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For more information on this release:
E-mail: bop@cso.ie Annette Hayes (+353) 1 498 4319 John Flanagan (+353) 1 498 4054
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-6747
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Foreign Direct Investment

2017

  € million
 20162017
   
Flows - Abroad 27,180-34,690
Flows - In Ireland 35,607-1,109
Positions - Abroad - end year 812,639717,133
Positions - In Ireland - end year 797,521744,386
Positions - Net - end year15,118-27,253
Net Income Flows-42,673-51,320

The stock of Ireland’s net FDI decreased to -€27bn at end 2017

Foreign Direct Investment Figure 1
go to full release

Irish stocks of direct investment abroad decreased to €717bn at the end of 2017 from a stock position of €813bn at the end of 2016. The end 2017 stock of direct investment abroad comprised of Equity Capital & Reinvested Earnings of €646bn and Other Capital of €71bn - see Table 3.

The stock of direct investment in Ireland also decreased between the end of 2016 and the end of 2017 - from €798bn to €744bn - see Table 4. 

The decrease in stock of direct investment abroad between the end of 2016 and the end of 2017 - from €813bn to €717bn resulted from the withdrawal of investment from Luxembourg (-€118bn) and Offshore centres (-€12bn) which was partially offset by increased investment in Netherlands (€25bn) and US (€5bn) - see Table 3.

The decrease in stock of direct investment in Ireland between the end of 2016 and the end of 2017 - from €798bn to €744bn was largely due to withdrawals of investment by US (-€45bn) and UK (-€16bn) - see Table 4.

The net FDI for Ireland at the end of 2017 was a deficit of €27bn, down €42bn from the net position at the end of 2016.

This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
X-axis labelUnited StatesOtherOffshore CentresNetherlandsLuxembourgSwitzerland
2017178.992155.526142.977100.01392.40274.476

  

X-axis labelUnited StatesIrelandOtherOffshore CentresUnited KingdomGermany
2017519.51692.52459.30241.00820.10811.928

Direct investment positions by immediate and ultimate investor

In line with International recommendations, the geographic allocation of direct investment flows and stocks in Tables 1 to 9 is based on the country of location of the immediate owner of the direct investment enterprise. 

An alternative presentation of the stock of direct investment in Ireland by ultimate investor displays a different geographic pattern. Figure 2 presents the value of investment stock in Ireland by location of the immediate owner (of the direct investment enterprise). Figure 3 presents the value of investment stock in Ireland by location of the ultimate investor. In 2017, the stock of investment from the US as ultimate investor at €520bn was €341bn greater than the stock of US investment presented by immediate owner (€179bn). Investment stock from Ireland as ultimate investor at €93bn primarily represents former US-based corporate inversion enterprises which are now located in Ireland (see Figure 3).

Investment flows decrease

Flows of direct investment into Ireland in 2017 decreased from an investment of €36bn in 2016 to a disinvestment of €1bn in 2017. Reinvested earnings inflows of €53bn were offset by the withdrawal of Equity and other capital investment of €36bn and €19bn respectively. Investment from the US decreased further from a withdrawal of €55bn in 2016 to a withdrawal of €60bn in 2017. Investment from Bermuda also decreased from an investment of €6bn in 2016 to a withdrawal of €20bn in 2017- see Table 2.

X-axis labelNetherlandsLuxembourgOffshore CentresUnited KingdomItalyUnited StatesOther
Flows29.5823.21218.6412.9932.298-60.386-17.447

Direct investment flows abroad also decreased from an investment of €27bn in 2016 to a withdrawal of investment €35bn in 2017.  Direct investment flows abroad of reinvested earnings €17bn and other capital €14bn were offset by a withdrawal of Equity €66bn.  The withdrawal of equity investment was mainly from Europe (€69bn) and the US (€7bn) - see Table 1.

X-axis labelTotalEuropeUS
201238.04625.1133.757
201338.10724.4439.615
201436.31719.6496.892
2015196.36379.97676.457
201635.60796.488-55.433
2017-1.10976.388-60.386

Flows of direct investment into Ireland escalated in 2015 to €196bn mainly due to increased investment from Europe (€80bn) and US (€76bn). While investment from Europe remained strong in years 2016 and 2017 with inflows of €96bn and €76bn respectively, US investment significantly decreased with withdrawals of €55bn and €60bn over the same period - see Table 2.

Sectoral breakdown

Investment abroad by enterprises located in Ireland was largely from the services sector – an investment position of €616bn at the end of 2017 was down €104bn compared to the position at the end of 2016 (€720bn).  Of this investment from the services sector, 73% (€447bn) was into the EU. Investment from the manufacturing sector amounted to €73bn - see Table 7.

The Services Sector remains the largest sector for inward investment - at the end of 2017 the investment position of €469bn was down just €6bn on end year 2016 position (€475bn). Investment in financial intermediation and administrative and support activities decreased from €204bn and €64bn in 2016 to €197 and €59bn in 2017 respectively. Investment in the Manufacturing Sector decreased by €47bn to €274bn in the same period - see Table 8.

X-axis labelManufacturingServices
In Ireland274.215469.122
Abroad72.889615.737

Direct investment income

Income outflows of foreign owned direct investment enterprises were €72bn in 2017, an increase of €11bn compared with 2016. Earnings of European owned companies were €55bn in 2017, up €13bn on the 2016 figure.  Income earned abroad by investors located in Ireland was €21bn in 2017, up €2.3bn on 2016. The earnings abroad were mainly from Luxembourg (€10bn), the Netherlands (€5bn), the UK and offshore centres (€2bn & €3bn) - see Table 9.

Table 1 Direct Investment1 Flows Abroad Classified by Location of Investment € million
Region/Country 2016 2 2017
 EquityReinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal EquityReinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal
Europe 13,93213,399-26,797535-69,20317,36326,804-25,037
  of which:
    Belgium **-656-642-1629335348
    France  24012810378**5891,256
    Germany  **176-97160138-616-416
    Italy **174-5695361979
    Luxembourg 5,0437,553-20,202-7,605-92,6608,4633,453-80,746
    Netherlands  4,0742,941-2,6464,371*4,150*27,986
    Spain -67291006146-15-216-185
    Switzerland **-2,813-3,061**-3,435*
    United Kingdom  10,4364111210,8577131,828-7041,836
    EU 283 17,56913,034-24,1056,500-79,82916,28617,359-46,181
    EMU 194 7,16011,294-23,167-4,713-83,10313,24918,309-51,544
 
Americas 25,0892,636-9,88817,839-14,5963,1026,492-5,001
  North America 16,0891,181-10,1067,163-7,0288911,1924,252
   of which:
    Canada -6-71191072521223289
    United States  16,0951,187-10,2277,056-7,2817411,1683,963
  Central America ***10,343*2,917*-9,009
  South America ***332*99*-245
 
Asia **-300-1,815**-892-1,598
  of which:
    China **24***0*
    Hong Kong *-14*-434*-10-16*
    Japan *-46*387**-1,219-1,477
 
Africa ******6910
Oceania and Polar Regions 572-393-31723-92845
 
Not geographically allocated5 1,428370**14,836810-18,755-3,108
 
Total 43,78211,774-28,37727,180-65,88817,45013,749-34,690
  of which:
    All offshore centre6 5,4882,169-1,9585,699 -4,8964,132-4,014-4,777
1Data are provided according to arithmetic sign conventions e.g. minus signs are used in cases where there is withdrawal of investment.
2Revised.
3For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
4The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
5This category covers data supplied by respondents without a geographical breakdown.
6This category overlaps with the regions referred to above and covers Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St Maarten, Turks and Caicos Islands, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Maldives, Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 2 Direct Investment1 Flows into Ireland Classified by Location of Investor € million
Region/Country2016 22017
EquityReinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal EquityReinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal
Europe69,71128,458-1,68296,48825,56546,8343,99076,388
  of which:
    Belgium *1,080*4,3161,7981,781-5,134-1,556
    France -741,729331,688*1,726*-1,864
    Germany -5336892,3892,544-75161-850-765
    Italy -6071,4111,2822,086*2,387*2,298
    Luxembourg*978*-55,307*11,547*23,212
    Netherlands 13,0337,254-13,5856,701-4528,01422,01729,580
    United Kingdom 3,0052,883-21,449-15,5611,2471,1216232,993
    EU 283 15,17016,446-57,530-25,915-2,24327,40029,97055,127
    EMU 19411,80113,486-63,023-37,734-3,41826,14329,68152,407
 
North America*1,110*-56,390*1,187*-62,063
  of which:
    Canada*17*-957*-44*-1,677
    United States 24,4541,095-80,982-55,433-19,3191,231-42,297-60,386
 
Central America3,0396,539-3,0546,525-20,7963,92820,6883,817
  of which:
    Bermuda1,7347,097-2,7386,092*2,944*-20,337
 
South America*0*1*0*-14
  of which:
    Brazil00155155007272
 
Asia1,216420-13,311-11,676-202881-2,093-1,415
  of which:
    China**1,6981,897**14109
    Japan **-230530**-2,548-2,286
 
Africa316-126-87-124**
Oceania and Polar Regions-12*-1,160***719736
 
Not geographically allocated56*1,768*****
 
Total97,98636,682-99,05935,607-35,52953,029-18,608-1,109
  of which:
    All offshore centres645,15710,52821,29776,981 -16,38314,99720,02718,641
1Data are provided according to arithmetic sign conventions e.g. minus signs are used in cases where there is withdrawal of investment.
2Revised.
3For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
4The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
5This category covers data supplied by respondents without a geographical breakdown.
6This category overlaps with the regions referred to above and covers Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Maldives, Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, St MaartenTurks and Caicos Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 3 Direct Investment1 Abroad End Year Positions Classified by Location of Investment€ million
Region/Country2016 2 2017
Equity Capital & Reinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal Equity Capital & Reinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal
Europe521,72976,086597,815 425,90690,568516,474
  of which: 
    France 2,8612893,149 3,5278534,381
    Germany 3,2372973,534 3,272-1363,136
    Italy603-82521 605-80525
    Luxembourg335,11966,373401,492 222,68660,815283,500
    Netherlands **54,821 64,54215,00879,551
    Switzerland**-17,587 **-13,177
    United Kingdom **94,174 74,68913,30287,991
    Offshore centres14,62153515,156 19,59739419,991
    EU 283 500,37997,414597,792 394,801101,204496,005
    EMU 194409,80673,871483,677 306,87580,817387,693
 
Americas185,494-23,816161,677 164,005-12,801151,204
  North America122,802-32,53290,270 111,208-16,24294,966
   of which: 
    Canada2,0642722,337 1,7463312,077
    United States 120,738-32,80587,933 109,462-16,57392,889
  Central America**70,212 52,4273,02055,447
   of which: 
    Offshore centres61,6967,78469,481 51,7032,86454,567
  South America**1,196 370420791
 
Asia 17,5852,57320,158 15,32577216,096
Africa*** **-111
Oceania and Polar Regions2,229** 2,096-6541,442
Not geographically allocated5*13,969* **32,029
 
Total745,11667,523812,639 645,66271,471717,133
  of which: 
    All offshore centres6**90,216 **77,733
1The sign convention used is: for year-end positions 'Abroad', an entry without sign indicates a net asset position, while a minus sign indicates a net liability position.
2Revised.
3For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
4The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
5This category covers data supplied by respondents without a geographical breakdown.
6This category overlaps with the regions referred to above and covers Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Maldives, Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, St Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 4 Direct Investment1 in Ireland End Year Positions Classified by Location of Investor € million
Region/Country2016 22017
Equity Capital & Reinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal Equity Capital & Reinvested EarningsOther CapitalTotal
Europe495,917-24,008471,908 510,946-29,455481,491
  of which: 
    Belgium21,271-12,1279,144 21,481-16,0505,430
    France 18,3591,09819,457 16,310-1,20915,101
    Germany 8,257-3,7424,515 7,811-2,4025,409
    Italy 7,3804157,795 8,0733108,384
    Luxembourg138,703** 148,652-56,25092,402
    Netherlands 67,78017,26185,042 60,87539,138100,013
    Spain**7,972 **9,215
    Switzerland50,9236,62357,546 74,03743974,476
    United Kingdom 70,6503,39674,046 70,713-12,54558,168
    Offshore centres*726* *186*
    EU 283353,225-31,058322,167 355,409-28,941326,468
    EMU 194276,262-58,260218,003 279,124-37,386241,739
 
North America88,007137,961225,968 78,617100,753179,370
  of which: 
    Canada2,927-5592,368 1,264-886379
    United States 85,080138,520223,600 77,353101,639178,992
 
Central America87,424-20,54366,882 67,4023,67971,081
  of which: 
    Offshore centres87,424-20,13067,295 67,40231767,719
 
South America0-561-561 0-143-143
  of which: 
    Brazil0-125-125 0-111-111
 
Asia*-4,834* 12,487-7,0545,433
  of which: 
    China*276* *-217*
    Japan2,364452,409 2,376-1,948428
    Singapore**-4,415 384-4,441-4,058
    Offshore centres5537-4,571-4,034 561-4,178-3,616
 
Africa 189-1854 *-48*
Oceania and Polar Regions**-620 45375420
 
Not geographically allocated6*** *4,086*
 
Total706,27791,244797,521 672,19372,193744,386
  of which: 
    All offshore centres7176,927-23,978152,949 146,618-3,641142,977
1The sign convention used is: for year-end positions 'Abroad', an entry without sign indicates a net liability position, while a minus sign indicates a net asset position.
2Revised.
3For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
4The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
5This category overlaps with some of the regions referred to above.
6This category covers data supplied by respondents without a geographical breakdown.
7This category overlaps with the regions referred to above and covers Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Maldives, Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, St Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 5 Direct Investment1 Flows Abroad Classified by Activity2 of Resident Investor € million
SectorNACE 2 2016 32017
 Total         of which: Total         of which:
Section & DivisionEU 284EMU 195 EU 284EMU 195
All Industries 27,1806,500-4,713-34,690-46,181-51,544
  of which: 
  Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Mining and Quarrying; ConstructionA, B & F******
 
  Total Manufacturing SectorC4,2951,5655373,6106,8345,672
    Food, beverages and tobacco products10, 11 & 12324456****
    Textiles and wood13, 14 & 16 - 18*242****
    Basic pharmaceutical products and preparations21***-2,460298290
    Other manufacturing n.e.s. **1845,1257,5636,971
       
  Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning supplyD******
 
  Total Services Sector45 - 9921,6492,434-7,324-41,112-53,657-58,058
    Wholesale and retail trade; Repairs of motor vehiclesG1,742**-1,894260142
    Transportation and storageH**0**0
    Information and communicationJ-1,174172*12,672**
    Financial and insurance activitiesK*1,1874968,322-187186
    of which: 
      Activities of holding companies64.2-682**2,153**
    Other service activities6 7,869-197-6,497 *-64,522*
1Data are provided according to arithmetic sign conventions e.g. minus signs are used in cases where there is withdrawal of investment.
2The activity classification used in this release is the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
3Revised.
4For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
5The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
6This covers residual FDI service activity.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 6 Direct Investment1 Flows into Ireland Classified by Activity2 of Resident Enterprise € million
SectorNACE2 2016 32017
 Total of which:  Total of which:
Section & DivisionUnited StatesJapanEU 284EMU 195Offshore Centres United StatesJapanEU 284EMU 195Offshore Centres
All Industries 35,607-55,433530-25,915-37,73476,981-1,109-60,386-2,28655,12752,40718,641
  Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Mining and Quarrying; ConstructionA, B & F**0*****0**0
  Total Manufacturing SectorC-2,767*-135-10,983-6,604*-28,338-30,563129-3,279-5,669-1,023
    Food, beverages and tobacco products10, 11 & 12-371*0747**1,232*0**2,098
    Textiles and wood13, 14 & 16 - 18*00**0000000
    Basic pharmaceutical products and preparations219,187-252248**-681-4,664-4,64211-2,444-2,612-1,563
    Other manufacturing n.e.s. *-86,641-383*1,45571,799-24,906*118**-1,558
 
  Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning supplyD*00**0**0**0
  Total Services Sector45 - 9938,27531,911666-15,007-31,0924,52827,055-29,830-2,41458,24958,00419,664
    Wholesale and retail trade; Repairs of motor vehiclesG***2,2212,318*26,753*-10***
    Transportation and storageH*00**0*00**0
    Information and communicationJ7,0591,99711,1648662,09121,924*7***
    Financial intermediation641,89016,027-199-16,355-30,806-3,3495,804-12,191-2,31937,25239,4252,152
      of which: 
       Activities of holding companies64.2-1,639****1471,474****1,246
    Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding652,6341,074100-7848361,323607-1,826*1,630848906
    Other financial activities661,412***861*1,045**740751*
    Other services activities6 **570**3,078 **37**484
1Data are provided according to arithmetic sign conventions. e.g. minus signs are used in cases where there is withdrawal of investment.
2The activity classification used in this release is the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
3Revised.
4For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
5The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain
6This covers residual FDI service activity
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 7 Direct Investment1 Abroad End Year Positions Classified by Activity2 of Resident Investor€ million
SectorNACE 2 2016 32017
 Total         of which: Total         of which:
Section & DivisionEU 284EMU 195 EU 284EMU 195
All Industries 812,639597,792483,677717,133496,005387,693
  of which: 
  Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Mining and Quarrying; ConstructionA, B & F******
 
  Total Manufacturing SectorC62,75026,37718,47272,88935,55326,368
    Food, beverages and tobacco products10, 11 & 1219,692*****
    Textiles and wood13, 14 & 16 - 18******
    Basic pharmaceutical products and preparations21****916788
    Other manufacturing n.e.s. **2,58442,893*8,727
 
  Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning supplyD******
 
  Total Services Sector45 - 99720,017557,637454,267 615,737447,443350,954
    Wholesale and retail trade; Repairs of motor vehiclesG15,9157,1791,336 16,1289,9152,992
    Transportation and storageH**0 **0
    Information and communicationJ3,3951,742777 15,023**
    Financial and insurance activitiesK91,52419,1525,106 86,82615,7372,999
     of which: 
        Activities of holding companies64.27,185** 8,0451,226689
    Other service activities6 **447,048 *407,259*
1The sign convention used is: for year-end positions 'Abroad', an entry without sign indicates a net asset position, while a minus sign indicates a net liability position.
2The activity classification used in this release is the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
3Revised.
4For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
5The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
6This covers residual FDI service activity.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 8 Direct Investment1 in Ireland End Year Positions Classified by Activity2 of Resident Enterprise € million
SectorNACE2 2016 32017
 Total of which: Total of which:
Section & DivisionUnited StatesJapanEU 284EMU 195Offshore Centres United StatesJapanEU 284EMU 195Offshore Centres
All Industries 797,521223,6002,409322,167218,003152,949744,386178,992428326,468241,739142,977
  Agriculture, Forestry and FishingA**0**0000000
  Mining and Quarrying; ConstructionB *00*00**0**0
  Total ManufacturingC321,432*1050,91053,07696,013274,215*38643,64644,45481,730
    Food, beverages and tobacco products10, 11 & 125,3514*5,12811,075*3,959**3,2777,078*
    Textiles and wood13, 14 & 16 - 18000000000000
    Basic pharmaceutical products and preparations2168,450-1,85028129,66528,61912,93955,865-4,78030823,40321,9269,672
    Metal and mechanical products24, 25, 26 & 28***14,17113,612****11,571**
    Other manufacturing **-341,946-2308,122*3,172*5,395*8,082
 
  Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning supplyD*00**0*00**0
  Total Services Sector45 - 99475,12773,5872,399270,298164,66556,936469,12275,03242281,775196,96961,247
    Wholesale and retail trade; Repairs of motor vehiclesG17,2613,661*7,5956,486*43,3032,087*10,5519,552*
    Information and communicationJ19,263*-162,1658137,36836,211-249-444,70743,893-11,582
    Financial intermediation 64204,41329,412273108,28144,09328,053197,28345,649*110,85268,59824,102
     of which: 
        Activities of holding companies64.221,381**7,1727,0076,92220,353**6,1155,9236,963
    Insurance services6526,0036,934*14,86813,4132,67925,3074,543*15,66613,7153,427
    Administrative and support activitiesN63,61815,7732,062*-20,3357,80458,7838,8331,81413,122-19,81111,202
    Other services activities6 144,569*-29*120,195* 108,23514,169*86,87781,022*
1The sign convention used is: for year-end positions 'In Ireland' an entry without sign indicates a net liability position, while a minus sign indicates a net asset position.
2The activity classification used in this release is the NACE Rev. 2 classification.
3Revised.
4For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
5The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
6This covers residual FDI service activity
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.
Table 9 Direct Investment Income1 Flows Classified by Geographic Location of Creditor/Debtor € million
Region/Country2016 22017
InflowsOutflowsNet InflowsOutflowsNet
Europe17,53041,443-23,91319,36854,779-35,411
  of which: 
     Belgium 871,118-1,031771,794-1,717
    France 1562,067-1,9111491,908-1,759
    Germany 182625-443177208-31
    Italy621,501-1,439142,408-2,394
    Luxembourg 10,4885,2395,2499,59412,219-2,625
    Netherlands 3,85612,905-9,0495,08613,500-8,414
    Spain62243-1815428-423
    Switzerland-9197,480-8,399*7,226*
    United Kingdom 1,1184,473-3,3552,2162,846-630
    EU 28317,65428,869-11,21518,82736,718-17,891
    EMU 19415,27123,845-8,57415,45932,561-17,102
 
Americas4,83118,495-13,6644,19715,728-11,531
  of which: 
    Canada054-5427-3461
    United States 2,3142,481-1671,1712,907-1,736
    Offshore centres 2,39515,969-13,5732,84712,860-10,013
 
Asia*700**1,084*
  of which: 
    Japan 64454-39022365-343
 
Africa******
Oceania and Polar Regions95**1**
Not geographically allocated543435777713423290
 
Total18,38361,056-42,67320,72872,048-51,320
  of which: 
    Offshore centres63,15020,891-17,741 4,10924,129-20,020
1Income on equity and other direct investment capital.
2Revised.
3For analytical purposes, additional details are given of transactions between residents of Ireland and residents of the EU28 area.
4The relevant EMU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
5This category covers data supplied by respondents without a geographical breakdown.
6This category overlaps with the regions referred to above and covers Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Montserrat, Maldives Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, St MaartenTurks and Caicos Islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa.
*Data suppressed for confidentiality reasons.

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