0544283669244221
Financial & real estate1.577800716675811.665297808759511.11159344037550.7214353927494750.118820188263589
Professional & technical2.8511206731142.226448326174781.644532997586930.8878985453013010.151680467268969
Admin & support service5.578353994069364.957689849357763.72708426409151.893113375753360.355354316428771
Public admin & defence0.06095052010690560.07669222246420810.0519142894573910.03942678989054650.00664570166748005
Education1.939087230094781.792820226561861.932410096162991.172644088646180.210022518252264
Health & social2.642775880802122.301486098898972.396954324049371.439307503208930.237134387257004
Arts & entertainment21.449912958440823.448439454371119.789106372779111.73330924689862.12616133457775
All sectors4.667559873761684.795285196104653.980630965241242.467491688148940.512059474979578
Table 4 Percentage of employments supported by EWSS, by quarter

Table 5 EWSS payments as a percentage of total earnings, by quarter

Background Notes

Earnings & Labour Costs (ELC)

The ELC, which is being published today with Preliminary results for Q2 2022 and Final results for Q1 2022, is the official source of short-term earnings and labour cost estimates for Ireland. The ELC release is published based on data collected by the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS). The EHECS collects data from enterprises with three or more employees in the NACE Rev 2 Industrial Sectors B–S inclusive.

Preliminary ELC estimates for Q2 2022 have been negatively impacted by lower than usual response rates and the difficulties faced by enterprises in accessing and sending us the required data. The sectors particularly impacted by low rates of survey response were Construction, Transportation & Storage, and Accommodation & Food Services sectors. Caution is therefore advised in relation to the preliminary estimates published today. Please see the Technical Note – Impact of COVID-19 on the Earnings and Labour Costs release - updated Quarter 2 2022 for more information.

There are methodological differences in the calculation of weekly earnings between the ELC release and the Labour Market Insight Bulletin Series.

The ELC is based on survey data which collects aggregated information from enterprises and presents information separately in relation to both earnings (wages and salaries) and other labour costs (other costs to the employer, in addition to wages and salaries, of employing labour which includes social contributions, expenses, subsidies, benefits in kind). The analysis included in this Bulletin is based on Revenue’s employee level tax data and data provided by Revenue in relation to the TWSS. Earnings estimates provided in this Bulletin include earnings and taxable benefits in kind.

In the ELC, average weekly earnings are calculated by dividing the total earnings for the quarter by the average number of persons employed during the quarter and then dividing that by 13 (the number of weeks in a quarter). Average weekly earnings in this Bulletin are calculated by summing the total payments received by an employee in a quarter and dividing by the number of insurable weeks worked by the employee in that quarter.

Labour Force Survey (LFS)

The LFS, which was published on 25 August 2022 for Q2 2022, is the official source of employment estimates for Ireland. The CSO is obliged to follow specific methodology for the LFS including how a person is classified as employed, unemployed or economically inactive (not in the labour force) using the International Labour Organisation concepts and definitions. The International Labour Organisation criteria do not fully capture the impact of COVID-19 on the labour market – see Information Note on the implications of COVID-19 on the Labour Force Survey (LFS). The Information Note highlights the challenges in the application of the ILO concepts following the introduction of the COVID-19 income support payments.

Temporary Wage Subsidy Scheme

Revenue’s Temporary Wage Subsidy Scheme (TWSS) enabled employees, whose employers were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, to receive supports directly from their employer through the payroll system. The scheme operated in two phases, a transitional phase from 26 March to 03 May 2020 and an operational phase from 04 May to 31 August 2020. The TWSS closed on 31 August 2020.

Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme

Revenue’s Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme (EWSS) replaced the TWSS and became operational from 01 September 2020. The EWSS ended for most businesses on 30 April 2022. For businesses directly impacted by the public health restrictions, introduced in December 2021, the EWSS ended on 31 May 2022. The EWSS was an economy-wide enterprise support that focused primarily on business eligibility. The scheme provided a flat-rate subsidy to qualifying employers based on the numbers of eligible employees on the employer’s payroll and gross pay to employees.

COVID-19 income support schemes

The CSO worked with both the Department of Social Protection (DSP) and the Revenue Commissioners to meet user needs for availability of detailed aggregates for the recipients of the PUP, TWSS and EWSS. Tables providing breakdowns of the numbers benefitting from the PUP, EWSS, TWSS and the numbers of persons on the Live Register for each week since March 2020 by sex, age group, county and nationality grouping are available at the following link: PxStat. This link also contains tables for the corresponding numbers included on the Live Register for each week as well as a total number of persons with overlaps removed who were either on the Live Register for each week or who were benefitting from either the PUP, the TWSS or the EWSS. An overlap table excluding the Live Register is also available. For further information on updates please see Detailed COVID-19 Income Support and Live Register Tables.

The final update to the number of persons benefitting from the TWSS and EWSS is included in the PxStat tables linked above. No further TWSS or EWSS updates will be provided given that both schemes are now closed.

NACE Classification

NACE Rev.2 is the latest classification system for economic activities. See NaceCoder.

For further COVID-19 related information go to the CSO COVID-19 Information Hub

Please Note: The Labour Market and Earnings Division of the CSO is compiling a list of users who have registered to be kept informed in relation to relevant announcements from the CSO relating to Labour Market and Earnings, including publication plans from the Division. If you haven't already done so you can register your email address by sending an email to labour@cso.ie asking to be included on this user list.

Further Information

Contact
E-mail: earnings@cso.ie
Morgan O' Donnell
(+353) 85 804 9155
Louise Egan
(+353) 21 4535951