Back to Top

 Skip navigation

Have you noticed a change in your finances in the last year? Tell us how the cost of living impacts you https://link.cso.ie/pulse-our-money/

Extra information
For more information on this release:
E-mail: earnings@cso.ie Brian Cahill (+353) 21 453 5173 Gerard Brett/Ronan O'Sullivan (+353) 21 453 5513/5216 Karen Desmond/Sheila Bulman (+353) 21 453 5512/5222
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN 2009-5023
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Earnings and Labour Costs Annual

2017

 20162017Annual Change
 € million€ million%
Total Earnings62,86166,5615.9
Total Other Labour Costs10,00010,6176.2
Total Labour Costs72,86177,1785.9
 %
Average Earnings36,92037,6462.0
Average Other Labour Costs5,8736,0052.2
Average Total Labour Costs42,79343,6512.0

Average annual earnings €37,646 in 2017, up by 2.0%

Figure 1 Average annual earnings by economic sector
go to full release

Average annual earnings €37,646 in 2017, up by 2.0%

Average annual earnings increased by 2.0% to €37,646 in 2017, from €36,920 in 2016. This compares to an annual increase of 1.3% in 2016 from €36,458 in 2015. See figure 1 and table 5.

Key features of the annual results for 2017 include:

  • Average annual earnings for full-time employees in 2017 were €46,402 (up 1.7% on 2016) while the average for part-time employees were €17,059 (an increase of 3.2%). See figure 5 and table 5.
  • Total earnings rose to €66.6 billion in 2017, an increase of 5.9% on 2016. This increase was driven by a rise in the average numbers employed of 3.8%, a 0.2% increase in average weekly hours worked and a 1.7% increase in average hourly earnings. See figure 9, table 2 and table 11.
  • Total cost of employing labour increased by 5.9% in 2017 with total annual labour costs reaching €77.2 billion. See figure 2 and table 1.

Revisions: Earnings and Labour Costs data have been revised from 2008 to 2017. These revisions are reflected in both the Earnings and Labour Costs Annual 2017 release and related StatBank tables. These revisions arise as a result of the introduction of the new Labour Force Survey, new population estimates as a result of the 2016 Census of Population and other minor updates to EHECS aggregation processes. The revisions primarily change the number of employees in NACE sectors over the period and thus mainly affect the total earnings and labour costs statistics. The revisions have minor impact on average earnings and labour costs statistics and do not change previously published trends.

 

Total annual labour costs increase 5.9% to €77.2 billion in 2017

The total cost of employing labour in 2017 was €77.2 billion, an increase of 5.9% from 2016. Total annual labour costs were €62.3 billion in 2012 and have increased each year to 2017, up 23.9% to €77.2 billion in the five years. See figure 2, table 1 and table 4.

GroupOther Labour CostsIrregular EarningsOvertime EarningsApprentice EarningsPart-time Regular EarningsFull-time Regular Earnings
2012825464000026811050001394467000344026000637851700043235969000
2013868187100027164080001390047000364952000674522400044158613000
2014890130000030372140001464399000378167000707125500045375136000
2015940451500030354110001532330000423848000729465200047734041000
20161000002100033373040001684029000426765000768159600049730892000
20171061702400035553970001795467000447973000822146900052540467000

In 2017, full-time employee regular earnings accounted for €52.5 billion (68.1%) of the €77.2 billion total labour costs, while part-time employee regular earnings were €8.2 billion (10.7%). The other main components were €10.6 billion (13.8%) other labour costs, €3.6 billion (4.6%) irregular earnings, €1.8 billion (2.3%) overtime earnings and €0.4 billion (0.6%) apprentice/trainee earnings. See figure 2, figure 3 and table 1.

The Industry sector had the highest total annual labour costs of €12.4 billion in 2017 followed by the Wholesale and retail trade sector (€10.4 billion) and the Human health and social work sector (€9.6 billion). The Administrative and support services sector and the Arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities sector had the lowest total annual labour costs of €2.9 billion and €1.5 billion respectively. See table 4.

Figure 4 outlines the annual growth of each component of the total annual labour costs from 2012 to 2017. Full-time regular earnings increased each year from €43.2 billion in 2012 to €52.5 billion in 2017, with a 5.6% rise in 2017. The changes in full-time regular earnings are strongly linked to the number of full-time employees employed. See table 1.

Part-time regular earnings increased every year from €6.4 billion in 2012 to €8.2 billion in 2017 with a 7.0% rise in 2017.  These increases are strongly linked to the growth of part-time employment. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual earnings of apprentices and trainees increased each year from 2012 (€0.3 billion) to 2017 (€0.4 billion), with an increase of 5.0% in 2017. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual overtime earnings were €1.4 billion in 2012. It decreased by 0.3% in 2013 and has increased each year since with a 6.6% increase in 2017 reaching €1.8 billion. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual irregular earnings were €2.7 billion in 2012. Total annual irregular earnings increased from 2012 to 2014 then decreased by 0.1% in 2015 and increased again in 2016 and 2017. The 2017 figure of €3.6 billion is 6.5% higher than in 2016 and 32.6% higher than in 2012See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual other labour costs have increased each year from €8.3 billion in 2012 to €10.6 billion in 2017, a cumulative increase of 28.6%. See figure 4, table 1 and table 3.

Proportion of Total Annual Labour Costs 2017 (%)
€ 52,450 million
Full-time Regular Earnings
68.1
€ 8,221 million
Part-time Regular Earnings
10.7
€ 448 million
Apprentice/Trainee Earnings
0.6
€ 1,795 million
Overtime Earnings
2.3
€ 3,555 million
Irregular Earnings
4.6
€ 10,617 million
Other Labour Costs
13.8
Proportion of Total Annual Labour Costs 2017 (%)
€52,450 million
Full-time Regular Earnings
68.1
€8,221 million
Part-time Regular Earnings
10.7
€448 million
Apprentice/Trainee Earnings
0.6
€1,795 million
Overtime Earnings
2.3
€3,555 million
Irregular Earnings
4.6
€10,617 million
Other Labour Costs
13.8
2012 - 20132013 - 20142014 - 20152015 - 20162016 - 2017
Full-time Earnings2.12.85.24.25.6
Part-time Earnings5.74.83.25.37
Apprentice Earnings6.13.612.10.75
Overtime Earnings-0.35.34.69.96.6
Irregular Earnings1.311.8-0.19.96.5
Other Labour Costs5.22.55.76.36.2

Average annual earnings increase 2% to €37,646 in 2017

Average annual earnings for all employees, including regular, overtime and irregular earnings, were €37,646 in 2017, an increase of 2.0% from 2016. Average annual earnings were €46,402 for full-time employees in 2017, an increase of 1.7% from 2016. Part-time employees earned €17,059 on average in 2017, an increase of 3.2% in the year. See figure 5 and table 5.

Average annual earnings increased by €1,579 (4.4%) from €36,067 in 2012 to €37,646 in 2017. Average annual earnings for full-time employees has increased 4.3% in the five-year period up from €44,492 in 2012, to €46,402 in 2017. Average annual earnings for part-time employees increased from €15,832 in 2012, to €17,059 in 2017, an increase of 7.8%. See figure 5 and table 5.

All EmployeesFull-time EmployeesPart-time Employees
2012360674449215832
2013359554471115803
2014360464483115952
2015364584505916242
2016369204562716532
2017376464640217059

Average annual total earnings rise in 12 of the 13 sectors

Average annual total earnings rose in 12 of the 13 economic sectors in 2017. The largest percentage increase was 5.1% in the Administrative and support services sector where average annual earnings rose from €27,096 to €28,490. Average annual earnings in the Professional, scientific and technical sector rose by 3.7%, rising from €44,632 to €46,274. The only decrease was in the Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities sector (-0.1%) where average annual earnings fell from €24,580 to €24,563 between 2016 and 2017. 

Average annual total earnings were comprised of 92.0% regular earnings, 2.7% overtime earnings and 5.3% irregular earnings. Figure 6 illustrates these components of average annual total earnings by economic sectors in 2017.

Average annual total earnings vary widely across the economy with the highest averages in Information and communication at €56,757 and Financial, insurance and real estate at €55,634. The Financial, insurance and real estate sector had the highest average regular earnings of €50,465 while the Information and communication sector had the highest average irregular earnings of €6,936. The Industry sector recorded the highest average annual overtime earnings of €2,427 in 2017. The Accommodation and food services sector had average annual total earnings of €17,607, the lowest of the sectors. This comprised of €16,964 regular earnings, €216 overtime earnings and €428 irregular earnings. See figure 6 and table 5.

Irregular Earnings 2016Overtime Earnings 2016Regular Earnings 2016Irregular Earnings 2017Overtime Earnings 2017Regular Earnings 2017
Industry29002395392532910242739867
Construction681157136018878162435889
Wholesale & Retail169061626426162064527051
Transportation20971626357051959149536757
Accommodation & Food3882451656342821616964
Information & Comm619342549290693640849414
Financial & Real Estate473061049226459157850465
Professional & Technical257535841698292233043022
Admin & Support Service168354524868171559326182
Public Admin & Defence20621724435432287204944571
Education4642024097752321341938
Health & Social15351228327411598124433471
Arts & Entertainment114836023071101540923138
All Sectors1960989339712011101634620
Total All Sectors K-L Financial, insurance and real estate activities
B-E Industry M Professional, scientific and technical activities
F Construction N Administrative and support service activities
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles O Public Administration and defence; compulsory social security
H Transportation and storage P Education
I Accommodation and food service activities Q Human health and social work activities
J Information and communication R-S Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities


Average annual hourly earnings up 1.7% to €22.43 in 2017

The average annual hourly earnings of all employees were €22.43 in 2017. The Education sector recorded the highest average annual hourly earnings of €34.56, yet recorded the lowest number of average annual weekly paid hours of 23.7. The Financial, insurance and real estate sector and the Information and communication sector had the next highest earners, with average annual hourly earnings of €30.82 and €30.12 and average annual weekly paid hours of 34.7 and 36.2 respectively. The Industry sector had the highest average annual weekly paid hours of 38.3, followed by the Public administration and defence and Construction sectors, both having an average of 36.7 hours in 2017. Figure 7 illustrates the components of average annual hourly earnings by economic sectors, while figure 8 illustrates the components of average annual weekly paid hours. See table 8 and table 9.

X Axis LabelIrregular EarningsOvertime EarningsRegular Earnings
Industry1.461.2220.04
Construction0.460.8518.82
Wholesale & Retail10.416.75
Transportation1.040.7919.43
Accommodation & Food0.310.1612.24
Information & Comm3.680.2226.23
Financial & Real Estate2.540.3227.96
Professional & Technical1.660.1924.47
Admin & Support Service1.060.3716.14
Public Admin & Defence1.21.0723.39
Education0.420.1733.97
Health & Social0.990.7720.74
Arts & Entertainment0.690.2815.74
All Sectors1.20.6120.63
X Axis LabelAverage Overtime Weekly Paid HoursAverage Regular Weekly Paid Hours
Industry1.736.5
Construction1.235.5
Wholesale & Retail0.830.3
Transportation1.235.2
Accommodation & Food0.326.3
Information & Comm0.336
Financial & Real Estate0.334.4
Professional & Technical0.333.5
Admin & Support Service0.630.6
Public Admin & Defence1.235.4
Education0.123.7
Health & Social0.830.2
Arts & Entertainment0.627.7
All Sectors0.831.5

Components of earnings

In order to change their wage bill, employers have three options available to them, namely: employment level and composition, hourly wage rate and weekly working hours of employees.

                              Total earnings    =    hourly wage rate    x    hours worked    x    employees

Increase in all wage bill components in 2017

The total wage bill has increased each year from 2012 to 2017. The main driver of total earnings is employment, which has similarly increased each year from 2012 to 2017.

Average weekly paid hours increased in 2012, fell in 2013, then increased each year from 2014 to 2017.

Average hourly earnings fell in 2013 and 2014 before increasing from 2015 to 2017.

All wage bill components increased in 2017. Total annual earnings increased by 5.9% to €66.6 billion, this was due to increases of 3.8% in employment, of 1.7% in average hourly earnings (€22.43) and of 0.2% in average weekly paid hours (32.3 hours). See figure 9 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2012 - 20132.52.8-0.30
2013 - 20143.53.3-0.30.6
2014 - 20154.73.50.11
2015 - 20164.73.40.80.5
2016 - 20175.93.81.70.2

Increase in total annual earnings of full-time employees from 2012 to 2017

Total annual earnings of full-time employees rose each year from 2012 to 2017.

Employment increased each year from 2012 to 2017.

Average weekly paid hours increased from 2012 to 2016 but fell in 2017.

Average hourly earnings increased from 2012 to 2017, with the exception of 2014.

Employment increased in 2017 by 4.0% while average hourly earnings increased 1.9% to €24.14. Average weekly paid hours dropped -0.2% to 37.0 hours. These contributed to total annual earnings increasing 5.7% to €57.4 billion in the year. See figure 10 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2012 - 201321.50.20.3
2013 - 20143.33.1-0.20.5
2014 - 20154.94.30.30.2
2015 - 20164.63.30.80.5
2016 - 20175.741.9-0.2

Increase in total annual earnings of part-time employees from 2012 to 2017

Total annual earnings of part-time employees rose each year from 2012 to 2017.

Employment and average weekly paid hours increased each year from 2012 to 2017.

Average hourly earnings decreased each year from 2012 to 2015, followed by increases in 2016 and 2017.

All components of part-time earnings increased in 2017, with employment up 3.6%, average hourly earnings up 1.1% to €15.73 and average weekly paid hours up 2.0% to 20.9 hours. These contributed to an increase in total annual earnings of 6.9% to €8.7 billion in the year. See figure 11 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2012 - 20135.75.9-1.41.2
2013 - 20144.73.7-0.41.3
2014 - 20153.21.3-0.52.4
2015 - 20165.63.710.8
2016 - 20176.93.61.12

Average annual other labour costs 13.8% of average annual total labour costs in 2017

Average annual other labour costs accounted for 13.8% of average annual total labour costs in 2017. This represents an increase from 2012 when average annual other labour costs were 13.3% of average annual total labour costs.

Other labour costs are comprised of statutory social contributions (e.g. employer PRSI), non-statutory contributions (e.g. employer pension contributions), benefits in kind (BIK), other expenses (e.g. employer training expenses) and subsidies and refunds.

Average annual statutory social contributions increased each year since 2012 and were €3,560 in 2017.

Average annual non-statutory social contributions increased each year from 2012 to 2017, except for 2014 and 2015. They rose to €1,752 in 2017, an annual increase of 0.6%.

Average annual other expenses have increased 4.8% since 2012, while average annual BIK has had an upward trend over the period 2012 to 2017, increasing 33.5% over the five years. See figure 12, table 7 and table 10.

Statutory Social ContributionsNon-Statutory Social ContributionsOther ExpensesBenefits in Kind
201231981773310313
201332061876310316
201433331693310326
201534021678314368
201634761741319392
201735601752325418
Table 1 Total labour costs components
Total Labour Costs Components201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
 €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
Full-time Regular Earnings43,236.044,158.645,375.147,734.049,730.952,540.55.621.5
Part-time Regular Earnings6,378.56,745.27,071.37,294.77,681.68,221.57.028.9
Apprentices/Trainees Earnings344.0365.0378.2423.8426.8448.05.030.2
Overtime Earnings1,394.51,390.01,464.41,532.31,684.01,795.56.628.8
Irregular Earnings2,681.12,716.43,037.23,035.43,337.33,555.46.532.6
Total Earnings54,034.155,375.257,326.260,020.362,860.666,560.85.923.2
Other Labour Costs8,254.68,681.98,901.39,404.510,000.010,617.06.228.6
Total Labour Costs62,288.764,057.166,227.569,424.872,860.677,177.85.923.9
Table 2 Total annual earnings by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry7,949.58,432.98,856.09,306.29,727.710,214.85.028.5
FConstruction2,038.22,096.62,540.62,844.03,347.73,648.79.079.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles7,357.97,628.67,735.98,129.68,506.58,905.24.721.0
HTransportation and storage2,297.32,360.92,410.32,550.82,695.32,809.84.222.3
IAccommodation and food services2,040.52,239.02,440.02,506.72,738.13,029.310.648.5
JInformation and communication2,938.83,037.23,188.03,487.63,671.53,983.48.535.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate4,496.34,519.64,768.44,784.05,085.25,145.21.214.4
MProfessional, scientific and technical2,953.33,267.83,460.63,686.44,060.64,213.83.842.7
NAdministrative and support services 1,909.21,854.11,971.92,143.92,245.12,539.613.133.0
OPublic administration and defence5,250.75,166.95,283.35,529.55,320.95,741.77.99.4
PEducation5,598.55,621.95,670.45,713.15,839.96,360.98.913.6
QHuman health and social work8,050.07,962.47,881.58,108.98,282.78,639.64.37.3
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities1,153.71,187.31,119.31,229.71,339.31,328.8-0.815.2
Total 54,034.155,375.257,326.260,020.362,860.666,560.85.923.2
Table 3 Total annual other labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry1,690.41,857.91,919.22,003.92,180.72,211.11.430.8
FConstruction259.8261.9329.0355.0425.5454.36.874.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles1,166.01,144.61,217.41,288.41,356.31,479.99.126.9
HTransportation and storage485.2445.7427.0444.3449.2465.53.6-4.1
IAccommodation and food services186.9204.9257.4268.2287.1324.312.973.6
JInformation and communication616.1809.2698.3816.6868.8949.69.354.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate1,158.11,192.51,200.11,194.81,236.61,317.66.613.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical484.4546.7538.2589.2667.0700.15.044.5
NAdministrative and support services 259.1254.1283.2302.9312.9371.418.743.4
OPublic administration and defence402.1407.8434.4464.3458.0502.49.724.9
PEducation551.9563.1578.2591.3626.8679.18.323.1
QHuman health and social work830.2812.0844.4892.0911.4959.95.315.6
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities164.5181.5174.6193.6219.6201.8-8.122.7
Total 8,254.68,681.98,901.39,404.510,000.010,617.06.228.6
Table 4 Total annual labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry9,639.910,290.810,775.211,310.111,908.412,425.94.328.9
FConstruction2,297.92,358.62,869.63,199.03,773.24,103.08.778.6
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles8,523.98,773.28,953.39,418.09,862.910,385.15.321.8
HTransportation and storage2,782.52,806.52,837.32,995.13,144.53,275.24.217.7
IAccommodation and food services2,227.42,443.92,697.42,774.93,025.33,353.610.950.6
JInformation and communication3,554.93,846.43,886.34,304.24,540.24,933.08.738.8
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate5,654.55,712.25,968.55,978.86,321.86,462.82.214.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical3,437.73,814.43,998.74,275.64,727.64,913.93.942.9
NAdministrative and support services 2,168.32,108.32,255.12,446.82,558.12,911.113.834.3
OPublic administration and defence5,652.85,574.75,717.75,993.85,779.06,244.18.010.5
PEducation6,150.46,185.06,248.66,304.46,466.77,040.08.914.5
QHuman health and social work8,880.28,774.38,725.99,000.99,194.19,599.54.48.1
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities1,318.21,368.81,293.91,423.31,558.91,530.7-1.816.1
Total 62,288.764,057.166,227.569,424.872,860.677,177.85.923.9
Table 5 Average annual earnings by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  %%
B-EIndustry42,47142,52744,10844,00344,54845,2041.56.4
FConstruction35,47336,18537,81037,03038,27038,3910.38.2
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles26,89527,20527,28228,00628,73229,3162.09.0
HTransportation and storage37,59438,30838,07238,92339,42840,2112.07.0
IAccommodation and food services16,29616,08416,47816,60517,19717,6072.48.0
JInformation and communication52,02953,02953,43255,96655,90856,7571.59.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate51,11151,79153,52252,87754,56655,6342.08.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical41,97942,21941,14041,95444,63246,2743.710.2
NAdministrative and support services 25,77025,84325,82326,92827,09628,4905.110.6
OPublic administration and defence48,11448,27347,86148,17347,32948,9073.31.6
PEducation43,61942,52241,30341,94041,64342,6742.5-2.2
QHuman health and social work36,73035,76535,01535,25135,50536,3132.3-1.1
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities23,99425,21124,63424,63324,58024,563-0.12.4
Total 36,06735,95536,04636,45836,92037,6462.04.4
Full-time/Part-time Employees        
Full-time employees44,49244,71144,83145,05945,62746,4021.74.3
Part-time employees15,83215,80315,95216,24216,53217,0593.27.8
¹ Average annual earnings are inclusive of overtime and irregular earnings.
Table 6 Average annual other labour costs by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  %%
B-EIndustry9,0319,3699,5599,4759,9869,785-2.08.3
FConstruction4,5214,5214,8974,6234,8644,780-1.75.7
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles4,2624,0824,2934,4384,5814,8726.414.3
HTransportation and storage7,9407,2316,7446,7806,5716,6611.4-16.1
IAccommodation and food services1,4921,4721,7381,7771,8031,8854.526.3
JInformation and communication10,90814,12911,70313,10413,23013,5312.324.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate13,16513,66513,47013,20613,26914,2477.48.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical6,8857,0636,3986,7057,3327,6884.911.7
NAdministrative and support services 3,4973,5423,7083,8053,7774,16710.319.2
OPublic administration and defence3,6853,8103,9354,0454,0744,2795.016.1
PEducation4,3004,2594,2124,3414,4694,5561.96.0
QHuman health and social work3,7883,6473,7523,8783,9074,0343.36.5
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities3,4213,8543,8433,8794,0303,731-7.49.1
Total 5,5105,6375,5975,7135,8736,0052.29.0
¹ Other labour costs include statutory employers' PRSI, other social costs, benefits in kind, etc.
Table 7 Average annual total labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  %%
B-EIndustry51,50251,89653,66753,47854,53454,9890.86.8
FConstruction39,99540,70542,70741,65343,13443,1700.17.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles31,15731,28731,57632,44433,31334,1882.69.7
HTransportation and storage45,53345,53944,81545,70345,99946,8721.92.9
IAccommodation and food services17,78917,55618,21718,38219,00019,4922.69.6
JInformation and communication62,93667,15865,13569,07069,13870,2891.711.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate64,27665,45766,99366,08367,83569,8813.08.7
MProfessional, scientific and technical48,86549,28247,53748,65951,96453,9633.810.4
NAdministrative and support services 29,26729,38529,53130,73330,87332,6565.811.6
OPublic administration and defence51,79852,08451,79652,21751,40453,1863.52.7
PEducation47,91946,78145,51446,28246,11247,2302.4-1.4
QHuman health and social work40,51839,41238,76639,12839,41240,3472.4-0.4
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities27,41529,06528,47728,51128,60928,293-1.13.2
Total 41,57741,59241,64342,17042,79343,6512.05.0
Table 8 Average annual hourly earnings by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  %%
B-EIndustry21.8321.7822.2722.0722.2922.721.94.1
FConstruction19.3519.6019.5419.5419.8520.131.44.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles16.8417.1217.1817.4717.8418.161.87.8
HTransportation and storage20.1720.6520.6620.3621.0121.261.25.4
IAccommodation and food services12.3112.1212.1812.2312.4712.701.83.2
JInformation and communication27.7327.9628.3229.6629.7230.121.38.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate28.8629.0729.6829.3429.7530.823.66.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical24.9924.8224.3924.6325.4026.323.65.3
NAdministrative and support services 16.1616.5516.5317.0117.3217.561.48.7
OPublic administration and defence26.3025.9225.5225.5425.2325.661.7-2.4
PEducation35.7134.9233.9834.1533.8434.562.1-3.2
QHuman health and social work23.2222.8122.2722.0422.1322.501.7-3.1
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities16.2716.8416.8117.1116.8416.71-0.82.7
Total 21.9821.9221.8521.8822.0522.431.72.1
¹ Earnings are inclusive of overtime and irregular earnings.
Table 9 Average annual weekly paid hours by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
  HoursHoursHoursHoursHoursHours%%
B-EIndustry37.437.538.138.338.438.3-0.52.2
FConstruction35.335.537.236.437.136.7-1.14.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles30.730.630.530.831.031.10.21.1
HTransportation and storage35.835.735.436.836.136.40.81.5
IAccommodation and food services25.525.526.026.126.526.70.54.7
JInformation and communication36.136.536.336.336.236.20.20.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate34.134.334.734.735.334.7-1.61.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical32.332.732.432.833.833.80.14.7
NAdministrative and support services 30.730.030.030.430.131.23.71.7
OPublic administration and defence35.235.836.136.336.136.71.64.2
PEducation23.523.423.423.623.723.70.31.1
QHuman health and social work30.430.230.230.830.931.00.62.0
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities28.428.828.227.728.128.30.7-0.3
Total 31.631.531.732.032.232.30.22.3
Table 10 Average annual other labour costs components
Other Labour Costs Components201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
 %%
Statutory Social Contributions3,1983,2063,3333,4023,4763,5602.411.3
Non Statutory Social Contributions1,7731,8761,6931,6781,7411,7520.6-1.2
Other Expenses3103103103143193251.94.8
Benefits in Kind3133163263683924186.633.5
Average Other Labour Costs15,5105,6375,5975,7135,8736,0052.29.0
1Average Other Labour Costs differ from the sum of the components presented due to the inclusion of subsidy and refunds.
Table 11 Wage bill components, all employees, full-time employees and part-time employees
Wage Bill Components201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
All Employees       %%
Total earnings€/M54,034.155,375.257,326.260,020.362,860.666,560.85.923.2
Average employment"0001,4981,5401,5901,6461,7031,7683.818.0
Average hourly earnings21.9821.9221.8521.8822.0522.431.72.1
Average weekly paid hoursHours31.631.531.732.032.232.30.22.3
Full-time Employees         
Total earnings€/M46,922.247,858.149,459.851,869.354,275.757,389.45.722.3
Average employment"0001,0551,0701,1031,1511,1901,2374.017.3
Average hourly earnings23.4323.4723.4323.4923.6724.141.93.0
Average weekly paid hoursHours36.536.636.836.937.137.0-0.21.3
Part-time Employees         
Total earnings€/M6,767.97,152.27,488.27,727.18,158.18,723.46.928.9
Average employment"0004284534694764945113.619.6
Average hourly earnings15.7715.5515.4915.4115.5615.731.1-0.3
Average weekly paid hoursHours19.319.519.820.320.420.92.08.0
Table 12 Registered annual employment by economic sector1
NACE Principal Activity201220132014201520162017Annual change (2016-2017)Five year change (2012-2017)
        %%
B-EIndustry187,300196,400197,800209,000218,800226,6003.621.0
FConstruction57,70058,10065,20076,50087,70094,6007.964.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles270,700276,600280,800286,300296,100303,4002.512.1
HTransportation and storage60,00060,40062,00064,70068,40070,1002.516.8
IAccommodation and food services122,700137,800144,900148,800157,900169,3007.238.0
JInformation and communication56,50057,00059,60062,50065,80070,1006.524.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate87,70087,00089,10090,00093,30092,300-1.15.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical69,50077,00084,40087,50091,30091,7000.431.9
NAdministrative and support services 73,40071,50077,20080,30082,80090,1008.822.8
OPublic administration and defence106,700104,500107,400111,800112,700117,7004.410.3
PEducation127,500130,500134,700136,400139,600147,6005.715.8
QHuman health and social work217,700221,900224,700230,100233,800238,8002.19.7
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities47,80046,60045,40049,70053,20053,9001.312.8
Total 1,485,2001,525,3001,573,2001,633,7001,701,5001,766,1003.818.9
¹ It should be noted that the Labour Force Survey (LFS) is the official source of estimates of employment. https://www.cso.ie/en/statistics/labourmarket/labourforcesurvey/

Background Notes

Introduction 

The Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) replaced the four-yearly Labour Costs Survey, and also replaced all other CSO short-term earnings inquiries. The EHECS results are comparable across sectors and include more detail on components of earnings and labour costs than was previously available.

Legislation

The survey information was collected by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) under the S.I. No 140 of 2013 Statistics (Labour Costs Surveys) Order 2013. The information collected is treated as strictly confidential in accordance with the Statistics Act 1993. The survey results meet the requirements for Labour Costs statistics set out in Council Regulation (EC) 530/1999.

Business Register

The CSO’s Business Register provides the register of relevant enterprises for the survey. An enterprise is defined as the smallest legally independent unit.

Business Classification

The business classification used for the EHECS is based on the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2). The NACE code of each enterprise included in the survey was determined from the predominant activity of the enterprise, based on information provided in this or other CSO inquiries.

Nace Classification

NACE Rev.2 is the latest classification system for economic activities, updated from NACE Rev 1.1. A major revision of NACE was conducted between 2000 and 2007, in order to ensure that the NACE classification system remained relevant for the economy. The main changes that affected the release was the reclassification of some industrial enterprises from industry to services (principally in the software and publishing sectors) and the inclusion of air conditioning supply, sewerage, water management and remediation activities in industry.

Coverage

The survey results relate to enterprises in the NACE Rev.2 Sections B-E (Industry), F (Construction), G (Wholesale & retail trade: repair of motor vehicles & motorcycles), H (Transportation & storage), I (Accommodation & food services activities), J (Information & communication), K-L (Financial, insurance & real estate activities), M (Professional, scientific & technical activities), N (Administrative & support services activities), O (Public administration & defence), P (Education), Q (Human health & social work activities) and R-S (Arts, entertainment, recreation & other service activities) with 3 or more employees. The data was collected at enterprise level.

NACE Rev.2 Sections A (Agriculture, forestry and fishing), T (Activities of households as employers) and U (Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies) are not covered in the survey as most employment in these sectors is not enterprise based.

All enterprises with 50 or more employees and a sample of those with 3 to 49 employees are surveyed each quarter. The sample is based on the proportion of companies in each NACE 2 digit economic sectors in the 3 to 49 size classes (3 to 9, 10 to 19 and 20 to 49).

Earnings in the public sector are calculated before the deduction of the pension levy that was introduced in March 2009. For Q1 and Q2 2011 and Q1 2016 temporary census field staff are included in all calculations due to the large numbers involved.

Data Collection

The survey is conducted by post and questionnaires are issued in the last week of each quarter. Some returns are received electronically. All returns are scrutinised for accuracy. Where appropriate, firms are queried by post or telephone regarding incompleteness, apparent inconsistencies, etc. Information about the survey is on the CSO website and all questionnaires and instructions are available electronically there.


Definitions

Registered Employment:

Registered employment refers to the employment of respondent enterprises at the end of the reference quarter. For non-respondent enterprises and enterprises not in the sample, registered employment refers to the employment from the Business Register. The Business Register base enterprise employment on data from the latest revenue P35 files. The Business Register has a lag of between 12 and 18 months between the current quarter and the latest revenue P35 file. For this reason the Business Register is not a suitable measure of short term trends in employment. Thus, sectoral registered employment is adjusted to reflect the trends of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) sectoral employment. The LFS is designed to measure short term changes in employment. 

Average Employment

For respondent enterprises average employment refers to the average of the quarters opening employment and closing employment. This variable is used as the denominator in calculating average earnings per person and average paid hours per person.

All Employees

All persons who have a direct employment contract with an enterprise as employees, who receive wages or salaries. Persons not working for salary e.g. family members, directors, partners, outside pieceworker’s etc., are not considered employees but other persons engaged. These workers are included separately but not used in the calculation of derived variables. All employment figures are rounded to the nearest hundred.

Full-time Employees

Employees whose regular working hours are the same as the collectively agreed or customary hours worked in the enterprise, irrespective of the duration of the employment contract. Full-time employment often comes with benefits that are not typically offered to part-time, temporary, or flexible workers, such as annual leave, sick leave, and health insurance.

Part-time Employees

Employees whose regular working hours are less than the collectively agreed or customary hours worked in the enterprise. The definition of part-time varies from enterprise to enterprise but in general part-time employees work 80% or less of the regular hours of the enterprise. 

Apprentices/Trainees

All persons, both full-time or part-time, whose wages or salaries are governed by the fact that they work either under an apprenticeship contract or as part of a training program. 

Wages and Salaries

All wages and salaries payments are gross (i.e. before deduction of income tax and employees' PRSI contributions and levies such as the public sector pension levy). In the analysis, the total wages and salaries are divided into:

- Regular earnings: payments made regularly at each pay period during the year, excluding all irregular and overtime earnings.

- Overtime earnings: payment for hours worked in excess of normal hours.

- Total earnings excluding irregular earnings: regular earnings + overtime earnings.

- Irregular earnings: bonuses which are not paid regularly at each pay period. For example: end of quarter or year productivity bonus.

- Apprentice/Trainees earnings: total of apprentices & trainees' regular wages and salaries, overtime and irregular bonuses and allowances.

- Total earnings: total of regular earnings, overtime earnings and irregular earnings.

Other Labour Costs

Other labour costs are costs to the employer, in addition to wages and salaries, of employing labour. They include the below categories:

- Statutory social contributions: statutory employers’ PRSI including the social security contributions for apprentices/trainees.

- Non-statutory social contributions: payments made by enterprises on behalf of their employees which include pension fund contributions, life assurance premiums, income continuance insurance, redundancy payments as well as other employee related payments.

- Other expenses: other employee related payments e.g. study grants, etc.

– Benefits in kind (BIK); net cost of all goods and services made available to employees by the employer. For example, payments for private use of company cars, stock options & share purchase schemes, voluntary sickness insurance, staff housing and other free or subsidised benefits (e.g. canteen facilities, childcare provision, health costs). BIK is included as earnings by Eurostat for the Labour Costs Survey and the Labour Costs Index.

- Subsidies and refunds: amounts received by enterprises intended to refund part or all of the cost of wages and salaries and training costs. These may include training subsidies from SOLAS or Job Bridge as well as refunds from the Department of Social Protection (DSP) for sick and maternity leave. These are deducted from the firms’ labour costs in the analysis.

Paid Hours

- Regular paid hours: These are normal working hours of employees, usually specified in the contract of employment and should include paid leave e.g. paid sick leave and annual leave.

- Overtime paid hours: Hours worked in excess of contracted hours.  

- Total paid hours: Sum of regular paid hours and overtime paid hours.

Derived Variables

Total annual earnings

- Total annual regular earnings: The sum of regular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual overtime earnings: The sum of overtime earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings: The sum of regular earnings and overtime earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual irregular earnings: The sum of irregular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual total earnings: The sum of regular earnings, overtime earnings and irregular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

Total annual other labour costs

The sum of other labour costs which includes statutory and non-statutory employers contributions to social security, redundancy payments, training and other costs and benefits in kind in all enterprises in the year.  Subsidies and refunds are deducted.

Total annual labour costs

The sum of total annual earnings and total annual other labour costs.

Average annual earnings

- Average annual regular earnings: Total annual regular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual overtime earnings: Total annual overtime earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual earnings excluding irregular earnings: Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual irregular earnings: Total annual irregular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual total earnings: Total annual total earnings divided by average employment.

Average annual other labour costs

- Average annual other labour costs divided by average annual employment.

Average annual total labour costs

- Average annual total labour costs divided by average annual employment.

Average hourly regular earnings

- Average hourly regular earnings: Total annual regular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly overtime earnings: Total annual overtime earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings: Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly irregular earnings: Total annual irregular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly total earnings: Total annual total earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

Average weekly paid hours

- Average regular weekly paid hours: Regular paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

- Average overtime weekly paid hours: Overtime paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

- Average total weekly paid hours: Total paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

Unpaid hours including unpaid overtime and unpaid leave are excluded. 

Methodology for production of annual results

Quarterly EHECS Dataset

All enterprises with 50 or more employees are surveyed quarterly as well as a sample of enterprises which have between 3 and 49 employees inclusive. For enterprises with 3 to 49 employees inclusive, a weighting factor (the reciprocal of the sampling fraction) is used to weight the estimates to the total population for both employees and enterprises. The CSO's Business Register forms the basis of the sampling frame used for weighting the sample data to the population. Decay factors are calculated for each size class and sector to adjust the non-sampled element of the register for the respondent non-relevant enterprises.

Imputation is carried out for non-respondents in the greater than 50 employees’ categories. Where an enterprise responded in the previous quarter ratio-imputation is used to estimate figures for the current quarter. For enterprises that did not respond in the previous four quarter a stratum average imputation method is used to estimate the missing variables. These estimates are based on respondent enterprises of a similar size and activity.

After imputation, all enterprises with 50 or more employees are accounted for and included in the final dataset. All enterprises employing between 3 and 49 employees are allocated a grossing factor to represent the entire population for their relevant industry sector and size class in the quarter. All enterprises' data are contained in the final quarterly dataset which is tabulated to produce the aggregates which are publlished in the Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.

Annual EHECS Dataset 

The four quarterly datasets are merged to create an annual dataset. This annual dataset is summarised, using the weighting factor, to produce aggregates which are published in the Earnings and Labour Costs Annual release.

Interpretation of results

The series presented in this release and all estimates deriving from the EHECS survey are primarily of use as an indicator of trends in average earnings across different classifications. However, in interpreting the trends and in undertaking direct comparison of the average level of earnings across sectors, some caution in interpretation is warranted. For example, the results presented here are based on raw earnings levels. To get a true picture of differences in earnings levels of different employees, comparisons should take account of differences in the characteristics of employees, such as length of service, educational attainment level, nature of work, etc., none of which are available via EHECS. The additional information available from the National Employment Survey (NES) allows for a more detailed analysis of differences in earnings levels and should be referred to by users seeking more detailed information on earnings determinants than is available from EHECS.

Calculation of percentage rates of change 

Percentage rates of change presented in this release may differ from the percentage rates of change calculated from the rounded values presented in the tables.

Earnings and Labour Costs Revisions implemented in June 2018
Earnings and Labour Costs data have been revised from 2008 to 2017. These revisions are reflected in both the Earnings and Labour Costs Annual 2017 release and related StatBank tables. These revisions arise as a result of the introduction of the new Labour Force Survey, new population estimates as a result of the 2016 Census of Population and other minor updates to EHECS aggregation processes. The revisions primarily change the number of employees in NACE sectors over the period and thus mainly affect the total annual earnings and labour costs statistics. The revisions have minor impact on average earnings and labour costs statistics and do not change previously published trends in these averages.

The Labour Force Survey is the official source of employment data in Ireland. The new Labour Force Survey published revised employment estimates in January 2018. These updated sectoral employment trends provide the basis for the Earnings and Labour Costs Annual release 2017 to revise earnings, hours, employment and labour cost statistics.

 

upArrowHide Background Notes

Scan the QR code below to view this release online or go to
http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/er/elca/earningsandlabourcostsannualdata2017/