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Health

Table 5.1 Ireland: Current public expenditure on health care, 2008-20181
YearCurrent Public Expenditure
Total (€m)%GNI%GNI*Per capita at constant 2018 prices (€)
200813,5578.310.73,002
200913,7489.712.93,037
201013,4209.613.33,072
201113,2329.517.82,991
201213,4879.617.72,991
201313,1738.716.42,917
201413,3878.115.12,935
201513,8556.913.83,014
201614,5926.612.83,129
201715,4746.512.23,212
201816,5906.411.43,371
Source: CSO, System of Health Accounts
1Break in series in 2013 (see Appendix 1).
  • Total health care expenditure in Ireland was €22.5bn in 2018. The current public expenditure on health care in 2018 was €16.6bn, up €1.1bn on the previous year.

  • As a percentage of Gross National Income (GNI), public health spending increased from 8.3% in 2008 to 9.7% in 2009, before decreasing over the next nine years to 6.4% in 2018.

  • As a proportion of Modified GNI (GNI*), public expenditure on health care represented 11.4% in 2018, a 0.8 percentage point decrease on the previous year.

  • Between 2008 and 2018, current public expenditure on health care per person, (at constant 2018 prices), increased by 12.3%, from €3,002 to €3,371.
YearExpenditure per capita at constant 2018 prices
20083002
20093037
20103072
20112991
20122991
20132917
20142935
20153014
20163129
20173212
20183371
Table 5.2 By country: Total expenditure on health care as a percentage of GDP, 2014-20181,2
Country% of GDPPPS € per capita
201420152016201720182018
Germany11.011.211.211.411.54,472.6
Ireland % GNI*12.711.811.511.611.43,529.8
France11.611.511.511.411.33,703.9
Sweden11.010.810.810.810.93,904.9
Austria10.410.410.410.410.33,980.1
Belgium10.410.410.310.410.33,667.3
Denmark10.210.210.110.110.13,804.8
Netherlands10.610.310.310.110.03,906.7
Portugal9.09.09.49.39.52,225.8
Spain9.19.19.08.99.02,464.8
Italy8.98.98.78.78.72,504.4
Slovenia8.58.58.58.28.32,186.3
Czech Republic7.77.27.27.27.72,278.6
Greece7.98.08.28.07.71,628.4
Bulgaria7.77.47.57.57.41,268.5
Ireland % GDP9.77.37.47.26.93,529.8
Croatia6.76.86.86.86.81,347.8
Cyprus7.06.96.86.76.81,843.8
Estonia6.16.46.56.66.71,701.8
Hungary7.17.07.16.86.71,544.9
Slovakia6.96.87.06.86.71,539.4
Lithuania6.26.56.66.56.61,714.0
Poland6.36.36.56.66.31,519.0
Latvia5.55.76.26.06.21,334.1
Romania5.04.95.05.25.61,211.7
Luxembourg5.45.35.25.35.33,748.6
Finland9.59.79.49.2::
Malta9.49.29.19.3::
       
United Kingdom10.09.99.99.810.03,083
       
EFTA Countries:     
Switzerland11.011.411.711.911.95,232
Norway9.310.110.610.310.14,515
Iceland8.38.18.28.38.53,176
Liechtenstein5.65.85.95.65.5:
Source: Eurostat System of Health Accounts, CSO NIEAR
1Data unavailable for Finland, Malta, and the EU candidate countries.
2Sorted by 2018, descending.
  • In 2018, the total health care spending as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 6.9%. This put Ireland at fifteenth in the EU27 for health spending (of the countries for which data were available).

  • As a percentage of Modified Gross National Income (GNI*), total expenditure on health care in Ireland was 11.4% in 2018.

  • Germany had the highest proportion of GDP allocated towards health care in the EU27 in 2018 at 11.5%, while Luxembourg had the lowest at 5.3%.
CountryCountry
Germany4472.62
Austria3980.06
Netherlands3906.71
Sweden3904.86
Denmark3804.82
Luxembourg3748.61
France3703.92
Belgium3667.33
Ireland3529.82
Italy2504.41
Spain2464.77
Czech Republic2278.56
Portugal2225.83
Slovenia2186.27
Cyprus1843.76
Lithuania1714.01
Estonia1701.82
Greece1628.35
Hungary1544.86
Slovakia1539.37
Poland1518.98
Croatia1347.75
Latvia1334.14
Bulgaria1268.51
Romania1211.69
Table 5.3 Ireland: Life expectancy at birth and at age 65 by sex, 1925-2017
PeriodAt birthAt age 65
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
1925-192757.457.912.813.4
1935-193758.259.612.513.1
1940-194259.061.012.313.2
1945-194760.562.412.013.1
1950-195264.567.112.113.3
1960-196268.171.912.614.4
1965-196768.672.912.414.7
1970-197268.873.512.415.0
1978-198069.575.012.415.4
1980-198270.175.612.615.7
1985-198771.076.712.616.2
1990-199272.377.913.417.1
1995-199773.078.513.817.4
2001-200375.180.315.418.7
2005-200776.881.616.619.8
2010-201278.482.817.720.6
2015-201779.683.418.321.0
Source: CSO, Births, Deaths and Marriages
  • Life expectancy at birth for males in 2016 was 79.6 years in Ireland, an increase of 22.2 years since 1926.

  • For females, life expectancy at birth in 2016 was 83.4 years, a rise of 25.5 years since 1926.

  • In 1926, life expectancy for females was higher than for males by 0.5 years. This gender gap widened to 5.7 years in 1986, but narrowed to 3.8 years by 2016.

  • A 65 year old man in 2016 could expect to live for another 18.3 years compared to 21.0 years for a 65 year old woman.
YearMaleFemale
192657.457.9
193658.259.6
19415961
194660.562.4
195164.567.1
196168.171.9
196668.672.9
197168.873.5
197969.575
198170.175.6
19867176.7
199172.377.9
19967378.5
200275.180.3
200676.881.6
201178.482.8
201679.683.4
Table 5.4 By country: Life expectancy at birth by sex, 20181
CountryTotalMalesFemalesGender Differential
Spain83.580.786.3-5.6
Italy83.481.285.6-4.4
France82.979.785.9-6.2
Cyprus82.980.984.8-3.9
Sweden82.680.984.3-3.4
Malta82.580.484.6-4.2
Ireland82.380.584.1-3.6
Luxembourg82.380.184.6-4.5
Greece81.979.384.4-5.1
Netherlands81.980.383.4-3.1
Austria81.879.484.1-4.7
Finland81.879.184.5-5.4
Belgium81.779.483.9-4.5
Portugal81.578.384.5-6.2
Slovenia81.578.584.4-5.9
EU2781.078.283.7-5.5
Denmark81.079.182.9-3.8
Germany81.078.683.3-4.7
Czech Republic79.176.282.0-5.8
Estonia78.574.082.7-8.7
Croatia78.274.981.5-6.6
Poland77.773.781.7-8
Slovakia77.473.980.8-6.9
Hungary76.272.779.6-6.9
Lithuania76.070.980.7-9.8
Romania75.371.779.2-7.5
Latvia75.170.179.7-9.6
Bulgaria75.071.578.6-7.1
     
United Kingdom81.379.583.1-3.6
 
EFTA Countries:
Switzerland83.881.985.7-3.8
Liechtenstein83.180.785.5-4.8
Iceland82.981.384.5-3.2
Norway82.881.184.5-3.4
 
EU Candidate Countries:
Albania78.977.480.5-3.1
Turkey78.976.281.6-5.4
Montenegro76.974.579.3-4.8
Macedonia76.774.678.8-4.2
Serbia75.973.578.4-4.9
Source: Eurostat, Population and Social Conditions
1Sorted by "Total Persons", descending.
  • In 2018, Irish male life expectancy at birth was 80.5 years, and was 2.3 years higher than the EU27 average of 78.2 years.

  • Italy had the highest male life expectancy in the EU27, at 81.2 years, and Latvia had the lowest at 70.1 years.

  • In the same year, female life expectancy at birth in Ireland was 84.1 years, which was 0.4 years higher than the EU27 average.

  • Spain had the highest female life expectancy at 86.3 years, while Bulgaria had the lowest at 78.6 years.

  • Women had a higher life expectancy at birth than men in all EU27 countries. The lowest gender differential (male life expectancy at birth less that of females) was the Netherlands (3.1 years) and the country with the highest was Lithuania (9.8 years).
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
Table 5.5 By country: Healthy life years at birth by sex, 20181,2
CountryTotal PersonsMalesFemalesGender Differential
Sweden72.873.772.01.7
Malta72.771.973.4-1.5
Ireland69.468.470.4-2.0
Spain68.068.068.00.0
Italy66.866.866.9-0.1
Bulgaria65.864.067.6-3.6
Germany65.865.166.3-1.2
Greece65.465.065.9-0.9
EU2764.063.764.2-0.5
France63.963.464.5-1.1
Belgium63.463.263.7-0.5
Czech Republic62.762.263.4-1.2
Poland62.460.564.3-3.8
Cyprus62.262.062.4-0.4
Hungary61.160.461.8-1.4
Denmark60.962.559.13.4
Luxembourg60.761.459.81.6
Romania59.459.259.6-0.4
Netherlands59.261.157.23.9
Portugal58.659.857.52.3
Lithuania57.756.359.1-2.8
Croatia57.556.558.5-2.0
Finland57.458.855.73.1
Austria56.956.857.0-0.2
Slovakia56.155.556.6-1.1
Slovenia55.556.354.61.7
Estonia53.952.755.0-2.3
Latvia52.351.053.7-2.7
     
United Kingdom61.261.560.80.7
     
EFTA Countries:
Norway70.471.769.12.6
Switzerland60.561.559.52.0
Source: Eurostat, Population and Social Conditions
1Sorted by "Total Persons", descending.
2Data unavailable for EU candidate countries.
  • In 2018, females in Ireland had a healthy life expectancy of 70.4 years, 6.2 years higher than the EU27 average of 64.2 years and the third highest in the EU27.

  • Males in Ireland had a healthy life expectancy of 68.4 years, the third highest in the EU27 and 4.7 years higher than the EU27 average of 63.7 years.

  • Seven countries in the EU27 reported a higher number of healthy life years for males than females, namely the Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Slovenia, and Luxembourg.

  • The Netherlands had the highest number of healthy life years for males relative to females, with a differential of 3.9 years. Conversely, Poland had the highest gender differential for females relative to males at 3.8 years.

  • Only Spain had a gender differential of zero; both males and females had the same healthy life expectancy of 68.0 years.
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
Table 5.6 By country: Proportion of Life Expectancy in poor health for males, 20181,2
 Years%
CountryLife expectancyHealthy life yearsNumber of years in poor healthProportion of Life Expectancy in Poor Health
Sweden80.973.77.28.9
Bulgaria71.564.07.510.5
Malta80.471.98.510.6
Ireland80.568.412.115.0
Spain80.768.012.715.7
Hungary72.760.412.316.9
Germany78.665.113.517.2
Romania71.759.212.517.4
Italy81.266.814.417.7
Poland73.760.513.217.9
Greece79.365.014.318.0
Czech Republic76.262.214.018.4
EU2778.263.714.518.5
Belgium79.463.216.220.4
France79.763.416.320.5
Lithuania70.956.314.620.6
Denmark79.162.516.621.0
Luxembourg80.161.418.723.3
Cyprus80.962.018.923.4
Portugal78.359.818.523.6
Netherlands80.361.119.223.9
Croatia74.956.518.424.6
Slovakia73.955.518.424.9
Finland79.158.820.325.7
Latvia70.151.019.127.2
Slovenia78.556.322.228.3
Austria79.456.822.628.5
Estonia74.052.721.328.8
United Kingdom79.561.518.022.6
  
EFTA Countries:  
Norway81.171.79.411.6
Switzerland81.961.520.424.9
Source: Eurostat, Population and Social Conditions
1Sorted by "Proportion of Life Expectancy in Poor Health", ascending.
2Data unavailable for EU candidate countries.
  • Men in Ireland in 2018 could expect to live 68.4 healthy life years, and 12.1 years in poor health, out of a total life expectancy of 80.5 years. This is equivalent to a proportion of life expectancy in poor health of 15.0%.

  • Ireland had the fourth lowest proportion of life expectancy in poor health for males in the EU27, after Sweden (8.9%), Bulgaria (10.5%) and Malta (10.6%).

  • The EU27 average for male healthy life years in 2018 was 63.7 years, while the expected number of years in poor health was 14.5 years. The average proportion of male life expectancy in poor health was 18.5%.

  • Estonia had the highest proportion of male life expectancy in poor health in the EU27, at 28.8%.
CountryHealthy YearsPoor Health
Sweden73.77.2
Bulgaria647.5
Malta71.98.5
Ireland68.412.1
Hungary60.412.3
Romania59.212.5
Spain6812.7
Poland60.513.2
Germany65.113.5
Czech Republic62.214
Greece6514.3
Italy66.814.4
EU2763.714.5
Lithuania56.314.6
Belgium63.216.2
France63.416.3
Denmark62.516.6
Croatia56.518.4
Slovakia55.518.4
Portugal59.818.5
Luxembourg61.418.7
Cyprus6218.9
Latvia5119.1
Netherlands61.119.2
Finland58.820.3
Estonia52.721.3
Slovenia56.322.2
Austria56.822.6
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
Table 5.7 By country: Proportion of life expectancy in poor health for females, 20181,2
CountryYears%
Life ExpectancyHealthy Life YearsNumber of Years in Poor HealthProportion of Life Expectancy in Poor Health
Malta84.673.411.213.2
Bulgaria78.667.611.014.0
Sweden84.372.012.314.6
Ireland84.170.413.716.3
Germany83.366.317.020.4
Spain86.368.018.321.2
Poland81.764.317.421.3
Italy85.666.918.721.8
Greece84.465.918.521.9
Hungary79.661.817.822.4
Czech Republic82.063.418.622.7
EU2783.764.219.523.3
Belgium83.963.720.224.1
Romania79.259.619.624.7
France85.964.521.424.9
Cyprus84.862.422.426.4
Lithuania80.759.121.626.8
Croatia81.558.523.028.2
Denmark82.959.123.828.7
Luxembourg84.659.824.829.3
Slovakia80.856.624.230.0
Netherlands83.457.226.231.4
Portugal84.557.527.032.0
Austria84.157.027.132.2
Latvia79.753.726.032.6
Estonia82.755.027.733.5
Finland84.555.728.834.1
Slovenia84.454.629.835.3
     
United Kingdom83.160.822.326.8
     
EFTA Countries:
Norway84.569.115.418.2
Switzerland85.759.526.230.6
Source: Eurostat, Population and Social Conditions
1Sorted by "Proportion of Life Expectancy in Poor Health", ascending.
2Data unavailable for EU candidate countries.
  • In 2018, females in Ireland could expect to experience 70.4 healthy life years and 13.7 years in poor health, out of a total life expectancy of 84.1 years.

  • In the EU27, Ireland had the fourth lowest proportion of life expectancy in poor health for females in 2018 at 16.3%. Malta had the lowest proportion of life expectancy in poor health (13.2%), followed by Bulgaria (14.0%) and Sweden (14.6%).

  • The EU27 average for female healthy life expectancy in 2018 was 64.2 years, while the number of years in poor health was 19.5 years. The proportion of female life expectancy in poor health was 23.3%.

  • Slovenia had the highest proportion of life expectancy for females in poor health at 35.3%.
CountryHealthy YearsPoor Health
Bulgaria67.611
Malta73.411.2
Sweden7212.3
Ireland70.413.7
Germany66.317
Poland64.317.4
Hungary61.817.8
Spain6818.3
Greece65.918.5
Czech Republic63.418.6
Italy66.918.7
EU2764.219.5
Romania59.619.6
Belgium63.720.2
France64.521.4
Lithuania59.121.6
Cyprus62.422.4
Croatia58.523
Denmark59.123.8
Slovakia56.624.2
Luxembourg59.824.8
Latvia53.726
Netherlands57.226.2
Portugal57.527
Austria5727.1
Estonia5527.7
Finland55.728.8
Slovenia54.629.8
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.

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