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Main place of work and commuting time in 2019

Quarter 2 2019

CSO statistical release, , 11am

Labour Force Survey Bulletin - Main place of work and commuting time in 2019

Supplementary Labour Market Analysis

Key Findings

  • The main place of work for persons employed in Ireland in 2019 was in the employers’ premises or their own premises (78.3%) which is very similar to the rate in the EU27 (79.0%)
  • Women were more likely than men (87.9% compared to 70.0%) to work at the employers' or their own premises while men were more likely than women (10.7% compared to 4.7%) to work in the clients’ place
  • The likelihood of working in the employers’ premises or their own premises decreases with age (85.5% for those aged 15-34 years to 70.2% for those aged 50-74 years) and increases as educational attainment level increases (63.9% for Low and 84.2% for High)
  • Ireland ranked fourth highest of the EU27 for the percentage who report Home to be their main place of work of those employed in 2019 with a rate of 5.4% compared to the EU27 rate of 2.9%
  • In 2019, Ireland was the third highest member state for the frequency of those in employment who have no commuting time at 7.9% compared to 4.3% across the EU27
  • In Ireland, men were more likely than women (10.1% compared to 5.5%) to report having no commuting time
  • The likelihood of having no commuting time increases with age (3.5% for those aged 15-34 years to 14.3% for those aged 50-74 years)
  • Ireland ranks second highest amongst EU member states at 11.2% for the likelihood of those in employment having a one-way commute of one hour or more
  • In Ireland, men (12.8%) were more likely than women (9.4%) to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more
  • Those living in the Mid-East region were the most likely to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more (19.4%) while those living in the Mid-West region were the least likely (5.6%)
  • In Ireland, those working in the Construction economic sector were the most likely to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more (24.7%), while those working in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector were the least likely (2.5%)
  • The likelihood of a one-way commute of one hour or more increases as educational attainment level increases (6.9% for Low and 13.9% for High)
  • In Ireland, the average one-way commuting time was 28 minutes, although it was higher for men (30 minutes) compared to women (26 minutes)

Introduction

Each year, as part of the governing regulation, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) in member states across Europe contains additional questions on specific themes relating to the Labour Market. This bulletin is the third edition of a set of themed bulletin-style outputs from the LFS and is based on analysis of questions relating to the theme Main place of work and commuting time. In Ireland, these variables were collected as part of the LFS in Quarter 2 (Q2) 2019 while these variables were also collected across all other EU member states in 2019.

The release of this bulletin today has been timed to coincide with the release of the EU27 results by Eurostat for the Main place of work and commuting time subsection of the Work organisation and working time arrangements questions from 2019. The EU results were released by Eurostat at 10am Irish time today (15 October 2020). The EU27 figures included in the text of this release for comparison with the corresponding results for Ireland are taken from the data available in the Eurostat report and tables linked above.

Place of Work

The main place of work for persons employed in Ireland in 2019 was the employers’ premises or their own premises (78.3%) which is very similar to the rate observed across the EU27 (79.0%). For individual member states, the rate of working from an employers’ premises or their own premises ranged from a high of 85.1% in Greece to a low of 66.2% in the Netherlands.

In Ireland, women were more likely than men (87.9% compared to 70.0%) to work at the employers' or their own premises and a similar, although slightly smaller gender gap was observed across the EU27 at 87.4% for women compared to 71.8% for men.

The likelihood of working in the employers’ premises or their own premises decreases with age (85.5% for those aged 15-34 years to 70.2% for those aged 50-74 years) and increases as educational attainment level increases (63.9% for Low and 84.2% for High).

In Ireland, those working in the Accommodation and food service activities economic sector were the most likely to report the employers’ premises or their own premises as their main place of work (93.8%) while those working in the Construction economic sector were the least likely (30.6%).

Ireland ranked fourth highest of the EU27 for the percentage who report Home to be their main place of work at 5.4% of those employed in 2019 with the rate slightly higher for males than females (6.3% compared to 4.4%). In the EU27, 2.9% of those in employment in 2019 reported Home to be their main place of work with a high amongst member states of 6.3% in Slovenia and a low of 0.3% in Bulgaria.

The likelihood of the main place of work being reported as Home increases with age (2.2% for those aged 15-34 years to 9.9% for those aged 50-74 years).

In Ireland, those working in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector were the most likely to report Home as their main place of work (39.9%) while those working in the Public administration and defence economic sector were the least likely (0.8%).

Home was the main place of work for almost one in two Family workers (47.4%) and less than one in fifty Employees (1.9%).

Those living in Rural areas in Ireland were the most likely to report Home as their main place of work (7.9%) while those living in Cities were the least likely (3.3%).

Those living in the Border NUTS3 region in Ireland were the most likely to report Home as their main place of work (9.2%) while those living in the Dublin region were the least likely (3.3%).

Men in Ireland were more likely than women (10.7% compared to 4.7%) to work in the clients’ place and a similar gender gap was observed across the EU27 at 12.6% for men compared to 6.0% for women.

In Ireland, those working in the Construction economic sector were the most likely to report the clients’ place to be their main place of work (43.1%) while those working in the Transportation and storage economic sector were the least likely (2.1%).

Employers' premises or own premisesHomeClients' placeNot fixed or other
Total78.35.47.98.4
Sex, Male706.310.713
Female87.94.44.73
Age group, 15-34 years85.52.26.95.4
35-49 years78.34.88.18.8
50-74 years70.29.98.711.3
Education level, Low63.98.51116.6
Medium75.54.210.79.5
High84.25.64.85.3
Employment status, Self-employed with employees61.714.215.19
Self-employed without employees29.830.820.918.5
Employee84.81.96.17.3
Family Worker47.947.41.23.4
Show Table: Table 1 Main place of work for persons in employment aged 15-74 years by Sex, Age Group, NUTS3 Region, Degree of Urbanisation, Economic Sector, Occupation, Size of Local Unit, Work Pattern and Education Attainment Level, Quarter 2 2019

Employers' premises or own premisesHomeClients' placeNot fixed or other
Agriculture, forestry and fishing50.339.93.26.5
Industry85.12.64.87.5
Construction30.62.543.123.8
Wholesale & retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles88.53.22.55.8
Transportation & storage52.12.12.143.7
Accommodation & food service activities93.81.32.62.2
Information & communication7910.85.25
Financial, insurance and real estate activities89.753.41.9
Professional, scientific and technical activities74.612.47.75.3
Administrative & support service activities59.13.524.313.1
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security89.80.82.37
Education91.42.22.44
Human health and social work activities85.31.59.33.9
Other services activities78.410.55.35.8
All sectors78.35.47.98.4

Commuting Time

Those in employment were asked how long it usually takes them to travel from home to their main place of work. Specifically, they were asked to give us their average commuting time in minutes, one-way and without any detours. Those who reported their main place of work as Home were all assumed to have no commuting time, i.e. zero minutes.

In 2019, 7.9% of those in employment in Ireland are estimated to have a commuting time of Zero minutes. This compares to 4.3% of all those in employment across the EU27, with Ireland ranking the third highest for member states to report no commuting time while the individual rates for member states range from a high of 11.8% in Slovenia to 0.8% in Greece.

In Ireland, men were more likely than women (10.1% compared to 5.5%) to report having no commuting time; this is different to the trend that is observed across the EU27 where women were slightly more likely to have no commuting time than men (4.4% versus 4.2%).

The likelihood of having no commuting time increases with age (3.5% for those aged 15-34 years to 14.3% for those aged 50-74 years).

In Ireland, those working in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector were the most likely to report having no commuting time (52.0%) while those working in the Public administration and defence activities economic sector were the least likely (0.9%).

Those with an Atypical working pattern are more than twice as likely as those with a Normal working pattern to report no commuting time (10.2% compared to 4.9%).

In Ireland, 24.5% of employed persons reported an average one-way commuting time of between 1 and 14 minutes while 29.6% reported a commuting time of between 15 and 29 minutes and 26.7% were between 30 and 59 minutes.

More than one in ten of those employed in Ireland in 2019 (11.2%) reported an average one-way commuting time of 60 minutes or more compared to 8.1% of those in the EU27. In fact, Ireland ranks second highest amongst EU member states for the rate of those in employment having a one-way commute of one hour or more with rates amongst individual member states ranging from a high of 13.5% in Latvia to a low of 2.6% in Cyprus.

In Ireland, men were more likely than women (12.8% compared to 9.4%) to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more; this is similar to the gender gap that is observed across the EU27 (9.2% versus 6.9%).

Those living in the Mid-East region were the most likely to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more (19.4%) while those living in the Mid-West region were the least likely (5.6%).

In Ireland, those working in the Construction economic sector were the most likely to report having a one-way commuting time of one hour or more (24.7%) while those working in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector were the least likely (2.5%).

The likelihood of a one-way commute of one hour or more increases as educational attainment level increases (6.9% for Low and 13.9% for High).

Zero minutesFrom 1 to 14 minutesFrom 15 to 29 minutesFrom 30 to 59 minutes60 minutes or over
Total7.924.529.626.711.2
Sex, Male10.122.327.427.412.8
Female5.527.132.225.89.4
Age group, 15-34 years3.52631.927.511.1
35-49 years722302812.9
50-74 years14.326.326.623.89
Education level, Low13.833.226.519.56.9
Medium728.530.924.39.4
High7.119.229.630.213.9
Employment status, Self-employed with employees21.131.922.317.17.6
Self-employed without employees45.318.912.9157.8
Employee324.831.928.511.8
Family Worker52.821.68.17.510
Show Table: Table 2 Commuting time for persons in employment aged 15-74 years by Sex, Age Group, NUTS3 Region, Degree of Urbanisation, Economic Sector, Occupation, Size of Local Unit, Work Pattern and Education Attainment Level, Quarter 2 2019

Average Commuting Time

The average commuting time has been estimated for those who had a commuting time of one minute or more. The average commuting time (for those with a commute) in Ireland in 2019 was 28 minutes which is higher than the average for the EU27 at 25 minutes. Ireland ranked joint fourth highest for the average one-way commuting time among the EU27. For individual member states, the average one-way commuting time ranged from a high of 33 minutes in Latvia to a low of 19 minutes in Cyprus.

In Ireland, the one-way commuting time was higher for men than women (30 minutes compared to 26 minutes).

Looking at the results by age, the average one-way commuting time was highest for those aged 35-49 years (29 minutes) and lowest for those aged 50-74 years (26 minutes).

Those living in the Mid-East region having the highest one-way commuting time (34 minutes) while those living in the Mid-West region had the lowest (22 minutes).

In Ireland, those working in the Construction economic sector had the highest average one-way commuting time at 40 minutes which is more than twice the average commuting time of 15 minutes for those working in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector.

The average one-way commuting time increases as educational attainment level increases (23 minutes for Low and 31 minutes for High).

Average commuting time in minutes
Total28
Sex, Male30
Female26
Age group, 15-34 years27
35-49 years29
50-74 years26
Education level, Low23
Medium25
High31
Employment status, Self-employed with employees23
Self-employed without employees27
Employee28
Family Worker25
Show Table: Table 3 Average commuting time for persons in employment aged 15-74 years by Sex, Age Group, NUTS3 Region, Degree of Urbanisation, Economic Sector, Occupation, Size of Local Unit, Work Pattern and Education Attainment Level, Quarter 2 2019

Background Notes

The LFS is a quarterly survey conducted by the CSO and is the official source of statistics on employment and unemployment in Ireland. The LFS is governed by a European Regulation which also includes the addition of a set of questions on a specific topic to supplement the core LFS each year. The purpose of these additional questions (known as an ad hoc module) is to provide users with statistics on a specific topic concerning the labour market. Like the core LFS variables, the additional themed variables are captured by all EU member states and collated by Eurostat, the European statistical agency, which allows for the publication of EU estimates.

Information relating to the different sets of themed questions that are collected across Europe as part of the LFS each year are available on the Eurostat  website. In 2019, the additional questions were based on the theme Work organisation and working time arrangements. Eurostat has published European results for 2019 today from the subsection Main place of work and commuting time of the theme Work organisation and working time arrangements in the form of an article and as a set of tables. The EU27 figures included in the text of this bulletin for comparison with the corresponding results for Ireland are taken from the data available in the tables on the Eurostat website which are linked above.

On 29 September 2020, Eurostat published results from the subsection Flexibility at work also in the form of an article and as a set of tables (available at the Eurostat database tables linked above) and the CSO also published a bulletin containing results for Ireland on that date (see the CSO Flexibility at work bulletin).

On 06 October 2020, Eurostat published results from the subsection Job autonomy and pressure at work also in the form of an article and as a set of tables (available at the Eurostat database tables linked above) and the CSO also published a bulletin containing results for Ireland on that date (see the CSO Job autonomy and pressure at work bulletin).

The following provide some background information on some of the classification variables presented in this bulletin.

Size of Business or Enterprise (Local Unit concept)

The local unit is an enterprise or part thereof (e. g. a workshop, factory, warehouse, office, mine or depot) situated in a geographically identified place. At or from this place economic activity is carried out for which one or more persons work (even if only part-time) for one and the same enterprise.

Respondents were asked how many persons, including them, work at their local unit. For the purposes of this bulletin the responses were grouped as follows:

Micro               1-9 employees

Small               10-49 employees

Medium           50-249 employees

Large               250 or more employees

There was a separate category for those for whom the “Exact number of employed was unknown”.

Work Pattern

Persons in employment were divided into those who work Atypical and those who work Normal work patterns. Persons were classified as having an Atypical work pattern if they reported working shifts, or if they reported Usually or Sometimes working evenings, nights, Saturdays or Sundays; otherwise they were classified as having a Normal work pattern.

Education Attainment Level

Respondents were asked to report the highest level of education they had successfully completed and for the purposes of this bulletin, the levels of education were grouped into Low, Medium and High as follows:

Low            ISCED levels 0-2 (less than primary, primary and lower secondary education)

Medium      ISCED levels 3 & 4 (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education)

High            ISCED levels 5-8 (third level as known as tertiary education).

 

Our Thanks: The CSO would like to thank most sincerely all those who have participated and continue to participate in our household surveys including the Labour Force Survey (LFS) from which the results in this bulletin are based. Without your participation it would not be possible for us to collect and disseminate results such as these. Results from CSO household surveys provide details on the current economic and social situation in Ireland and are used to inform and guide Government policy decisions.

Please Note: The Labour Market and Earnings Division of the CSO is compiling a list of users who have registered to be kept informed in relation to relevant announcements from the CSO relating to Labour Market and Earnings, including publication plans. If you haven't already done so, you can register your email address by sending an email to labour@cso.ie asking to be included on this user list.

Further Information

Contact
E-mail: labour@cso.ie
Jim Dalton
087 6780316
Martina O'Callaghan
021 4535491