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CSO statistical release, , 11am

Wholesale Price Index

December 2018

 Price index (Year ‘15=100)% monthly change% annual change
Oct 201890.2-6.4%-2.1%
Nov 201893.73.9%-4.2%
Dec 201894.20.5%-9.9%

Annual Manufacturing Prices decrease by 9.9% in December

Figure 1 - Manufacturing Industries Output Price Index
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Monthly factory gate prices increased by 0.5% in December 2018. This compares to an increase of 7.0% for December of last year. The annual percentage change showed a decrease of 9.9% in December 2018, compared to a decrease of 4.2% in the year to November 2018.  See graph across and table 1.

In the month, the price index for export sales increased by 0.5%, while the index for home sales increased by 0.2%. In the year there was a decrease of 10.4% in the price index for export sales (this can be influenced by currency fluctuations) and an increase of 1.2% in respect of the price index for home sales.  See table 2 and Figure 2.

Jan 2015100.196.5
Feb 201599.698.6
Mar 201599.9100.9
Apr 201599.8102.3
May 2015100100
Jun 201599.999.6
Jul 201510099.6
Aug 2015100.3100
Sep 2015100.298.7
Oct 201510096.4
Nov 2015100.1103.8
Dec 2015100.1103.6
Jan 2016100101.2
Feb 201699.1101
Mar 201699.699.9
Apr 201610199.3
May 2016101.1100.1
Jun 2016101.299.2
Jul 2016101.299.6
Aug 2016100.3100.2
Sep 2016100.297.8
Oct 2016100.299.1
Nov 2016100.3103.4
Dec 2016100.4104.3
Jan 2017100.7102.8
Feb 201799.6102
Mar 201799.9104.7
Apr 201799.9105.1
May 2017100.1105.3
Jun 2017100.2101.9
Jul 2017100.3100.8
Aug 2017100.399.6
Sep 2017100.599
Oct 2017100.491.8
Nov 201798.297.8
Dec 201798.3104.9
Jan 201898.6103.8
Feb 201898.7103.2
Mar 201898.6101.6
Apr 201898.8100.8
May 201898.5101.6
Jun 201898.9101.9
Jul 201899100.1
Aug 201898.998.7
Sep 201899.396.2
Oct 201899.289.8
Nov 201899.393.5
Dec 201899.594
Table 1 Manufacturing Industries Output Price Indices (excluding VAT)
 Base: Year 2015 as 100
PeriodManufacturing Industries Output Price IndexManufacturing Industries Output Price Index (Home Sales)Manufacturing Industries Output Price Index (Export Sales)
Price Index% Change on preceding periodAnnual % changePrice Index% Change on Preceding PeriodPrice Index% Change on Preceding Period
2015Quarter 198.7--99.9-98.7-
 Quarter 2100.61.9-99.90.0100.61.9
 Quarter 399.5-1.1-100.20.399.4-1.2
 Quarter 4101.21.7-100.1-0.1101.31.9
2016Quarter 1100.7-
 Quarter 299.6-1.1-1.0101.11.599.5-1.2
 Quarter 399.3-0.3-0.2100.6-0.599.2-0.3
 Quarter 4102.22.91.0100.3-0.3102.33.1
2017Quarter 1103.00.82.3100.1-0.2103.20.9
 Quarter 2103.90.94.3100.10.0104.10.9
 Quarter 399.8-3.90.5100.40.399.8-4.1
 Quarter 498.2-1.6-3.999.0-1.498.2-1.6
2018Quarter 1102.74.6-0.398.6-0.4102.94.8
 Quarter 2101.3-1.4-2.598.70.1101.4-1.5
 Quarter 398.4-2.9-1.499.10.498.3-3.1
 Quarter 492.7-5.8-5.699.30.292.4-6.0
 April 100.7-0.8-
Table 2 Industrial Producer Price Indices (excluding VAT)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Industrial SectorNACE code1IndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2018Dec 2018Year 2018Nov 2018Dec 2018Dec 2018Year3 2018
Food Products1096.
        Meat and meat products10197.096.798.7-1.2-0.3-0.9-1.1
        Fish and fish products102123.2125.3119.
        Fruit and vegetables103105.3105.399.
        Vegetable and animal oils and fats10491.390.092.1-0.3-1.4-5.1-3.7
        Dairy products105113.3112.0119.6-7.2-1.1-11.80.3
        Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,10973.273.479.90.30.3-26.2-19.4
        Bakery and farinaceous products10794.293.993.40.0-
        Other food products10893.894.
Wearing apparel14106.9106.9106.
Leather and leather products (incl. footwear); dressing and dyeing of fur1599.999.999.
Wood and wood products16105.7105.4102.9-0.5-
Pulp, paper and paper products1794.394.193.6-0.1-
Printing and reproduction of recorded media1896.396.096.2-0.2-0.3-0.21.2
Coke and refined petroleum products19*******
Chemicals and chemical products2098.698.698.9-0.40.0-0.20.0
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations21*******
Rubber and plastic products2291.491.192.0-0.2-0.3-5.0-3.7
Other non-metallic mineral products2395.696.595.
Basic metals2499.198.5100.0-2.4-
Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment2598.898.297.1-0.1-
Computer, electronic and optical products26*******
Electrical equipment2782.482.180.80.2-0.4-0.6-4.7
Machinery and equipment n.e.c.28*******
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers29107.9107.8107.80.0-
Other transport equipment30109.2109.2109.
Furniture 3194.394.297.90.0-0.1-11.1-6.3
Other Manufacturing32*******
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment33*******
Mining and quarrying05-0982.882.290.9-0.2-0.7-26.1-17.7
Total transportable goods industries 93.794.
Food products, Beverages and Tobacco Products10-1295.795.797.51.10.0-5.2-5.1
Manufacturing industries excluding Food Products  93.493.998.94.40.5-10.6-2.0
Manufacturing industries excluding Food Products, Beverages and Tobacco Products 93.493.999.04.50.5-10.8-2.0
Intermediate goods industries (except energy) *******
Capital goods industries *******
Durable consumer goods industries *******
Non-durable consumer goods industries *******
Manufacturing industries (home sales)2 99.399.598.
Manufacturing industries (export sales)2 93.594.
Total manufacturing industries2 93.794.
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.
2 Excludes Mining and quarrying.
3 Annual average for 2018 relative to the annual average for 2017.
* Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons
Table 2A Contribution to changes in the Manufacturing Output Price Index, December 2018 (Table 2)
Industrial sectorNACE code 1Contribution to overall % change2
One monthTwelve months
Food Products10-0.01-0.72
       Meat and meat products101-0.01-0.03
       Fish and fish products1020.010.03
       Fruit and vegetables1030.000.00
       Vegetable and animal oils and fats1040.000.00
       Dairy products105-0.02-0.19
       Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,1090.00-0.17
       Bakery and farinaceous products1070.000.00
       Other food products1080.01-0.37
Tobacco Products12**
Wearing apparel140.000.00
Leather and leather products (incl. footwear); dressing and dyeing of fur150.000.00
Wood and wood products160.000.02
Pulp, paper and paper products170.000.00
Printing and reproduction of recorded media180.000.00
Coke and refined petroleum products19**
Chemicals and chemical products200.00-0.01
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations21**
Rubber and plastic products220.00-0.03
Other non-metallic mineral products230.010.01
Basic metals240.000.00
Fabricated metal products, except Machinery and equipment250.000.02
Computer, electronic and optical products26**
Electrical equipment270.000.00
Machinery and Equipment n.e.c.28**
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers290.000.00
Other transport equipment300.000.00
Furniture 310.00-0.02
Other Manufacturing32**
Repair and Installation of machinery and equipment33**
Mining and quarrying05-090.00-0.08
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.
2 See Background Notes.
* Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons
Table 3 Detailed Wholesale Price Indices (excluding VAT) for Building and Construction Materials
Base: Year 2015 as 100
MaterialsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2018Dec 2018Year 2018Nov 2018Dec 2018Dec 2018Year1 2018
Stone, sand and gravel113.5113.1115.2-0.7-0.4-6.5-1.8
       Sand and gravel116.9113.1120.71.8-3.3-16.4-7.6
Ready mixed mortar and concrete101.0102.5102.10.71.5-0.10.1
Concrete blocks and bricks102.3101.8102.00.3-0.5-0.7-0.3
Other concrete products101.3101.3101.
       Precast concrete108.9108.9109.20.00.0-0.52.7
       Other concrete products (Excluding precast concrete)
Structural steel and reinforcing metal113.0112.9111.90.1-
       Structural steel117.6117.6116.
              Fabricated metal119.0119.0118.
              Other Structural steel105.4105.4105.
       Reinforcing metal106.0105.9104.50.2-
       Other steel products103.4103.4102.
Rough timber (including plain sawn)106.4106.4105.
Other timber103.9103.9101.
       Windows and doors104.9104.9103.
Bituminous macadam, asphalt and bituminous emulsions106.9106.4106.5-0.1-0.5-1.81.6
       Bituminous macadam and asphalt106.8106.3106.5-0.2-0.5-2.11.4
       Bituminous emulsions108.3107.6104.51.3-
Electrical fittings104.6104.5104.00.0-
       Lighting equipment107.5107.5107.
       Protection & communication equipment 102.4102.4102.
All other materials104.9104.9105.
       Plumbing materials incl. sanitary ware104.5104.5103.
       HVAC (heating & ventilation equipment) 103.3103.3102.
       Insulating materials101.8101.8101.
       Pipes and fittings105.4105.4104.
       Paints, oils and varnishes110.0110.0109.
       All other metal fittings106.8106.8106.
       All other products104.9104.9105.40.20.0-0.40.5
All materials105.7105.8105.
1 Annual average for 2018 relative to the annual average for 2017.
Table 4 Capital Goods Price Indices (excluding VAT)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Capital goodsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2018Dec 2018Year 2018Nov 2018Dec 2018Dec 2018Year2 2018
Transportable capital for use in       
        of which:       
                Private vehicles1102.2102.2102.
                Commercial vehicles101.2101.2101.
Agriculture and industry103.5103.7103.
Other sectors103.8103.8103.
Total transportable capital103.6103.7103.
Building and construction106.2106.3105.
(i.e. materials and wages)       
All capital goods105.7105.8105.
1 Private vehicles are inclusive of VAT which is non-deductible for industry and agriculture.
2 Annual average for 2018 relative to the annual average for 2017.
Table 5 Wholesale Price Indices (excluding VAT) for Energy Products
(i.e. Fuels purchased by Manufacturing Industry)
Base: Year 2015 as 100
Energy fuelsIndexMonthly % ChangeAnnual % Change
Nov 2018Dec 2018Year 2018Nov 2018Dec 2018Dec 2018Year2 2018
Gas oil (other than autodiesel)109.9103.9107.4-3.2-
Fuel oil114.2108.4111.6-3.3-
Petroleum fuels1112.1106.6109.4-2.9-
Energy products122.0128.5114.7-4.45.318.822.5
1 Energy products excluding electricity.
2 Annual average for 2018 relative to the annual average for 2017.

Annual Average Price Changes in Wholesale Prices for 2018

Overall prices received by Irish producers decreased by 2.4% in 2018 following on from an increase of 0.8% in 2017. The price index for goods sold on the home market decreased by 1.0% in 2018, having decreased by 0.5% in 2017. The price index for exported goods decreased by 2.5% in 2018 following an increase of 0.9% in the previous year.  See table 6.

Producer prices were affected by a number of factors during 2018 including fluctuations in the Euro exchange rate and market demand.  Exchange rates made a significant contribution to price changes during 2018. The average exchange rate for the US dollar and Sterling are shown in Table 7 below. Other global factors also had a major effect on market demand during the year.

Table 6 Annual average % change in Producer Price Indices for home, export and total sales, 2015 - 2018 
Manufacturing Industries (home sales)-0.4-0.5-1.0
Manufacturing Industries (export sales)-0.40.9-2.5
Total Manufacturing Industries-0.40.8-2.4
Table 7 Annual average exchange rates, 2015 - 2018
Exchange rate€ 2015€ 2016€ 2017€ 2018
Pound Sterling0.72570.82040.87610.8840
US Dollar1.11211.10661.12591.1822
Source: European Central Bank

Food, Beverages and Tobacco

The overall index for the Food, Beverages and Tobacco sector decreased by 5.1% in 2018 compared with an increase of 3.1% in 2017.  This decrease was due mainly to decreased prices in Grain milling, starches and animal feeds and Other food products. The index for Food Products decreased by 5.2% in 2018 while Beverages decreased by 3.2%.  

Within the Food sector, prices decreased for Grain milling, starches and animal feeds (-19.4%) and Other food products (-7.5%). There were increases in the prices for Fruit and vegetables (+4.6%) and Fish and fish products (+3.6%).  See table 8.

Table 8 Annual average % change in Producer Price Indices for Food, Beverages and Tobacco products, 2018
IndexNACE1 code2018
Food, Beverages and Tobacco products10-12-5.1
Food Products10-5.2
       Meat and meat products101-1.1
       Fish and fish products1023.6
       Fruit and vegetables1034.6
       Vegetable and animal oils and fats104-3.7
       Dairy products1050.3
       Grain milling, starches and animal feeds106,109-19.4
       Bakery and farinaceous products1071.0
       Other food products108-7.5
1 Nace Rev. 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.

Background Notes

Wholesale Price Index        

The term Industrial Producer Price Index refers to a family of indices that measure the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. The other three wholesale price index series incorporate imported and home produced goods sold by manufacturers and wholesale outlets.


The output price indices for sectors of Manufacturing Industries cover both home sales and export sales.  The Indices for Total transportable goods industries; Food, drink and tobacco; Manufacturing industries excluding food; Manufacturing industries excluding food, drink and tobacco; Intermediate goods industries (except energy); Capital goods industries; Durable consumer goods industries; Non-durable consumer goods industries; Manufacturing industries (home sales); Manufacturing industries (export sales) and Total manufacturing industries are all calculated on a net sector basis, i.e. the weights used to combine the sectoral indices (including those for sectors not distinguished in Table 2) exclude sales to other sectors of Manufacturing Industry.

Table 2A gives the percentage contribution of each sector (including those not published on Table 2) to the overall percentage change on Table 2. The percentage contributions on Table 2A may not add up to the Total Manufacturing industries percentage change on Table 2 due to rounding and other adjustments for presentational purposes.  In comparing these contributions against these percentage changes in indices presented on Table 2 caution should be exercised as the former is calculated on a net sector basis.

The Building Materials, Capital Goods and Energy Products indices (Tables 3, 4 and 5) cover home production and imports of these commodities.  Table 3, the Wholesale Price Index for Building and Construction Materials, provides only a general indication of price trends in that sector.  Actual transaction prices are collected for materials purchased by construction and civil engineering firms. The price indices reflect an ‘average’ over a mixture of products from many companies throughout the country.  They also reflect prices for both long-term and short-term contracts and for high and low volume civil engineering works. It should be noted that long-term, high volume fixed contracts for major works might dilute in the short-term the impact of emerging price changes on the index.  Furthermore, industry sources have confirmed that price increases notified by companies may not always be achieved in practice following negotiations. Much depends on the prevailing market conditions. Therefore changes over the short-term in the indices derived from these transaction prices will not always coincide with price changes notified by companies.


All indices in the series are based on prices at the 15th of the month. Quarterly and annual indices are simple averages of the corresponding monthly indices.

Prices used in the compilation of the indices are:

  • excluding delivery charges itemised on the invoice separately
  • after discounts or surcharges are applied
  • before addition of direct subsidies
  • exclusive of VAT (except for private vehicles used in Table 4)
  • inclusive of excise duty

Every effort is made by the Wholesale Prices Section to collect all prices for the relevant month. Where this is not possible late prices are included in the following month’s calculations.


This Wholesale Price Index series is compiled to base 2015 = 100. A methodological description of this updated series is given in the Wholesale Price Index Introduction to Series 2015=100 (1) (PDF 126KB)

Calculating percentage changes in the index

The movement of the output price indices is expressed as percentage change, rather than a change in index points, because index point changes are affected by the level of the index in relation to its base period, whereas percentage changes are not.

The example below illustrates the computation of a percentage change:

Percentage change calculation  
Current index  105.6
Less previous index  102.1
Equals in index points   3.5
Divided by the previous index   102.1
Equals   0.0343
Results multiplied by 100   0.0343 x 100
Equals percentage change   3.4

Alternatively, users may calculate a percentage change by dividing the current index by the previous index, multiplying by 100 and then subtracting 100.

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