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Industry

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SDG 9.2.1 Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita is compiled from data published by the CSO.  The National Accounts Division publish data for manufacturing value added (MVA) and GDP data in their National Income and Expenditure 2020 release.  CSO Population estimates are used to derive MVA per capita.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant market prices rose from €280.4 billion in 2015 to €377.4 billion in 2020.

Over this time period, Gross Value Added (GVA) at constant basic prices for Manufacturing rose from €98.9 billion to €140.4 billion.

GVA in Manufacturing was €28,213 per person in Ireland in 2020 and accounted for 37.2% of GDP.  See Table 5.1, Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2.

Show Table: 5.1 - SDG 9.2.1 Manufacturing Value Added as a Proportion of GDP and per Capita

Year%
201535.2796186297798
201633.9008225400345
201732.2686688988308
201832.8144969091522
201932.0105812157144
202037.2052018124366
Euros
201521100.1923808823
201620463.5088971854
201720985.4318272509
201822958.4879638048
201923189.2977779336
202028213.2524003496
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SDG 9.2.2 Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment is published in the CSO, Labour Force Survey.

The number of people in employment rose from 2.079 million in Q1 of 2016 to 2.231 million by Q1 of 2021, an increase of 7.3%.

Over this time period, the number of people in employment in the manufacturing sector rose by 13.4%, from 239,200 to 271,200.

Just over half (53.8%) of those in employment in Q1 2021 were men, with 46.2% women.  In manufacturing, seven in ten (71.4%) of those in employment were men, with only 28.6% women.

Manufacturing accounted for 16.1% of all men and 7.5% of all women in employment in Q1 2021.  See Table 5.2 and Figure 5.3.

Show Table: 5.2 - SDG 9.2.2 Manufacturing Employment as a Proportion of Total Employment

%No Entry HereNo Entry HereNo Entry HereNo Entry HereNo Entry Here
Manufacturing NACE C Employment12.2
Employment Excl Manufacturing87.8
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SDG 9.3.1 Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added is published by the CSO, Census of Industrial Production (CIP).

In the UN metadata repository the SDG 9.3.1 metadata document  gives the following definition:

"Small-scale industrial enterprises, in the SDG framework also called “small-scale industries”, defined here for the purpose of statistical data collection and compilation refer to statistical units, generally enterprises, engaged in production of goods and services for market below a designated size class.

Proportion of “small-scale industries” in total industry value added represents an indicator calculating the share of manufacturing value added of small-scale manufacturing enterprises in the total manufacturing value added".

Table 5.3 shows that the total value added in industry in 2019 was €112.1 bn.

The vast bulk (86.5%) of this value added was in enterprises with 250 or more employees.  Therefore small-scale industries (less than 250 employees) accounted for only around 13.5% of value added in manufacturing in 2019.

Enterprises with 50-249 employees accounted for 8.3% of value added.  See Table 5.3.

For full list of classification of industry by ISIC Revision 4, including those suppressed for confidentiality purposes, please see Table 7.1 in the background notes.

Show Table: 5.3 - SDG 9.3.1 Value Added in Industry by Size of Enterprises (Number of Employed People)

Small-scale industries accounted for around 14% of total value added in the manufacturing sector in 2015 and 2017.  In 2016 small-scale industries increased to approximately 16% of value added in the manufacturing sector and had fallen to around 12% in 2018 before rising slightly to 13.5% in 2019.  See Table 5.4 and Figure 5.4.

Show Table: 5.4 - SDG 9.3.1 Proportion of Small-Scale Industries in Total Industry Value Added

%
20 to 491.2
50 to 2498.3
250 and More86.5
0 to 93.2
10 to 191
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SDG 9.3.2 Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit is based on data published by the Central Bank of Ireland and the CSO, Access to Finance Statistics.

Central Bank of Ireland’s SME Market Report

The Central Bank of Ireland’s SME Market Report 2021 aims to provide context, timely information and a review of the challenges to Irish Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing. This report draws on a range of data sources to provide an overview of various aspects of the challenges posed to SMEs including (1) the economic impact of COVID-19 on SMEs, (2) bank lending to SMEs, (3) demand for credit, (4) supply of credit and (5) loan performance.

Extracts from the 2021 report are given here.

• SME credit demand remained low compared to previous years (20% of SMEs applied over April to September 2019) even as applications increased elsewhere in the euro area.

• SMEs did not apply for credit mainly due to sufficient funds but some report aversion to debt.

• Gross new lending to SMEs has declined over 2020 but remains above the levels from 2010 to 2016.

• SMEs were borrowing for liquidity needs over investment especially since the pandemic.

• Financing of SMEs in Ireland is broadly typical of the euro area.

• SME credit rejection rates were mostly unchanged but rejections for part of the requested amount increased. Rejection rates for loans or overdrafts in Ireland were higher than the euro area median.

• Banks reported credit standards for SMEs tightened in Ireland while loosening for guaranteed loans, as in the euro area.

• Changes in bank credit standards were not driven by factors relating to bank balance sheets, but mainly by the general economic deterioration and firm specific factors.

  Details are available in the Central Bank of Ireland’s annual SME Market Report 2021.

CSO Survey on Access to Finance

According to the Access to Finance survey, just over a fifth (21.4%) of all SMEs applied for bank finance in 2014.  

Equity finance was applied for by 1.8% of SMEs while 5.3% applied for other finance types.

Nearly two-fifths (39.8%) of SMEs employing 50-249 employees applied for bank finance compared with just one fifth (20.0%) of SMEs with less than 10 employees.

Exporting SMEs were more likely to apply for bank finance (26.1%) compared with non-exporters (21.2%).  See Table 5.5 and Figure 5.5.

Please note that the access to finance publication is done on an ad-hoc basis.  The data for 2014 is the most recent survey.

Show Table: 5.5 - SDG 9.3.2 SMEs Applications for Finance, by Number of Persons Engaged and Type of Finance

Number of Persons EngagedAll Enterprises
Micro (1-9)20
Small (10-49)35
Medium (50-249)39.8
All SMEs (Under 250)21.4

About seven in ten (70.6%) applications by SMEs for bank finance were successful in 2014.

Medium sized enterprises were more likely to be successful in their application for bank finance (91.6%) compared with micro enterprises (69.5%).

Nearly all (94.7%) applications for bank finance by exporting firms were successful, compared with 67.0% of non-exporting firms.

Just over three in ten (32.1%) applications for equity finance were successful for all SMEs compared to just over six in ten (62.3%) for other finance types.  See Table 5.6 and Figure 5.6.

Show Table: 5.6 - SDG 9.3.2 SMEs Success Rates of Finance Applications by Number of Persons Engaged and Type of Finance

Number of Persons EngagedAll Enterprises
Micro (1-9)69.5
Small (10-49)74.4
Medium (50-249)91.6
All SMEs (Under 250)70.6

Just over a fifth (21.4%) of all SMEs applied for bank finance in 2014.

The highest rates of application for bank finance was in the sectors industry and selected services at about 23% while the lowest rate was 12.5% in the information & communications sector.

Equity finance was applied for by 1.8% of SMEs while 5.3% applied for other finance types.  See Table 5.7.

Show Table: 5.7 - SDG 9.3.2 SMEs Applications for Finance by NACE Sector and Type of Finance

About seven in ten (70.6%) of all bank finance applications by SMEs were successful or partially successful in 2014.

The success rate for applications was highest in the information & communications sector at 84.3%. 

In the industry sector the application success rate for SMEs was only 65.4%.  See Table 5.8.

Show Table: 5.8 - SDG 9.3.2 SMEs Success Rates of Bank Finance Applications by NACE Sector

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SDG 9.4.1 CO2 emission per unit of value added is calculated from Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) CO2 emissions data and CSO, National Accounts GDP data.

In the UN metadata repository the SDG 9.4.1 metadata document gives the following definition:

"Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit of value added is an indicator computed as ratio between CO2 emissions from fuel combustion and the value added of associated economic activities.  The indicator can be computed for the whole economy (total CO2 emissions/GDP) or for specific sectors, notably the manufacturing sector (CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries per manufacturing value added (MVA)).

CO2 emissions per unit of GDP are expressed in kilogrammes of CO2 per unit of purchasing power parity GDP in constant 2017 USD. 

CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries per unit of MVA are measured in kilogrammes of CO2 equivalent per unit of MVA in constant 2015 USD".  These units are not currently available.

In Table 5.9 values for CO2 emission per unit of value added are expressed in KgCO2 per Euro of GDP and MVA (Chained linked volume measures referenced to year 2019). 

Industry-related CO2 emissions fell 5% between 2018 and 2019, from 6,694 ktCO2 to 6,330 ktCO2.  Over this time period, CO2 emissions for the total economy declined by 4.5% from 39,095 ktCO2 to 37,349 ktCO2

The total economy accounted for 0.1 KgCO2 per Euro of GDP.  CO2 Emissions from the manufacturing sector were calculated as 0.06 KgCO2 per Euro of Value Added.  See Table 5.9 and Figure 5.7.

Show Table: 5.9 SDG 9.4.1 CO2 Emission per Unit of Value Added

YearTotal EconomyManufacturing
201538745.52000920796504.43778043529
201640242.6566688426910.30806242049
201739302.12263151366763.08096280077
201839095.43113165846693.7523418851
201937349.47280691576330.48320002059

Environmental Accounts Air Emissions

The CSO Environment and Climate Division publish data annually in their report on Environmental Accounts Air Emissions.  The CSO release includes CO2 emissions produced on the territory of Ireland and CO2 emissions produced by Irish resident units.

Total territorial emissions are reported annually by the Environmental Protection Agency and are used to determine whether Ireland has met its legally binding emissions targets.  In 2018, territorial emissions of carbon dioxide were 38,803 ktCO2

Emissions by Irish resident units include emissions by Irish residents abroad and exclude emissions by non-resident units on the territory of Ireland.  Total CO2 emissions by resident units were 55,270 ktCO2

The NACE sector distribution of CO2 emissions by resident units is presented in the CSO publication.  Carbon dioxide was mainly emitted by the Services, Industry and Household sectors in 2018, with 43% of emissions coming from the Services sector.

The Industry sector was the only sector to show a decrease in CO2 emissions in 2018, when emissions were 18,222 CO2.  Having risen in 2014, 2015 and 2016, emissions from Industry fell in 2017 and 2018, due to a decrease in emissions from the energy supply sector, NACE 35. The lowest emissions of the period 2013-2018 were in 2013 at 17,493 ktCO2.  See Table 5.10.

Show Table: 5.10 - SDG 9.4.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions

Residence Principle and Territorial Principle

National accounts record the economic activities of resident units of Ireland, therefore greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions by resident units can be directly related to the economic indicators recorded in national accounts.

Territorial emissions are emissions produced on the territory of Ireland.  They are reported annually by the Environmental Protection Agency and are used to determine whether Ireland has met its legally binding emissions targets.

Residence principle emissions are obtained by removing transport emissions emitted by non-resident units on the territory of Ireland from total territorial principle emissions, and by adding transport emissions emitted by Irish resident units abroad.

Non-resident emissions include road transport emissions from fuel sales to owners of non-Irish registered vehicles.  Resident emissions abroad include carbon dioxide emissions from flights by Irish airlines originating in countries other than Ireland. 

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