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Notice of Revisions: The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was revised on 22 October 2020. See here for further information  
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Wholesale Price Index

December 2021

 Price index (Year ‘15=100)% monthly change% annual change
Oct 202183.50.2%-2.6%
Nov 202183.50.0%0.2%
Dec 202183.50.0%4.5%

Annual Manufacturing Prices increase by 4.5% in December

Figure 1 – Manufacturing Industries Output Price Index
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Monthly factory gate prices remain unchanged in December 2021. This compares to a decrease of 4.1% for December of last year. The annual percentage change showed an increase of 4.5% in December 2021, compared to an increase of 0.2% in the year to November 2021.  See Table 1 and Figure 1.

In the month, the price index for export sales remains unchanged, while the index for home sales increased 1.0%. In the year there was an increase of 4.3% in the price index for export sales (this can be influenced by currency fluctuations) and an increase of 5.9% in respect of the price index for home sales.  See Table 2 and Figure 2.

Jan 2015100.296.8
Feb 201599.698.8
Mar 201599.9101.1
Apr 201599.8102.6
May 2015100100.2
Jun 201599.999.8
Jul 201510099.8
Aug 2015100.3100.2
Sep 2015100.298.9
Oct 201510096.6
Nov 2015100102.8
Dec 2015100102.5
Jan 2016100100.2
Feb 201699.199.9
Mar 201699.598.9
Apr 2016100.898.1
May 2016100.998.9
Jun 201610197.7
Jul 201610198.1
Aug 2016100.198.7
Sep 201610096.4
Oct 201610097.6
Nov 2016100.1101.5
Dec 2016100.1102.4
Jan 2017100.4100.8
Feb 201799.2100.1
Mar 201799.5102.6
Apr 201799.5103.7
May 201799.4103.7
Jun 201799.5100.3
Jul 201799.699.2
Aug 201799.597.9
Sep 201799.897.2
Oct 201799.790.2
Nov 201797.791.9
Dec 201797.797.5
Jan 20189896.4
Feb 201898.195.7
Mar 201898.496.1
Apr 201898.895.6
May 201898.697.7
Jun 201898.999
Jul 20189998
Aug 20189997.6
Sep 201899.497.5
Oct 201899.492
Nov 201899.494.9
Dec 201899.795.2
Jan 2019100.696.4
Feb 2019101.395.6
Mar 2019101.296.4
Apr 2019101.196.5
May 2019101.196.8
Jun 2019101.196.4
Jul 2019101.395.8
Aug 2019101.496.3
Sep 2019101.396.8
Oct 2019101.189.8
Nov 2019101.393
Dec 201910193
Jan 202099.792.1
Feb 202010094.4
Mar 2020100.191.1
Apr 202099.788.2
May 202099.687.5
Jun 202099.786.1
Jul 202099.785.2
Aug 202099.683.9
Sep 202099.984.3
Oct 202099.985
Nov 202099.582.6
Dec 202099.679.1
Jan 202110079.9
Feb 202199.580.7
Mar 202199.881.4
Apr 2021100.281.7
May 2021100.980.4
Jun 2021101.581.2
Jul 2021102.583.2
Aug 2021102.482.5
Sep 2021102.882.4
Oct 2021103.982.7
Nov 2021104.582.5
Dec 2021105.582.5
Table 1 Manufacturing Industries Output Price Indices (excluding VAT)
 Base: Year 2015 as 100
PeriodManufacturing Industries Output Price IndexManufacturing Industries Output Price Index (Home Sales)Manufacturing Industries Output Price Index (Export Sales)
Price Index% Change on preceding periodAnnual % changePrice Index% Change on Preceding PeriodPrice Index% Change on Preceding Period
2015Quarter 199.0--99.9-98.9-
 Quarter 2100.81.8-99.90.0100.92.0
 Quarter 399.6-1.2-100.20.399.6-1.3
 Quarter 4100.61.0-100.0-0.2100.61.0
2016Quarter 199.6-1.00.699.5-0.599.7-0.9
 Quarter 298.4-1.2-2.4100.91.498.2-1.5
 Quarter 397.8-0.6-1.8100.4-0.597.7-0.5
 Quarter 4100.52.8-0.1100.1-0.3100.52.9
2017Quarter 1101.10.61.599.7-0.4101.20.7
 Quarter 2102.
 Quarter 398.2-4.10.499.60.198.1-4.4
 Quarter 493.4-4.9-7.198.4-1.293.2-5.0
2018Quarter 196.12.9-4.998.2-
 Quarter 297.51.5-4.898.80.697.41.4
 Quarter 397.80.3-0.499.10.397.70.3
 Quarter 494.2-3.70.999.50.494.0-3.8
 Quarter 296.80.5-0.7101.
 Quarter 396.5-0.3-1.3101.30.296.3-0.3
 Quarter 492.3-4.4-2.0101.1-0.291.9-4.6
2020Quarter 192.80.5-3.699.9-
 Quarter 287.8-5.4-9.399.7-0.287.3-5.6
 Quarter 385.1-3.1-11.899.70.084.5-3.2
 Quarter 483.0-2.5-
2021Quarter 181.5-1.8-
 Quarter 281.90.5-6.7100.
 Quarter 383.52.0-1.9102.61.782.72.0
 Quarter 483.50.00.6104.61.982.6-0.1
 April 95.8-0.4-7.498.80.495.6-0.5
Table 2 Industrial Producer Price Indices (excluding VAT)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Industrial SectorNACE code1IndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2021Dec 2021Year 2021Nov 2021Dec 2021Dec 2021Year3 2021
Food Products10101.998.199.40.3-
        Meat and meat products101111.9112.7104.51.50.716.111.2
        Fish and fish products102131.3131.8127.
        Fruit and vegetables10397.497.497.1-
        Vegetable and animal oils and fats104100.9101.198.2-
        Dairy products105129.1131.7116.
        Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,109108.0108.3106.
        Bakery and farinaceous products10794.994.594.7-0.1-
        Other food products10890.782.992.5-1.6-8.6-8.4-6.7
Wearing apparel14109.1109.1109.20.00.0-0.2-0.1
Leather and leather products (incl. footwear); dressing and dyeing of fur15102.3102.3102.
Wood and wood products16130.5130.2119.21.0-
Pulp, paper and paper products1796.897.
Printing and reproduction of recorded media18100.3100.398.7-
Coke and refined petroleum products19*******
Chemicals and chemical products2098.898.998.
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations21*******
Rubber and plastic products22106.0106.1100.
Other non-metallic mineral products23113.7115.7109.00.41.813.15.5
Basic metals24120.8123.1107.51.61.934.116.5
Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment25107.1107.3104.2-
Computer, electronic and optical products26*******
Electrical equipment2791.
Machinery and equipment n.e.c.28*******
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers29107.0107.1105.
Other transport equipment30112.2112.8111.
Furniture 31116.4116.6113.
Other Manufacturing32*******
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment33*******
Mining and quarrying05-09114.9115.3107.6-3.70.314.410.6
Total transportable goods industries 83.683.682.7-
Food products, Beverages and Tobacco Products10-12101.497.799.10.3-
Manufacturing industries excluding Food Products  80.781.480.1-
Manufacturing industries excluding Food Products, Beverages and Tobacco Products 80.681.279.9-
Intermediate goods industries (except energy) *******
Capital goods industries *******
Durable consumer goods industries *******
Non-durable consumer goods industries *******
Manufacturing industries (home sales)2 104.5105.5102.
Manufacturing industries (export sales)2 82.582.581.8-
Total manufacturing industries2 83.583.582.
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.
2 Excludes Mining and quarrying.
3 Annual average for 2021 relative to the annual average for 2020.
* Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons
Table 2A Contribution to changes in the Manufacturing Output Price Index, December 2021 (Table 2)
Industrial sectorNACE code 1Contribution to overall % change2
One monthTwelve months
Food Products10-0.610.50
       Meat and meat products1010.040.68
       Fish and fish products1020.000.02
       Fruit and vegetables1030.000.00
       Vegetable and animal oils and fats1040.000.00
       Dairy products1050.040.46
       Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,1090.000.04
       Bakery and farinaceous products1070.000.00
       Other food products108-0.69-0.70
Tobacco Products12**
Wearing apparel140.000.00
Leather and leather products (incl. footwear); dressing and dyeing of fur150.000.00
Wood and wood products160.000.11
Pulp, paper and paper products170.000.01
Printing and reproduction of recorded media180.000.02
Coke and refined petroleum products19**
Chemicals and chemical products200.000.02
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations21**
Rubber and plastic products220.000.10
Other non-metallic mineral products230.010.10
Basic metals240.010.14
Fabricated metal products, except Machinery and equipment250.000.07
Computer, electronic and optical products26**
Electrical equipment270.000.05
Machinery and Equipment n.e.c.28**
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers290.000.01
Other transport equipment300.000.00
Furniture 310.000.01
Other Manufacturing32**
Repair and Installation of machinery and equipment33**
Mining and quarrying05-090.000.07
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.
2 See Background Notes.
* Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons
Table 3 Detailed Wholesale Price Indices (excluding VAT) for Building and Construction Materials
Base: Year 2015 as 100
MaterialsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2021Dec 2021Year 2021Nov 2021Dec 2021Dec 2021Year1 2021
Stone, sand and gravel111.1109.6107.51.0-
       Sand and gravel120.1113.1113.8-1.2-5.8-4.6-0.7
Ready mixed mortar and concrete110.0110.1106.
Concrete blocks and bricks106.2107.7105.
Other concrete products114.2115.4109.
       Precast concrete121.9126.1116.80.03.412.34.0
       Other concrete products (Excluding precast concrete)117.2117.2110.
Structural steel and reinforcing metal147.6147.4133.3-0.1-0.128.817.0
       Structural steel135.6135.6129.
              Fabricated metal132.2132.2127.
              Other Structural steel163.5163.5142.
       Reinforcing metal166.0165.5139.7-0.1-0.359.035.0
       Other steel products108.3110.5107.
Rough timber (including plain sawn)182.4182.4153.
Other timber157.1157.2126.
       Windows and doors123.0123.1112.
Bituminous macadam, asphalt and bituminous emulsions101.9102.7100.
       Bituminous macadam and asphalt101.7102.5100.
       Bituminous emulsions109.0108.8103.81.0-
Electrical fittings126.9127.0118.
       Lighting equipment107.3107.3107.
       Protection & communication equipment 106.3106.3105.
All other materials115.1115.4110.
       Plumbing materials incl. sanitary ware114.2114.2109.
       HVAC (heating & ventilation equipment) 110.0110.0107.
       Insulating materials114.6114.6108.
       Pipes and fittings117.7118.1114.30.00.310.17.7
       Paints, oils and varnishes126.2126.2124.
       All other metal fittings115.4115.4114.
       All other products112.1112.5107.
All materials122.9123.0115.
1 Annual average for 2021 relative to the annual average for 2020.
Table 4 Capital Goods Price Indices (excluding VAT)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Capital goodsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2021Dec 2021Year 2021Nov 2021Dec 2021Dec 2021Year2 2021
Transportable capital for use in       
        of which:       
                Private vehicles1105.0105.0103.
                Commercial vehicles106.9106.9105.
Agriculture and industry110.6111.0109.
Other sectors110.0110.1108.
Total transportable capital110.3110.6108.
Building and construction119.6119.7115.
(i.e. materials and wages)       
All capital goods118.4118.5114.
1 Private vehicles are inclusive of VAT which is non-deductible for industry and agriculture.
2 Annual average for 2021 relative to the annual average for 2020.

Annual Average Price Changes in Building and Construction Materials for 2021

Prices in some construction materials showed large increases during 2021. Timber prices increased, with the 2021 average price for Rough timber (including plain sawn) up 43.1%, while Other timber increased by 20.0% on 2020. Prices for steel products also increased, with the overall category Structural steel and reinforcing metal up by 17.0%, while Other structural steel increased by 44.7% on the 2020 average. See table 3.

Annual Average Price Changes in Energy Products for 2021

There were very large increases in wholesale electricity prices during 2021, with prices up 260.4% compared to the 2020 average. Other wholesale energy fuels also increased in price, and the index for all energy products was up by 160.6% on 2020. See table 5.

Table 5 Wholesale Price Indices (excluding VAT) for Energy Products
(i.e. Fuels purchased by Manufacturing Industry)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Energy fuelsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2021Dec 2021Year 2021Nov 2021Dec 2021Dec 2021Year2 2021
Gas oil (other than autodiesel)115.8112.9106.2-0.7-2.521.516.6
Fuel oil116.9114.7109.1-0.6-1.916.813.6
Petroleum fuels1118.0115.3109.2-0.3-2.317.914.2
Energy products291.9347.5203.5-4.019.0231.0160.6
1 Energy products excluding electricity.
2 Annual average for 2021 relative to the annual average for 2020.

Annual Average Price Changes in Wholesale Prices for 2021

Overall prices received by Irish producers decreased by 5.3% in 2021 following on from a decrease of 8.7% in 2020. The price index for goods sold on the home market increased by 2.3% in 2021, having decreased by 1.4% in 2020. The price index for exported goods decreased by 5.5% in 2021 following a decrease of 9.0% in the previous year.  See table 6.

Producer prices were affected by a number of factors during 2021 including fluctuations in the Euro exchange rate and market demand. Exchange rates made a significant contribution to price changes during 2021. The average exchange rate for the US dollar and Sterling are shown in Table 7 below. Other global factors also had a major effect on market demand during the year.

Table 6 Annual average % change in Producer Price Indices for home, export and total sales, 2015 - 2021
Manufacturing Industries (home sales)-0.2-0.9-0.42.3-1.42.3
Manufacturing Industries (export sales)--1.0-0.2-2.5-1.1-9.0-5.5
Total Manufacturing Industries--0.9-0.3-2.4-0.9-8.7-5.3
Table 7 Annual average exchange rates, 2015 - 2021
Exchange rate€ 2015€ 2016€ 2017€ 2018€ 2019€ 2020€ 2021
Pound Sterling0.72570.82040.87610.88400.87580.88970.8596
US Dollar1.11211.10661.12591.18221.11991.14221.1827
Source: European Central Bank

Food, Beverages and Tobacco

The overall index for the Food, Beverages and Tobacco sector increased by 0.2% in 2021 compared with a decrease of 1.5% in 2020. The index for Food Products increased by 0.2% in 2021 while Beverages increased by 0.4%.

Within the Food sector, prices decreased for Other food products (-6.7%) and Fish and fish products (-0.7%). There were increases in the prices for Meat and meat products (+11.2%) and Dairy products (+9.0%). See table 8.

Table 8 Annual average % change in Producer Price Indices for Food, Beverages and Tobacco products, 2021
IndexNACE1 code2021
Food, Beverages and Tobacco products10-120.2
Food Products100.2
       Meat and meat products10111.2
       Fish and fish products102-0.7
       Fruit and vegetables1031.0
       Vegetable and animal oils and fats1044.8
       Dairy products1059.0
       Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,1093.2
       Bakery and farinaceous products1070.6
       Other food products108-6.7
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.

Background Notes

Wholesale Price Index        

The term Industrial Producer Price Index refers to a family of indices that measure the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. The other three wholesale price index series incorporate imported and home produced goods sold by manufacturers and wholesale outlets.


The output price indices for sectors of Manufacturing Industries cover both home sales and export sales.  The Indices for Total transportable goods industries; Food, drink and tobacco; Manufacturing industries excluding food; Manufacturing industries excluding food, drink and tobacco; Intermediate goods industries (except energy); Capital goods industries; Durable consumer goods industries; Non-durable consumer goods industries; Manufacturing industries (home sales); Manufacturing industries (export sales) and Total manufacturing industries are all calculated on a net sector basis, i.e. the weights used to combine the sectoral indices (including those for sectors not distinguished in Table 2) exclude sales to other sectors of Manufacturing Industry.

Table 2A gives the percentage contribution of each sector (including those not published on Table 2) to the overall percentage change on Table 2. The percentage contributions on Table 2A may not add up to the Total Manufacturing industries percentage change on Table 2 due to rounding and other adjustments for presentational purposes.  In comparing these contributions against these percentage changes in indices presented on Table 2 caution should be exercised as the former is calculated on a net sector basis.

The Building Materials, Capital Goods and Energy Products indices (Tables 3, 4 and 5) cover home production and imports of these commodities.  Table 3, the Wholesale Price Index for Building and Construction Materials, provides only a general indication of price trends in that sector.  Actual transaction prices are collected for materials purchased by construction and civil engineering firms. The price indices reflect an ‘average’ over a mixture of products from many companies throughout the country.  They also reflect prices for both long-term and short-term contracts and for high and low volume civil engineering works. It should be noted that long-term, high volume fixed contracts for major works might dilute in the short-term the impact of emerging price changes on the index.  Furthermore, industry sources have confirmed that price increases notified by companies may not always be achieved in practice following negotiations. Much depends on the prevailing market conditions. Therefore changes over the short-term in the indices derived from these transaction prices will not always coincide with price changes notified by companies.


All indices in the series are based on prices at the 15th of the month. Quarterly and annual indices are simple averages of the corresponding monthly indices.

Prices used in the compilation of the indices are:

  • excluding delivery charges itemised on the invoice separately
  • after discounts or surcharges are applied
  • before addition of direct subsidies
  • exclusive of VAT (except for private vehicles used in Table 4)
  • inclusive of excise duty

Every effort is made by the Wholesale Prices Section to collect all prices for the relevant month. Where this is not possible late prices are included in the following month’s calculations.


This Wholesale Price Index series is compiled to base 2015 = 100. A methodological description of this updated series is given in the Wholesale Price Index Introduction to Series 2015=100 (1) (PDF 468KB)

Calculating percentage changes in the index

The movement of the output price indices is expressed as percentage change, rather than a change in index points, because index point changes are affected by the level of the index in relation to its base period, whereas percentage changes are not.

The example below illustrates the computation of a percentage change:

Percentage change calculation  
Current index  105.6
Less previous index  102.1
Equals in index points   3.5
Divided by the previous index   102.1
Equals   0.0343
Results multiplied by 100   0.0343 x 100
Equals percentage change   3.4

Alternatively, users may calculate a percentage change by dividing the current index by the previous index, multiplying by 100 and then subtracting 100.

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