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Earnings and Labour Costs Q3 2022 (Final) Q4 2022 (Preliminary Estimates)

Average weekly earnings up 4.2% in the 12 months to Q4 2022

Online ISSN: 2009-5023
CSO statistical publication, , 11am

Please note: The Building Momentum Public Service Agreement 2021-2022 was implemented in October 2022 and introduced an increase in the annualised basic salaries for public servants of 3%, which was backdated to 02 February 2022. Payments to public servants in Q4 2022 may have included backdated pay in relation to this Agreement, which impacts the annual percentage change of average weekly earnings across all sectors.

Key Findings

  • Average weekly earnings were €900.26 in Q4 2022, an increase of 4.2% from €863.70 in Q4 2021.

  • Average hourly earnings rose by 5.5% to €27.72 from €26.27 in Q4 2021.

  • Average weekly paid hours were 32.5 in Q4 2022, down by 1.2% from the Q4 2021 value of 32.9.

  • The job vacancy rate at the end of Q4 2022 was 1.3%, slightly down from 1.4% at the end of Q4 2021 and down from 1.6% at the end of Q3 2022.

  • Average hourly other labour costs grew by 38.4% to €4.54 from €3.28 in Q4 2021.

  • The highest averages for hourly total labour costs were €50.69 in Information & Communication and €47.36 in Education.

  • The lowest averages for hourly total labour costs were €16.95 in Accommodation & Food Services and €23.44 in Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Services.

  • The Professional, Scientific & Technical Activities sector had the highest job vacancy rate at 3.1% in Q4 2022, followed by 2.6% in the Financial, Insurance & Real Estate Activities.

Statistician's Comment

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) has today (28 February 2023) issued Earnings and Labour costs results with Preliminary estimates for Q4 2022 and Final estimates for Q3 2022.

Commenting on the data, Louise Egan, Statistician in the Earnings Analysis Division, said: “Preliminary estimates for Q4 2022 show average weekly earnings were €900.26, up 4.2% compared with €863.70 in Q4 2021.

Earnings and hours

The largest annual percentage increase in Q4 2022 in average weekly earnings was 10.5% in the Public Administration & Defence sector.

The Building Momentum Public Service Agreement 2021-2022 was implemented in October 2022 and introduced an increase in the annualised basic salaries for public servants of 3%, which was backdated to 02 February 2022. Payments to public servants in Q4 2022 may have included backdated pay in relation to this Agreement.

Average hourly earnings grew on an annual basis by 5.5% to €27.72 while average weekly paid hours decreased by 1.2% to 32.5 in the year from Q4 2021 to Q4 2022. Over the three years from Q4 2019 to Q4 2022, average hourly earnings rose by 14.4% from €24.23 to €27.72, while average paid hours remained the same at 32.5 hours. 

Labour costs

Average hourly other labour costs increased by 38.4% across all economic sectors to €4.54 from €3.28 in Q4 2021. A significant factor in this growth was the ending of the Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme (EWSS) on 31 May 2022. EWSS payments to enterprises were recorded as subsidies and refunds received and were deducted from other labour costs during the period Q1 2020 to Q2 2022.

In the three years to Q4 2022, average hourly total labour costs increased by 14.4%. The percentage changes across the sectors in the period Q4 2019 to Q4 2022 ranged from 0.8% in Transportation & Storage to 25.3% in Information & Communication. 

Job Vacancy Rate

The job vacancy rate in Q4 2022, which measures job vacancies on the last working day of the quarter, was 1.3%, down from 1.6% at the end of Q3 2022 and up from 0.9% at the end of Q4 2019."

Preliminary Estimates Q4 2022

Headline Table: Earnings, Hours and Labour Costs, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted
 Average Weekly Earnings Average Hourly Earnings  Average Hourly Total Labour Costs Average Weekly Paid Hours
    Hours
Unadjusted
Q4 2021863.70 26.27 29.55 32.9
Q4 2022900.26 27.72 32.26 32.5
Annual % change 4.2 5.5 9.2 -1.2
 Seasonally Adjusted
Q3 2022885.31 27.08 31.40 32.8
Q4 2022897.41 27.66 32.21 32.5
Quarterly % change 1.4 2.1 2.6 -0.9
Figure 1: Average Weekly Earnings

Editor's Note: While there is no internationally agreed methodology for assessing the public/private sector wage gap, the CSO has published analysis of the differential using a matched Labour Force Survey and P35 dataset for 2015-2018. This analysis took account of compositional differences between the public and private sector, such as occupational mix, sectors of activity, gender balance, union membership, etc. The public sector pay gap in 2018 was estimated to range from -3.8% to +0.1% depending on the specification applied and the treatment of the Pension Levy.

See most recent analysis for 2015-2018 here. See also previous versions for 2009-2010 here (PDF 678KB) and for 2011-2014 here (PDF 686KB)

Earnings and Hours

Average weekly earnings were €900.26 in Q4 2022, an increase of 4.2% compared with €863.70 from one year earlier, according to preliminary estimates of the Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.

The largest annual percentage increase in Q4 2022 in average weekly earnings was 10.5% in the Public Administration & Defence sector, with a rise from €1,011.61 to €1,117.40. The second largest increase was 9.8% in the Information & Communication sector which rose from €1,376.70 to €1,512.16 over the year. 

In the five years to Q4 2022, average weekly earnings rose by 23.0%. All sectors saw increases to average weekly earnings over this period.

Average hourly earnings grew on an annual basis by 5.5% to €27.72 in Q4 2022, while average weekly paid hours decreased from 32.9 in Q4 2021 to 32.5 in Q4 2022. Over the three years from Q4 2019 to Q4 2022, average hourly earnings rose by 14.4% from €24.23 to €27.72, while average paid hours remained the same at 32.5 hours. 

5 Year % Change
Information & communication35.8585495579674
Admin & support service28.5779514903565
Construction25.1918362996909
Health & social23.4384328888636
All sectors23.0098652747793
Arts & entertainment21.937226491342
Financial & real estate20.448117503811
Education19.1820338296123
Public admin & defence18.4627617280679
Professional & technical18.3559701085474
Accommodation & food17.8831063927994
Industry14.2721174764322
Wholesale & retail11.8509751453713
Transportation10.3842757879381
 

 

X-axis labelUnadjustedSeasonally Adjusted
Q41521.9121.92
Q11622.5522.04
Q21621.9722
Q31621.5622.04
Q41622.1822.18
Q11722.6922.16
Q21722.2722.3
Q31722.1622.66
Q41722.622.63
Q11823.422.81
Q21822.9422.96
Q31822.6223.18
Q41823.3323.39
Q11924.0523.39
Q21923.6923.69
Q31923.5324.16
Q41924.2324.32
Q12024.7623.99
Q22025.3925.39
Q32024.3825.12
Q42025.5625.62
Q12126.8326.01
Q22126.0726.09
Q32125.2926.12
Q42126.2726.27
Q12227.4226.52
Q22226.7226.77
Q32226.1927.08
Q42227.7227.66
Q4 2021Q4 2022
Industry25.5226.67
Construction23.7524.9
Wholesale & retail21.221.47
Transportation22.4823.78
Accommodation & food14.9415.33
Information & communication37.2540.57
Financial & real estate35.1736.21
Professional & technical30.8331.43
Admin & support service21.2421.97
Public admin & defence28.1931.89
Education38.6542.29
Health & social24.827.32
Arts & entertainment20.620.35
All sectors26.2727.72
<
X-axis labelUnadjustedSeasonally Adjusted
Q41532.532.1
Q11631.731.9
Q21632.132
Q31632.632.2
Q41632.432.4
Q1173232.4
Q21732.432.4
Q31732.432.3
Q41732.432.3
Q11831.832.3
Q21832.532.5
Q31832.832.5
Q41832.532.5
Q11932.132.4
Q21932.632.6
Q31932.732.6
Q41932.532.5
Q12032.332.4
Q22032.232.3
Q32032.632.4
Q42033.132.7
Q12132.132.7
Q22132.632.7
Q32133.132.6
Q42132.932.7
Q12232.332.8
Q22232.632.7
Q32233.132.8
Q42232.532.5

Total Labour Costs

Average hourly total labour costs were €32.26 across all economic sectors in Q4 2022.

Information & Communication had the highest average for hourly total labour costs at €50.69, followed by €47.36 in the Education sector.  The sectors with the lowest cost of employing labour were Accommodation & Food Services Activities at €16.95 and Arts, Entertainment, Recreation & Other Service Activities at €23.44.

Average hourly total labour costs increased by 22.6% over the five years to Q4 2022, from €26.31 per hour to €32.26. The percentage changes across the sectors ranged from 10.2% in Transportation & Storage to 33.1% in Information & Communication.

5 Year % Change
Information & communication33.0795484379102
Public admin & defence25.9712230215827
Admin & support service25.9351620947631
All sectors22.6149752945648
Education21.967550862735
Construction21.8197498921949
Health & social21.779018747507
Accommodation & food18.6144156752974
Arts & entertainment18.2047402924862
Financial & real estate18.0770238407126
Professional & technical17.1790808240887
Industry16.5173772841276
Wholesale & retail13.1006346328196
Transportation10.170838299563

Public Sector

Average weekly earnings grew by 10.8% across the public sector in the year to Q4 2022, rising from €1,023.36 to €1,133.47. A Garda Síochána had the highest average weekly earnings in Q4 2022 in the public sector at €1,512.46. The highest average hourly earnings in this period were €48.24 in Education.

The Building Momentum Public Service Agreement 2021-2022 was implemented in October 2022 and introduced an increase in the annualised basic salaries for public servants of 3%, which was backdated to 02 February 2022. Payments to public servants in Q4 2022 may have included backdated pay in relation to this Agreement.

FALSE
Q4 2021Q4 2022
Civil service1003.671096.85
Defence946.03960.95
Garda Siochana1319.621512.46
Education1045.561171.46
Regional bodies881.73999.92
Health999.141104.76
Semi-state1064.721165.04
All sectors1023.361133.47
Q4 2021Q4 2022
Civil service4480044100
Defence89009100
Garda Siochana1460014200
Education113300109000
Regional bodies3530035700
Health152300172100
Semi-state5700059400

Job Vacancies

The job vacancy rate in Q4 2022, which measures job vacancies on the last working day of the quarter, was slightly down at 1.3% from 1.4% in Q4 2021. It was also down from 1.6% recorded at the end of Q3 2022.

The highest job vacancy rates in Q4 2022 were 3.1% in Professional, Scientific & Technical Activities and 2.6% in Financial, Insurance & Real Estate Activities.

There were 27,600 job vacancies, (rounded to the nearest 100), at the end of Q4 2022, down by 1,800 from the end of Q4 2021.

X-axis labelJob Vacancy Rate
Q4150.9
Q1161
Q2160.9
Q3161
Q4160.9
Q1171
Q2171.1
Q3171.1
Q4171
Q1181
Q2181.2
Q3181
Q4180.9
Q1191
Q2191.1
Q3190.9
Q4190.9
Q1200.8
Q2200.7
Q3200.8
Q4200.9
Q1211
Q2211.2
Q3211.5
Q4211.4
Q1221.6
Q2221.6
Q3221.6
Q4221.3

Tables

Table 1 Average weekly earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 2 Average hourly earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 3 Average weekly paid hours by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 4 Earnings, hours and labour costs, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted by quarter

Table 5a Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 5b Average hourly irregular earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 6a Average hourly other labour costs by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 6b Average hourly benefits in kind (BIK) by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 6c Average hourly total labour costs by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 7a Employment by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 7b Job vacancies by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 7c Job vacancy rate by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter

Table 8a Average weekly earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter

Table 8b Average hourly earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter

Table 8c Average weekly paid hours by public sector sub-sector and quarter

Table 8d Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter

Table 8e Public sector employment by sub-sector and quarter

Table A1 Estimates of average weekly earnings by broad occupational categories

Table A2 Response rates in selected sectors by quarter

Table A3 Preliminary data versus final data