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For more information on this release:
E-mail: ICW@CSO.ie Gerard Reilly (+353) 21 4535700 Barry O'Leary (+353) 21 4535018
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information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-5937
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)

2016 results

Table A Summary of main results
  20122013201420152016
Income 
Nominal Income - Equivalised disposable income per individual
Median 18,27618,26218,86420,00020,597
Mean 21,57821,99522,39623,30123,852
At risk of poverty threshold
(60% of median income) 10,96610,95711,31812,00012,358
Real Income1 - Equivalised disposable income per individual
Median 18,27618,07818,62319,77220,379
Mean 21,57821,77322,10923,03523,599
At risk of poverty threshold
(60% of median income) 10,96610,84611,17311,86312,227
Poverty & deprivation rates %%%%%
At risk of poverty rate 17.316.517.216.916.5
Deprivation rate2 26.930.529.025.521.0
Deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty 48.955.151.251.550.7
Consistent poverty rate 8.59.18.88.78.3
Income equality indicators
Gini coefficient (%) 31.832.032.030.830.6
Income quintile share ratio 5.15.05.14.74.7
1 Deflator base year 2012.
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.

Income increased in 2016

Figure 1  Real and nominal equivalised disposable income, 2007-2016
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The Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) in Ireland is a household survey covering a broad range of issues in relation to income and living conditions.  It is the official source of data on household and individual income and also provides a number of key national poverty indicators, such as the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate, the consistent poverty rate and rates of enforced deprivation.  This report presents the results for 2016 and comparable data for previous years.

 Summary of main findings 

  • In 2016, the nominal median annual equivalised disposable income was €20,597 representing an increase of 3.0% on the nominal 2015 value of €20,000.  The real* median annual equivalised disposable income was €20,379, an increase of 3.1% on the previous year’s figure.  These changes are statistically significant.  See summary table A & figure 1.
  • The Gini coefficient in 2016 was 30.6% compared with 30.8% in 2015.  This change is not statistically significant.
  • The quintile share ratio was 4.7 in 2016, the same as the 2015 ratio. 
  • In 2016, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 16.5% compared with 16.9% in 2015.  This change is not statistically significant.
  • Enforced deprivation was experienced by 21.0% of the population, down from 25.5% in 2015.  This change is statistically significant.  The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 50.7% in 2016, down slightly from 51.5% in 2015.  This change is not statistically significant.
  • The consistent poverty rate was 8.3%, not a statistically significant change on the 2015 figure of 8.7%. 

*Real Income figures are based on 2012 prices.

Figure 2 and Tables A2, A3, A4 and A5 have been updated on the 20/12/2017.

Income 

Equivalised Income

The nominal median equivalised disposable income was €20,597 and the nominal ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold stood at €12,358 i.e. 60% of the median.  In 2016, 16.5% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income below this threshold.  The nominal mean equivalised disposable income was €23,852 and 61.0 % of individuals had an equivalised disposable income that was less than this amount.  The real value, i.e. at 2012 prices, of the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold for 2016 was €12,227 and this represents an increase of 3.1% on the real value for 2015 of €11,863.  See table A. 

Real median equivalised disposable income increased for most socio-economic groups in 2016.  An analysis by principal economic status shows that income increased for all groups except for those self classified as being engaged on home duties (-0.2%).  See table 1e.

Individuals with a highest level of educational attainment of ‘third level degree or higher’ continued to have the highest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2016, at €31,988.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2015 was €32,201.

Individuals who were living in households where there were no persons at work had the lowest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2016, at €13,195.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2015 was €13,137.

Real median equivalised disposable income for males was €20,592 in 2016, 3.4% higher than the corresponding 2016 figure for females (€19,907).

Individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region had a real median equivalised disposable income (€21,455) that was 23.5% higher than those living in the Border, Midland and Western region (€17,369).  Income for individuals living in the Border, Midland and Western region decreased by 2.6% on the 2015 value, compared with an increase of 5.0% for individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region.  

Composition of income

In 2016, real average weekly equivalised gross income was €591.14, up from €573.71 in 2016, an increase of 3%.  See table 3b

An analysis of the composition of gross income by year shows real average weekly equivalised direct income in 2016 at €457.94, an increase of 3.8% on the 2015 figure (€441).  Real average weekly equivalised social transfers increased slightly from €132.71 in 2015 to €133.19 in 2016, an increase of 0.4%.  See figure 2.

Direct IncomeSocial transfers
2007466.01454822335113.693878172589
2008449.16439453125121.9913671875
2009410.88140.51
2010400.93153.35
2011389.75144.82
2012380.13138.63
2013395.84137.16
2014418.18132.05
2015441132.71
2016457.94133.19

Average real weekly equivalised net disposable income showed an increase of 2.4% from €441.46 in 2015 to €452.26 in 2016.  Average real weekly equivalised tax and social insurance contributions stood at €138.87 in 2016, an increase of 5.0% from the 2015 value of €132.26.  See figure 3.

Total Tax and Social ContributionsNet Disposable Income
2007117.09471.65
2008110.55465.51
2009104.36447.03
2010114.45439.83
2011114.5420.08
2012105.23413.52
2013115.73417.27
2014126.5423.72
2015132.26441.46
2016138.87452.26

Equality of Income

The quintile share ratio is the share of income of the highest income quintile divided by the share of income of the lowest income quintile, and it stood at 4.7 in 2016.  The corresponding value for 2015 was also 4.7.  See table A & figures 4(a) & 4(b).  

The Gini coefficient measures income equality across the entire income distribution and in 2016 its value was 30.6% compared with 30.8% in 2015.  This indicates a small decrease in income inequality across the total income distribution.  This decrease is not statistically significant. 

Table B Share of Equivalised Income by Decile
 200820092010201120122013201420152016
          
Deciles%%%%%%%%%
13.53.63.23.02.93.13.03.33.4
25.15.25.05.04.84.94.85.05.0
35.96.15.96.05.95.95.95.95.9
46.87.06.86.96.86.76.86.86.9
57.98.17.87.97.97.77.88.08.0
69.19.39.19.29.19.09.09.29.2
710.410.610.310.510.510.510.510.510.6
812.212.312.012.412.512.412.412.512.2
914.714.815.215.215.415.415.315.214.7
1024.423.224.724.024.324.724.723.924.1
Gini coefficient (%)Quintile share ratio
200731.74.8
200830.64.5
200929.34.3
201031.44.8
201131.14.9
201231.85.1
2013325
2014325.1
201530.84.7
201630.64.7
EuroQuintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
20168.3312.8117.2122.8338.82
20158.2212.717.0922.9939.03
20147.7812.6316.7622.8839.95
20137.9312.5316.722.8340
20127.7212.716.9522.9939.64
2011812.8817.0622.9239.14
20108.2312.6816.8922.3239.88
20098.813.0717.3222.8537.96
20088.6412.6716.9622.5839.15
20078.2612.3316.7322.8939.79
20068.2112.316.6322.3240.54
At risk of povertyDeprivationConsistent povertyDeprivation rate for those at risk of poverty
200716.511.85.131.1
200814.413.74.229.1
200914.117.15.538.8
201014.722.66.342.9
20111624.56.943.2
201216.526.97.746.8
201315.230.58.253.9
201416.329849.3
201516.925.58.751.5
201616.5218.350.7

Poverty

At risk of poverty

In 2016, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 16.5% compared to 16.9% in 2015.  This change is not statistically significant.  An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics showed that those most at risk of poverty in 2016 were those living in households where there was no person at work (42.1%) and those individuals who were unemployed (41.9%).  The ‘at risk of poverty’ rate for households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 was 40.2%.  See table 2 & figure 5.

Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)Including old-age and survivors' benefits onlyexcluding all social transfers
200716.533.140.9
200814.434.643
200914.13646.2
201014.739.150.2
20111639.850.7
201217.339.150.2
201316.538.149.4
201417.236.548.3
201516.934.946.3
201616.533.644.9

Impact of social transfers on the at risk of poverty rate

In 2016, if all social transfers were excluded from income, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate would have been 44.9%, a decrease from the 2015 rate of 46.3%.  The corresponding figure for 2007 was 40.9% and the rate peaked in 2011 at 50.7%.  This increase between 2007 and 2011 showed an increased dependence of individuals on social transfers to remain above the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold during that period and a reduced dependence in each year since 2011.  See table 5 & figure 6.

Deprivation

In 2016, 21.0% of the population experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.  This compares with 25.5% in 2015 and a low of 11.8% in 2007.  See table 5 & figure 5.

Most socio-demographic groups experienced a decline in 2016 deprivation rates year-on-year.  Those living in households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest deprivation rate in 2016 at 50.1%. Those living in accommodation that was rented at below the market rate or rent free (44.0%) and those who were not at work due to illness or disability (46.7%) also had high deprivation rates in 2016.  See table 2.

Deprivation by poverty status

The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 50.7% in 2016 compared with a high of 55.1% in 2013 and a low of 29.1% in 2008.  The deprivation rate for those NOT at risk of poverty was 15.2% in 2016, compared with a high of 25.6% in 2013 and a low of 7.9% in 2007.  See table 5.

Types of deprivation

At an overall level in 2016, the prevalence of each of the eleven types of deprivation declined when compared to 2015.  The most common types of deprivation experienced were an inability to replace worn out furniture (21.1%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (15.5%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (13.9%).  See table 7b. 

For those at risk of poverty, there was an increase in just one of the eleven types of deprivation.  There was an increase in the numbers who were unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes from 26.5% in 2015 to 27.4% in 2016.  See table 7a.

There was a decrease in the numbers who had to go without heating at some stage during the year from 27.9% in 2015 to 24.7% in 2016.  The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those at risk of poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (41.2%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (36.0%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (32.3%).

For those not at risk of poverty, there was a decline in all eleven types of deprivation.  The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those not at risk of poverty were again an inability to replace worn out furniture (17.1%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (11.4%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (10.3%).   

For those living in consistent poverty, there was an increase in the numbers who were unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes from 47.0% in 2015 to 47.7% in 2016.  For this group there was a decline in the other ten types of deprivation.  The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those living in consistent poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (71.7%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (63.9%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (60.7%).  Under half of those living in consistent poverty (48.1%) reported going without heating at some stage in the last 12 months.  See table 7c.

Consistent Poverty

The consistent poverty rate in 2016 was 8.3% compared with 8.7% in 2015, not a statistically significant change.  See table A & figure 5.

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by principal economic status shows that the consistent poverty rate was highest among individuals not at work due to illness or disability (26.3%) and lowest among those who were at work (1.9%) and those who were retired (2.3%).  See table 2.

Further analysis of consistent poverty rates by household composition shows that individuals living in households where there was one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest consistent poverty rate at 24.6%.  The consistent poverty rate was lowest for individuals living in households where there were two adults, at least one of whom was aged 65 or over and where there were no children (1.7%).

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by region shows that the rate for the Border, Midlands and Western region was 10.6% compared with 7.6% for the Southern and Eastern region.

Table 1a Median real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
All households
    Median real household disposable income1 % change
    201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State   35,32737,32239,019 5.64.5
Sex (head of household)
 Male39,09941,75542,888 6.82.7
 Female31,14732,18733,104 3.32.8
Age group (head of household)
 18-6439,31341,89944,748 6.66.8
 65+24,56325,10024,873 2.2-0.9
Principal Economic Status (head of household)
 At work49,44552,91152,662 7-0.5
 Unemployed23,64623,90924,329 1.11.8
 Student21,71817,99314,339 -17.2-20.3
 Home duties25,43926,46624,977 4-5.6
 Retired25,97326,52627,728 2.14.5
 Not at work due to illness or disability20,54620,43322,492 -0.510.1
Highest education level attained (head of household)
 Primary or below22,77523,12223,538 1.51.8
 Lower secondary28,84229,31731,503 1.67.5
 Higher secondary34,37737,02839,257 7.76
 Post leaving cert 34,32836,66039,642 6.88.1
 Third level non degree44,07748,09149,703 9.13.4
 Third level degree or above58,48362,01261,286 6-1.2
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+13,92613,88114,034 -0.31.1
 1 adult aged <6518,42016,64317,383 -9.64.4
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+28,46031,66931,732 11.30.2
 2 adults, both aged <6540,53541,50142,045 2.41.3
 3 or more adults50,14557,52658,147 14.71.1
 1 adult with children aged under 1822,40323,49022,845 4.9-2.7
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1847,42649,69253,828 4.88.3
 Other households with children aged under 1852,31957,85357,431 10.6-0.7
Number of persons at work in the household
 020,49220,48420,318 0-0.8
 134,77635,39736,980 1.84.5
 260,37162,23962,236 3.10
 3+74,97180,39180,605 7.20.3
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied39,72641,36043,263 4.14.6
 Rented at the market rate34,53935,26737,624 2.16.7
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free24,00925,46526,648 6.14.6
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas38,07339,41141,266 3.54.7
 Rural areas31,14733,64434,866 83.6
Region
 Border, Midland and Western31,37233,87533,045 8-2.5
 Southern and Eastern37,43338,82941,331 3.76.4
1Deflator base year 2012.
Table 1b Mean real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
        All households
     Mean real household disposable income1 % change
   201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State43,06644,78246,036 4.02.8
Sex (head of household)  
 Male46,89548,65849,910 3.82.6
 Female38,13739,67340,773 4.02.8
Age group (head of household)      
 18-6447,19949,02151,211 3.94.5
 65+28,92131,01631,315 7.21.0
Principal Economic Status (head of household)     
 At work 56,56858,74059,051 3.80.5
 Unemployed 27,10928,56629,201 5.42.2
 Student 24,18621,46318,200 -11.3-15.2
 Home duties 30,54132,78831,840 7.4-2.9
 Retired 33,66832,14134,491 -4.57.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability 25,28624,84425,683 -1.73.4
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below26,63027,45627,758 3.11.1
Lower secondary32,78934,09335,564 4.04.3
Higher secondary40,46041,69844,768 3.17.4
Post leaving cert 38,45742,38743,469 10.22.6
Third level non degree52,96954,00655,877 2.03.5
Third level degree or above65,93966,84268,666 1.42.7
Household composition     
 1 adult aged 65+17,66318,90918,884 7.1-0.1
 1 adult aged <6524,36024,42026,207 0.27.3
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+34,11836,22636,791 6.21.6
 2 adults, both aged <6547,18947,72148,586 1.11.8
 3 or more adults58,80761,73564,731 5.04.9
 1 adult with children aged under 1824,77425,15225,353 1.50.8
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1855,18858,10460,024 5.33.3
 Other households with children aged under 1860,33661,97765,984 2.76.5
Number of persons at work in the household     
 023,48723,67624,315 0.82.7
 140,36441,62542,345 3.11.7
 266,81567,37568,791 0.82.1
3+81,19484,62086,237 4.21.9
Tenure status     
 Owner-occupied47,39948,53049,916 2.42.9
 Rented at the market rate38,64940,68042,216 5.33.8
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free27,93631,08731,856 11.32.5
Urban/rural location     
 Urban areas45,72646,72448,503 2.23.8
 Rural areas38,56241,07241,242 6.50.4
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western 36,99939,15339,050 5.8-0.3
 Southern and Eastern 45,27846,80148,569 3.43.8
Table 1c Median nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
        All households
    Median nominal household disposable income % change
    201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State   35,78537,75239,437 5.54.5
Sex (head of household)
 Male39,60642,23643,347 6.62.6
 Female31,55132,55833,459 3.22.8
Age group (head of household)
 18-6439,82342,38245,227 6.46.7
 65+24,88125,38925,139 2-1
Principal Economic Status (head of household)
 At work50,08653,52153,226 6.9-0.6
 Unemployed23,95324,18524,590 11.7
 Student22,00018,20014,493 -17.3-20.4
 Home duties25,76926,77125,245 3.9-5.7
 Retired26,31026,83228,025 24.4
 Not at work due to illness or disability20,81220,66922,733 -0.710
Highest education level attained (head of household)
 Primary or below23,07023,38923,790 1.41.7
 Lower secondary29,21629,65531,841 1.57.4
 Higher secondary34,82337,45539,678 7.65.9
 Post leaving cert 34,77337,08340,067 6.68
 Third level non degree44,64948,64650,235 93.3
 Third level degree or above59,24162,72761,943 5.9-1.2
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+14,10714,04114,184 -0.51
 1 adult aged <6518,65916,83517,569 -9.84.4
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+28,82932,03432,072 11.10.1
 2 adults, both aged <6541,06141,98042,495 2.21.2
 3 or more adults50,79558,18958,770 14.61
 1 adult with children aged under 1822,69323,76123,090 4.7-2.8
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1848,04150,26554,405 4.68.2
 Other households with children aged under 1852,99758,52058,046 10.4-0.8
Number of persons at work in the household
 020,75820,72020,536 -0.2-0.9
 135,22735,80537,376 1.64.4
 261,15462,95762,903 2.9-0.1
 3+75,94381,31881,469 7.10.2
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied40,24141,83743,727 44.5
 Rented at the market rate34,98735,67438,027 26.6
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free24,32025,75926,933 5.94.6
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas38,56739,86541,708 3.44.6
 Rural areas31,55134,03235,240 7.93.5
Region
 Border, Midland and Western31,77934,26633,399 7.8-2.5
 Southern and Eastern37,91839,27741,774 3.66.4
Table 1d Mean nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
        All households
   Mean nominal household disposable income % change
   201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State43,62445,29846,529 3.82.7
Sex (head of household)   
Male47,50349,21950,445 3.62.5
Female38,63140,13041,210 3.92.7
Age group (head of household)     
 18-6447,81149,58651,760 3.74.4
 65+29,29631,37431,650 7.10.9
Principal Economic Status (head of household)     
 At work57,30159,41759,684 3.70.4
 Unemployed27,46128,89529,514 5.22.1
 Student24,50021,71018,395 -11.4-15.3
 Home duties30,93733,16632,181 7.2-3.0
 Retired34,10532,51234,861 -4.77.2
 Not at work due to illness or disability25,61425,13025,958 -1.93.3
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below26,97527,77328,055 3.01.0
Lower secondary33,21434,48635,945 3.84.2
Higher secondary40,98542,17945,248 2.97.3
Post leaving cert 38,95642,87643,935 10.12.5
Third level non degree53,65654,62956,476 1.83.4
Third level degree or above66,79467,61369,402 1.22.6
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+17,89219,12719,086 6.9-0.2
 1 adult aged <6524,67624,70226,488 0.17.2
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+34,56036,64437,185 6.01.5
 2 adults, both aged <6547,80148,27149,107 1.01.7
 3 or more adults59,56962,44765,425 4.84.8
 1 adult with children aged under 1825,09525,44225,625 1.40.7
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1855,90458,77460,667 5.13.2
 Other households with children aged under 1861,11862,69266,691 2.66.4
Number of persons at work in the household     
 023,79223,94924,576 0.72.6
 140,88742,10542,799 3.01.6
 267,68168,15269,528 0.72.0
3+82,24785,59687,161 4.11.8
Tenure status       
 Owner-occupied48,01449,09050,451 2.22.8
 Rented at the market rate39,15041,14942,668 5.13.7
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free28,29831,44532,197 11.12.4
Urban/rural location       
 Urban areas 46,31947,26349,023 2.03.7
 Rural areas 39,06241,54641,684 6.40.3
Region       
 Border, Midland and Western 37,47939,60439,468 5.7-0.3
 Southern and Eastern 45,86547,34149,089 3.23.7
Table 1e Median equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
        All persons
   Median equivalised real disposable income1 % change
   201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State18,62319,77220,379 6.23.1
Sex      
 Male18,72220,01420,592 6.92.9
 Female18,42019,29219,907 4.73.2
Age group      
 0-1717,55618,68119,111 6.42.3
 18-6419,43020,48321,387 5.44.4
 65+16,36817,78117,956 8.61.0
Principal Economic Status       
 At work 24,21724,93825,387 3.01.8
 Unemployed 12,59312,74713,198 1.23.5
 Student 14,44315,10016,038 4.56.2
 Home duties 14,36614,82914,801 3.2-0.2
 Retired 17,13018,75618,934 9.50.9
 Not at work due to illness or disability 13,32813,13713,409 -1.42.1
Highest education level attained       
 Primary or below 14,52414,61914,880 0.71.8
 Lower secondary 15,69816,45217,100 4.83.9
 Higher secondary 17,84818,91719,835 6.04.9
 Post leaving cert  17,40419,04519,878 9.44.4
 Third level non degree 23,38525,08225,557 7.31.9
 Third level degree or above 30,40832,20131,988 5.9-0.7
Household composition       
 1 adult aged 65+13,92613,88114,034 -0.31.1
 1 adult aged <6518,42016,64317,383 -9.64.4
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,14519,07819,115 11.30.2
 2 adults, both aged <6524,41825,00125,328 2.41.3
 3 or more adults19,41321,10221,814 8.73.4
 1 adult with children aged under 1812,84214,15413,693 10.2-3.3
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1820,43621,21022,759 3.87.3
 Other households with children aged under 1815,71216,17117,299 2.97.0
Number of persons at work in the household      
 0 12,61013,13713,195 4.20.4
 1 16,81717,32517,919 3.03.4
 2 25,75025,71126,207 -0.21.9
 3+ 24,17024,41825,656 1.05.1
Tenure status       
 Owner-occupied21,04822,05023,091 4.84.7
 Rented at the market rate16,10016,98317,212 5.51.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free12,71113,34414,288 5.07.1
Urban/rural location       
 Urban areas 19,22219,98321,189 4.06.0
 Rural areas 17,22219,28518,949 12.0-1.7
Region       
 Border, Midland and Western 16,73717,82917,369 6.5-2.6
 Southern and Eastern 19,31120,43621,455 5.85.0
1Deflator base year 2012.
Table 1f Mean equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
        All persons
   Mean equivalised real disposable income1 % change
   201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State22,10923,03523,599 4.22.4
Sex      
 Male22,33923,44023,777 4.91.4
 Female21,88422,64123,425 3.53.5
Age group      
 0-1720,84422,00722,202 5.60.9
 18-6423,16623,90424,727 3.23.4
 65+19,76321,17421,418 7.11.2
Principal Economic Status      
 At work27,69828,31528,746 2.21.5
 Unemployed14,32714,98915,983 4.66.6
 Student16,54917,16919,607 3.714.2
 Home duties16,88417,84117,927 5.70.5
 Retired21,87521,84022,373 -0.22.4
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,05814,92915,525 -0.94.0
Highest education level attained      
 Primary or below16,06617,02416,849 6.0-1.0
 Lower secondary17,86218,58719,233 4.13.5
 Higher secondary20,46920,74421,947 1.35.8
 Post leaving cert 19,48721,30021,521 9.31.0
 Third level non degree26,95327,12727,925 0.62.9
 Third level degree or above33,49834,25735,431 2.33.4
Household composition       
 1 adult aged 65+ 17,66318,90918,884 7.1-0.1
 1 adult aged <65 24,36024,42026,207 0.27.3
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 20,55321,82222,163 6.21.6
 2 adults, both aged <65 28,42728,74729,269 1.11.8
 3 or more adults 22,37523,66324,919 5.85.3
 1 adult with children aged under 18 14,54314,97614,648 3.0-2.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 23,49224,66125,231 5.02.3
 Other households with children aged under 1818,43618,68819,668 1.45.2
Number of persons at work in the household      
 0  14,45915,07915,425 4.32.3
 1  20,24521,26521,790 5.02.5
 2  29,29729,05929,591 -0.81.8
 3+ 26,41427,67328,159 4.81.8
Tenure status       
 Owner-occupied 24,51425,24226,119 3.03.5
 Rented at the market rate 19,20320,01119,686 4.2-1.6
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free14,41915,91316,265 10.42.2
Urban/rural location       
 Urban areas 23,13123,62124,416 2.13.4
 Rural areas 20,29621,84421,889 7.60.2
Region       
 Border, Midland and Western 19,27820,50220,303 6.3-1.0
 Southern and Eastern 23,11723,92824,762 3.53.5
1Deflator base year 2012.
Table 1g Median equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
        All persons
    Median equivalised nominal disposable income % change
    201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State18,86420,00020,597 6.03.0
Sex
 Male18,96520,24520,813 6.72.8
 Female18,65919,51420,120 4.63.1
Age group
 0-1717,78418,89619,316 6.32.2
 18-6419,68220,71921,616 5.34.3
 65+16,58017,98618,148 8.50.9
Principal Economic Status
 At work24,53125,22625,659 2.81.7
 Unemployed12,75612,89413,339 1.13.5
 Student14,63015,27416,210 4.46.1
 Home duties14,55215,00014,960 3.1-0.3
 Retired17,35218,97219,137 9.30.9
 Not at work due to illness or disability13,50113,28813,553 -1.62
Highest education level attained
 Primary or below14,71214,78815,039 0.51.7
 Lower secondary15,90216,64217,283 4.73.9
 Higher secondary18,07919,13520,048 5.84.8
 Post leaving cert 17,63019,26520,091 9.34.3
 Third level non degree23,68825,37125,831 7.11.8
 Third level degree or above30,80232,57232,331 5.7-0.7
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+14,10714,04114,184 -0.51
 1 adult aged <6518,65916,83517,569 -9.84.4
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,36719,29819,320 11.10.1
 2 adults, both aged <6524,73525,28925,599 2.21.2
 3 or more adults19,66521,34522,048 8.53.3
 1 adult with children aged under 1813,00914,31713,840 10.1-3.3
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1820,70121,45523,003 3.67.2
 Other households with children aged under 1815,91616,35717,484 2.86.9
Number of persons at work in the household
 012,77313,28813,336 40.4
 117,03517,52518,111 2.93.3
 226,08426,00726,488 -0.31.8
 3+24,48324,70025,931 0.95
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied21,32122,30423,338 4.64.6
 Rented at the market rate16,30917,17917,396 5.31.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free12,87613,49814,441 4.87
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas19,47120,21321,416 3.86
 Rural areas17,44519,50719,152 11.8-1.8
Region
 Border, Midland and Western16,95418,03517,555 6.4-2.7
 Southern and Eastern19,56120,67221,685 5.74.9
Table 1h Mean equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
        All persons
    Mean equivalised nominal disposable income % change
    201420152016 2014-20152015-2016
     € € € %%
State22,39623,30123,852 42.4
Sex
 Male22,62923,71024,032 4.81.4
 Female22,16822,90223,676 3.33.4
Age group
 0-1721,11422,26122,440 5.40.8
 18-6423,46624,18024,992 33.4
 65+20,01921,41821,647 71.1
Principal Economic Status
 At work28,05728,64229,054 2.11.4
 Unemployed14,51315,16216,154 4.56.5
 Student16,76417,36719,817 3.614.1
 Home duties17,10318,04718,119 5.50.4
 Retired22,15922,09222,613 -0.32.4
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,25315,10115,691 -13.9
Highest education level attained
 Primary or below16,27417,22017,030 5.8-1.1
 Lower secondary18,09418,80119,439 3.93.4
 Higher secondary20,73420,98322,182 1.25.7
 Post leaving cert 19,74021,54621,752 9.11
 Third level non degree27,30227,44028,224 0.52.9
 Third level degree or above33,93234,65235,811 2.13.3
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+17,89219,12719,086 6.9-0.2
 1 adult aged <6524,67624,70226,488 0.17.2
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+20,81922,07422,400 61.5
 2 adults, both aged <6528,79629,07929,583 11.7
 3 or more adults22,66523,93625,186 5.65.2
 1 adult with children aged under 1814,73215,14914,805 2.8-2.3
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1823,79724,94525,501 4.82.2
 Other households with children aged under 1818,67518,90319,879 1.25.2
Number of persons at work in the household
 014,64615,25315,590 4.12.2
 120,50821,51022,023 4.92.4
 229,67729,39429,908 -11.7
 3+26,75627,99228,461 4.61.7
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied24,83225,53326,399 2.83.4
 Rented at the market rate19,45220,24219,897 4.1-1.7
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free14,60616,09716,439 10.22.1
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas23,43123,89324,678 23.3
 Rural areas20,55922,09622,124 7.50.1
Region
 Border, Midland and Western19,52820,73820,521 6.2-1
 Southern and Eastern23,41724,20425,027 3.43.4
Table 2 At risk of poverty, Deprivation and Consistent poverty rates by year
    At risk of poverty rate Deprivation rate1 Consistent poverty rate
    20152016 20152016 20152016
    %% %% %%
State16.916.5 25.521 8.78.3
Sex
Male 16.916.1 24.420.2 8.37.7
Female 16.916.8 26.721.8 9.19
Age group
 0-17 19.519.3 31.425.2 11.511.1
 18-64 17.116.6 25.120.9 8.78.5
 65+ 10.710.2 15.413.1 2.72.1
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)
 At work 5.85.6 16.412.6 2.11.9
 Unemployed 43.541.9 45.542.6 26.225.2
 Student 32.030.3 29.727.2 16.815.1
 Home duties 24.925.7 30.226.6 12.512.3
 Retired 12.711.8 14.211.9 3.22.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability 34.839.1 53.246.7 22.426.3
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)
 Primary or below 23.123.4 35.029.1 13.111.4
 Lower secondary 23.723.3 29.725.8 12.210.8
 Higher secondary 19.417.5 25.523.2 9.19.1
 Post leaving cert  16.016 26.521.9 8.39.4
 Third level non degree 9.410.9 16.913.4 4.53.8
 Third level degree or above 5.64.6 9.85.9 1.61.5
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+ 14.713 15.919.9 3.83.8
 1 adult aged <65 34.835.7 31.929 17.717.4
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 9.610.4 14.69.5 2.41.7
 2 adults, both aged <65 11.713.1 20.516.4 5.55.8
 3 or more adults 14.111.9 18.315.3 4.74.5
 1 adult with children aged under 18 36.240.2 57.950.1 26.224.6
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 14.512 25.217.8 7.76.4
 Other households with children aged under 18 21.923.4 32.830.8 13.414.4
Number of persons at work in the household
 0 39.642.1 42.337.7 23.624.4
 1 19.116.2 28.623.6 7.66.6
 2 2.72.6 14.09.3 1.00.6
 3+ 0.51.9 12.913.7 0.21.1
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied 11.010.4 18.413.9 4.64
 Rented at the market rate 22.225.4 31.429.1 11.314.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 39.034.5 52.544 24.921.8
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas 16.316.1 26.322.6 8.99
 Rural areas 18.217.3 24.117.6 8.37
Region
 Border, Midland and Western 20.822.3 27.321.6 9.910.6
 Southern and Eastern 15.514.4 24.920.8 8.37.6
1 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation. 
Table 3a Composition of nominal household income1 and nominal equivalised income1 by year
   Nominal household income1 Nominal equivalised income1
   2013201420152016 2013201420152016
Average Weekly Income  
Direct Income          
 Employee income593.76614.57649.91683.26 312.50323.84344.44361.06
 Employer's social insurance contributions66.3370.3173.4276.14 35.1337.3139.3940.54
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment78.1891.2798.4295.57 41.4748.7951.3548.85
 Other direct income22.5429.1323.1626.16 10.7813.6510.9112.40
 Total direct income760.82805.29844.91881.13 399.88423.60446.09462.85
Social Transfers       
 Unemployment related payments 57.4751.0447.1844.91 30.3026.7924.8923.47
 Old-age related payments 68.3571.5174.5875.90 29.5430.8232.1032.44
 Occupational pension 54.9455.3756.6858.84 24.1424.1524.6725.56
 Family/children related allowances 53.2751.3552.7851.56 30.9629.7930.6730.19
 Housing allowances 10.038.487.818.56 5.074.223.934.22
 Other social transfers 38.2236.8137.1938.17 18.5417.9917.9718.74
 Total social transfers 282.29274.56276.22277.95 138.56133.76134.24134.62
Gross Income 1,043.101,079.851,121.131,159.08 538.44557.36580.33597.47
Tax and Social Contributions       
 Tax on income and social contributions151.12168.55174.78185.86 79.4588.4892.0697.35
 Employer's social insurance contributions66.3370.3173.4276.14 35.1337.3139.3940.54
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid4.885.074.925.37 2.332.352.342.47
 Total Tax and Social Contributions222.34243.93253.13267.37 116.91128.14133.79140.36
Net Disposable Income 820.77835.92868.01891.71 421.53429.21446.55457.11
1 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 3b Composition of real household income1 and real equivalised income1 by year
   Real household income1 Real equivalised income1
   2013201420152016 2013201420152016
Average Weekly Income  
Direct Income         
Employee income587.76606.70642.50676.02 309.34319.69340.51357.23
Employer's social insurance contributions65.6669.4172.5875.33 34.7836.8338.9440.11
Cash benefits or losses from self-employment77.3990.1097.3094.56 41.0548.1750.7648.33
Other direct income22.3128.7622.9025.88 10.6713.4810.7912.27
Total direct income753.14794.98835.28871.79 395.84418.18441.00457.94
Social Transfers         
Unemployment related payments56.8950.3946.6444.43 29.9926.4524.6123.22
Old-age related payments67.6670.5973.7375.10 29.2430.4331.7332.10
Occupational pension54.3954.6656.0358.22 23.9023.8424.3925.29
Family/children related allowances52.7350.6952.1851.01 30.6529.4130.3229.87
Housing allowances9.938.377.728.47 5.024.173.894.18
Other social transfers37.8336.3436.7737.77 18.3517.7617.7718.54
Total social transfers279.44271.05273.07275.00 137.16132.05132.71133.19
Gross Income1,032.561,066.031,108.351,146.79 533.00550.23573.71591.14
Tax and Social Contributions          
 Tax on income and social contributions149.59166.39172.79183.89 78.6587.3591.0196.32
 Employer's social insurance contributions65.6669.4172.5875.33 34.7836.8338.9440.11
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid4.835.014.865.31 2.312.322.312.44
 Total Tax and Social Contributions220.09240.81250.24264.54 115.73126.50132.26138.87
Net Disposable Income 812.48825.22858.11882.26 417.27423.72441.46452.26
1 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 4a Nominal median income measures by year 1
           
    20092010201120122013201420152016
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 41,93839,01138,70437,51538,83240,33843,01545,067
  Total disposable household income 38,25535,28035,21633,92334,90735,78237,74139,437
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income20,10718,59118,14818,27618,26218,86420,00020,597
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
   and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers16,32414,35214,18414,42215,01815,38516,88917,223
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
   all social transfers13,40011,06110,56710,90411,19811,89813,58814,282
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 4b Nominal mean income measures by year 1
           
    20092010201120122013201420152016
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 56,52254,13352,94952,29154,42956,34658,50160,481
  Total disposable household income 45,95943,15141,81941,92742,82843,61845,29346,529
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income23,32622,13821,44021,57821,99522,39623,30123,852
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
  and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers18,75017,37516,78817,17817,65518,37719,36219,970
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
  all social transfers16,06714,42314,16114,27414,69615,49416,40016,909
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 4c Nominal at risk of poverty thresholds by year
    20092010201120122013201420152016
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
 At risk of poverty threshold         
  60% of median income 12,06411,15510,88910,96610,95711,31812,00012,358
  40% of median income 8,0437,4367,2597,3107,3057,5468,0008,239
  50% of median income 10,0549,2969,0749,1389,1319,43210,00010,299
  70% of median income 14,07513,01412,70412,79312,78313,20514,00014,418
 Illustrative values (60% level)         
  1 adult, no children 12,06411,15510,88910,96610,95711,31812,00012,358
  2 adults, 2 children 27,98825,88025,26225,44125,42026,25827,84028,671
Table 5 Key national indicators of poverty and social exclusion1 by year
% of individuals
    20092010201120122013201420152016
National/NAPS Indicators          
At risk of poverty rate        
Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)14.114.716.017.316.517.216.916.5
Including old-age and survivors' benefits but excluding all other        
social transfers (60% threshold)36.039.139.839.138.136.534.933.6
excluding all social transfers (60% median income threshold)46.250.250.750.249.448.346.344.9
Including all social transfers (40% median income threshold)3.34.24.95.74.44.93.93.8
Including all social transfers (50% median income threshold)6.97.68.510.18.99.89.19.7
Including all social transfers (70% median income threshold)24.524.724.125.224.225.326.526.4
        
Relative at risk of poverty gap16.217.719.520.518.219.018.119.3
        
At risk of poverty anchored at 200410.913.216.117.917.717.114.113.0
At risk of poverty anchored at 200511.613.716.418.418.117.714.313.2
At risk of poverty anchored at 200612.714.517.619.919.318.515.314.1
At risk of poverty anchored at 200715.119.621.123.322.721.918.917.4
At risk of poverty anchored at 200815.219.621.223.522.822.019.017.5
At risk of poverty anchored at 200914.118.019.321.821.220.617.915.9
At risk of poverty anchored at 201012.714.717.720.019.418.615.514.2
At risk of poverty anchored at 201110.913.216.017.817.717.114.013.0
At risk of poverty anchored at 201210.112.815.117.316.916.513.312.3
At risk of poverty anchored at 20139.512.014.417.016.516.013.011.7
At risk of poverty anchored at 201410.913.316.118.017.817.214.113.0
At risk of poverty anchored at 201513.516.718.621.120.519.716.915.0
Deprivation rate217.122.624.526.930.529.025.521.0
Those at risk of poverty38.842.943.248.955.151.251.550.7
Those NOT at risk of poverty 13.519.121.022.325.624.420.315.2
Consistent Poverty rate (60% median income threshold)5.56.36.98.59.18.88.78.3
Consistent poverty rate (40% median income threshold)0.91.91.72.72.11.91.81.8
Consistent poverty rate (50% median income threshold)2.43.23.34.74.64.84.75.0
Consistent poverty rate (70% median income threshold)9.510.210.712.513.212.912.811.5
1 See background notes for more information.
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.
Table 6 The number of deprivation items experienced by year
Number of deprivation items experienced1 20092010201120122013201420152016
% of individuals
 0 (No deprivation)71.463.959.857.055.156.359.564.7
 111.513.515.716.114.314.615.014.3
 27.48.59.19.39.78.87.77.1
 3+9.714.115.417.620.920.217.813.9
 Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 2+17.122.624.526.930.529.025.521.0
% of individuals at risk of poverty
 0 (No deprivation)43.438.137.333.628.333.431.034.3
 117.819.019.517.516.615.317.515.0
 212.913.212.915.815.414.410.412.3
 3+25.929.730.233.139.836.941.138.4
 Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 2+38.842.943.248.955.151.251.550.7
% of individuals NOT at risk of poverty
 0 (No deprivation)76.068.364.061.860.561.165.370.7
 110.512.615.015.913.914.514.514.1
 26.57.78.48.08.57.67.26.1
 3+7.011.412.514.317.116.713.19.1
 Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 2+13.519.121.022.325.624.420.315.2
1An individual is defined as being deprived if they experience two or more forms of enforced deprivation (deprivation rate).
Table 7a Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by poverty status and year
% of individuals
     20092010201120122013201420152016
Deprivation Indicators
 % of individuals
  Without heating at some stage in the last year7.310.512.212.915.715.713.69.2
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight14.919.321.123.325.122.218.615.5
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.12.93.14.95.25.15.12.9
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.45.56.77.68.17.66.85.6
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.13.02.83.94.23.52.72.3
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes4.57.67.310.410.610.610.39.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat1.12.02.23.73.93.72.71.9
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm4.16.86.88.510.08.89.05.8
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture16.320.321.724.525.825.524.421.1
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.414.414.816.118.719.316.813.9
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year3.45.15.86.07.26.45.44.4
 % of individuals at risk of poverty1
  Without heating at some stage in the last year17.022.321.726.030.930.027.924.7
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight29.636.735.838.042.238.638.936.0
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes4.36.75.210.810.010.315.48.2
  Unable to afford a roast once a week7.711.79.315.015.816.415.213.4
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day6.67.95.89.87.57.17.65.8
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes11.016.116.320.023.820.526.527.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.65.94.67.89.87.87.35.2
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm8.315.811.914.719.517.419.615.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture36.632.634.337.943.139.243.641.2
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month24.630.826.530.534.231.534.932.3
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year8.28.313.312.615.312.214.212.8
 % of individuals not at risk of poverty
  Without heating at some stage in the last year5.78.510.410.212.712.710.76.1
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight12.516.318.320.221.718.814.411.4
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes1.72.22.73.74.24.13.01.9
  Unable to afford a roast once a week2.74.46.26.16.65.75.14.0
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day1.32.12.22.73.52.71.71.6
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes3.46.15.68.48.08.57.05.8
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat0.91.31.72.82.72.81.81.2
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.45.25.87.28.27.16.84.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture12.918.119.321.722.322.620.517.1
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month6.911.512.513.115.616.713.110.3
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.64.54.44.65.65.23.62.8
1 Including all social transfers, 60% median income threshold.
Table 7b Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by deprivation status and year
% of individuals
     20092010201120122013201420152016
Deprivation Indicators
 % of individuals
  Without heating at some stage in the last year7.310.512.212.915.715.713.69.2
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight14.919.321.123.325.122.218.615.5
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.12.93.14.95.25.15.12.9
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.45.56.77.68.17.66.85.6
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.13.02.83.94.23.52.72.3
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes4.57.67.310.410.610.610.39.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat1.12.02.23.73.93.72.71.9
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm4.16.86.88.510.08.89.05.8
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture16.320.321.724.525.825.524.421.1
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.414.414.816.118.719.316.813.9
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year3.45.15.86.07.26.45.44.4
 % of individuals experiencing deprivation         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year36.640.542.943.046.648.748.039.0
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight63.866.165.665.667.663.763.760.8
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes12.311.512.317.916.617.119.313.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week19.323.824.727.524.825.624.223.4
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day12.112.911.114.613.311.610.410.0
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes22.631.326.634.532.633.236.438.7
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat6.48.48.713.312.512.610.18.5
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm22.729.626.530.732.029.634.325.9
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture70.368.768.169.869.469.069.272.0
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month49.755.353.355.555.259.557.758.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year18.922.222.420.423.021.219.819.9
 % of individuals not experiencing deprivation         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year1.21.82.31.92.22.21.81.3
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight4.95.66.77.76.55.33.13.5
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes0.00.40.10.10.10.20.20.3
  Unable to afford a roast once a week0.20.20.90.30.80.20.80.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day0.00.10.00.00.10.10.10.2
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes0.80.71.01.50.91.31.41.6
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat0.00.10.00.10.10.00.20.1
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm0.30.10.40.30.40.30.20.5
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture5.16.16.77.96.67.79.17.6
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month1.12.42.31.62.62.82.82.0
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year0.20.10.40.60.30.40.40.3
Table 7c Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by consistent poverty status
% of individuals
     20092010201120122013201420152016
Deprivation Indicators
 % of individuals
  Without heating at some stage in the last year7.310.512.212.915.715.713.69.2
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight14.919.321.123.325.122.218.615.5
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.12.93.14.95.25.15.12.9
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.45.56.77.68.17.66.85.6
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.13.02.83.94.23.52.72.3
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes4.57.67.310.410.610.610.39.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat1.12.02.23.73.93.72.71.9
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm4.16.86.88.510.08.89.05.8
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture16.320.321.724.525.825.524.421.1
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.414.414.816.118.719.316.813.9
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year3.45.15.86.07.26.45.44.4
 % of individuals in consistent poverty
  Without heating at some stage in the last year41.045.345.350.850.355.253.348.1
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight60.874.269.869.267.367.367.863.9
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes11.014.911.422.118.119.429.116.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week19.726.721.330.327.031.828.326.1
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day17.118.513.320.113.613.814.411.2
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes21.635.434.135.440.737.047.047.7
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat6.713.710.615.617.815.314.19.4
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm21.236.927.529.234.534.037.029.1
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture75.462.764.765.372.266.674.271.7
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month61.662.054.260.358.657.261.860.7
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year20.819.430.521.927.223.326.424.5
 % of individuals not in consistent poverty
  Without heating at some stage in the last year5.38.29.89.412.311.99.85.6
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight12.315.617.519.120.917.913.911.1
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes1.62.12.53.33.93.72.81.7
  Unable to afford a roast once a week2.54.15.65.56.25.24.83.7
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day1.21.92.02.43.22.51.61.5
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes3.55.75.38.17.68.06.85.9
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat0.81.21.52.62.52.51.71.2
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.14.75.26.57.66.46.33.7
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture12.817.418.620.821.121.519.716.5
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month6.411.211.812.014.615.612.59.7
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.44.14.04.55.24.83.42.6
Table 8 Profile of population at risk of poverty1, experiencing deprivation2 and in consistent poverty by demographic characteristics and year
% of individuals
    2015 2016
    PopulationAt risk of povertyDeprivation rate2In consistent poverty PopulationAt risk of povertyDeprivation rate2In consistent poverty
State 100.0100.0100.0100.0 100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sex
 Male49.449.347.147.1 49.448.347.645.5
 Female50.650.752.952.9 50.651.752.454.5
Age group
 0-1726.131.133.135.7 26.131.732.535.9
 18-6460.860.659.060.2 60.560.059.260.8
 65+13.18.37.94.1 13.48.38.43.3
Principal Economic Status
 At work41.113.324.89.5 41.713.323.59.1
 Unemployed5.314.510.016.9 4.613.510.816.1
 Student7.513.98.514.2 7.413.69.613.4
 Home duties10.214.911.914.5 9.614.712.013.9
 Retired9.17.15.23.4 9.77.15.72.7
 Not at work due to illness or disability2.88.38.410.4 3.09.79.112.9
 Children under 16 years of age23.526.029.329.6 23.526.528.030.2
 Other0.62.01.71.3 0.61.51.41.8
Highest education level attained
 Primary or below11.015.115.116.6 10.514.914.514.4
 Lower secondary13.018.315.218.3 13.519.116.617.4
 Higher secondary17.319.917.318.1 16.917.918.718.4
 Post leaving cert 9.59.09.99.1 9.99.610.311.2
 Third level non degree10.55.86.95.4 10.67.06.74.8
 Third level degree or above13.64.55.22.5 13.83.93.92.5
 Children under 16 years of age23.826.029.329.6 23.826.528.030.2
 Other31.21.41.10.4 1.01.21.31.3
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+3.93.32.41.6 4.03.23.91.9
 1 adult aged <654.69.55.89.4 4.79.96.39.6
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+8.65.15.22.5 8.75.84.21.9
 2 adults, both aged <6511.37.48.66.9 11.08.17.97.1
 3 or more adults15.811.910.27.6 16.310.510.67.8
 1 adult with children aged under 184.910.411.014.6 4.812.712.415.3
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1834.131.336.032.3 33.525.629.827.2
 Other households with children aged under 1816.821.020.925.1 17.124.124.829.3
Number of persons at work
 022.159.742.269.3 21.463.644.672.7
 130.134.133.826.4 29.229.633.923.7
 237.85.920.14.2 38.05.916.22.6
 3+10.00.23.90.2 11.40.95.31.0
Tenure status
 Owner-occupied69.745.250.236.9 69.844.146.233.1
 Rented at the market rate15.119.718.519.5 13.320.618.522.8
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free15.235.131.343.5 16.935.435.444.1
Urban/rural location
 Urban areas67.064.569.068.6 67.766.072.872.9
 Rural areas33.035.531.031.4 32.334.027.227.1
Region
 Border, Midland and Western26.432.127.929.5 26.335.426.833.0
 Southern and Eastern73.667.972.170.5 73.764.673.267.0
1Including all social transfers, 60% median income threshold.
2Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.
3 Including missing highest education level.
Table A1 Sample size by demographic characteristics and year
    Number of households Number of individuals
    201420152016 201420152016
State 5,4865,4525,219 14,07813,79313,186
Sex1        
Male 2,4732,4402,325 6,9056,7986,512
Female 3,0133,0122,894 7,1736,9956,674
Age group1        
 0-17 162 3,8333,6293,391
 18-64 3,9313,7633,492 7,9567,6747,231
 65+ 1,5541,6831,725 2,2892,4902,564
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)1       
 At work 2,4392,4612,319 4,8594,9484,744
 Unemployed 484373306 979756654
 Student 878069 920856882
 Home duties 983913871 1,6211,5241,384
 Retired 1,1401,2231,268 1,5891,7371,831
 Not at work due to illness or disability 299343320 534578565
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)1       
Primary or below1,1841,1541,121 1,9131,8301,774
Lower secondary817807759 1,8611,8271,802
Higher secondary950924853 2,3212,2392,093
Post leaving cert 753745711 1,3041,3401,299
Third level non degree778802757 1,3731,4071,355
 Third level degree or above 943944956 1,7511,7401,733
Household composition        
 1 adult aged 65+ 783831848 783831848
 1 adult aged <65 765750679 765750679
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 731797832 1,4621,5941,664
 2 adults, both aged <65 747691626 1,4941,3821,252
 3 or more adults 504498510 1,7181,6831,727
 1 adult with children aged under 18 327284244 904788695
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 1,1991,1921,089 4,6784,6404,277
 Other households with children aged under 18 430409391 2,2742,1252,044
Number of persons at work in the household        
 0  2,3282,2902,215 4,3784,1093,980
 1  1,6801,6291,520 4,4484,1843,877
 2  1,2971,3311,269 4,4864,6544,429
3+  181202215 766846900
Tenure status        
 Owner-occupied 3,9154,0213,932 9,88910,0119,685
 Rented at the market rate 748646485 2,1071,8291,480
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 823785802 2,0821,9532,021
Urban/rural location        
 Urban areas 3,2843,3653,224 8,6238,7478,391
 Rural areas 2,2022,0871,995 5,4555,0464,795
Region        
 Border, Midland and Western 1,5401,5241,472 3,8623,7333,620
 Southern and Eastern 3,9463,9283,747 10,21610,0609,566
1Sex, age group, Principal Economic Status and highest education level attained refers to that of the head of household.
Table A2 Average weekly equivalised income by net disposable equivalised income deciles and composition of net equivalised disposable income, 2016
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <199.58<252.75<289.04<340.26<394.73<449.41<520.23<604.58<766.88>766.88 
Average Weekly Equivalised Income  
Direct Income
 Employee income 21.3753.0586.29182.49236.19309.14400.47509.90689.681,121.48361.06
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.464.377.8619.2425.7333.4643.7461.5773.76134.1840.54
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment10.5814.9811.6914.3536.0739.8046.9061.7069.27183.0248.85
 Other direct income 3.042.302.123.904.638.438.0510.1613.9667.3812.40
 Total Direct Income 36.4474.71107.95219.98302.62390.83499.16643.32846.671,506.06462.85
Social Transfers
 Unemployment benefits 51.0541.9730.3122.3419.8115.6211.867.074.0430.6323.47
 Old-age benefits 9.5624.672.9642.1433.1925.2630.8824.5922.5538.6732.44
 Occupational pension 2.133.312.788.8316.3821.8530.4545.3753.7770.7025.56
 Family/children related allowances 31.4841.1738.7640.5036.0135.2124.1423.3118.2413.0830.19
 Housing allowances 4.399.6710.366.352.932.322.261.321.251.314.22
 Other social transfers 25.2242.9623.6517.2617.8121.4312.8511.246.848.1918.74
 Total Social Transfers 123.84163.67178.81137.42126.13121.70112.44112.90106.70162.58134.62
Gross Income 160.28238.37286.77357.41428.75512.53611.60756.22953.371,668.64597.47
Tax and Social Contributions
 Tax on income and social contributions 2.004.617.2922.1335.8755.6982.32131.66203.93427.7597.35
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.464.377.8619.2425.7333.4643.7461.5773.76134.1840.54
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid 3.211.920.940.971.892.151.444.012.565.622.47
 Total Tax and Social Contributions 6.6810.9116.0942.3463.4991.31127.5197.24280.25567.55140.36
Net Disposable Income 153.60227.47270.68315.06365.26421.21484.10558.99673.121,101.09457.11
Table A3 Average weekly household income by net disposable household income deciles and composition of net household disposable income, 2016
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <256.9<368.1<488.4<612.1<755.8<895.4<1,073<1,289.3<1,614.7>1,614.7 
Average Weekly household Income  
Direct Income
 Employee income 10.6024.8669.75146.74322.96472.92742.381,025.871,457.812,553.14683.26
 Employer's social insurance contributions 0.501.594.5013.0430.6848.0178.81112.86167.27303.5276.14
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment8.0419.9620.1238.2152.2282.16107.38125.81140.73360.1895.57
 Other direct income 2.036.627.6010.0315.3518.4021.7429.2626.49123.7526.16
 Total Direct Income 21.1753.02101.97208.02421.21621.48950.301,293.801,792.293,340.59881.13
Social Transfers
 Unemployment benefits 29.2846.2265.0470.2850.6746.0133.7225.4622.8159.6344.91
 Old-age benefits 75.52138.60166.65162.72166.31176.75115.28141.7785.83118.18134.74
 Family/children related allowances 12.0924.7254.5569.9872.5675.6861.8648.5350.5645.0751.56
 Housing allowances 10.7516.8716.1815.509.805.804.721.971.952.058.56
 Other social transfers 47.3031.2344.1359.8243.6140.6840.5926.9929.6517.7738.17
 Total Social Transfers 174.95257.64346.55378.30342.95344.91256.17244.72190.81242.70277.95
Gross Income 196.12310.67448.52586.32764.16966.401,206.471,538.521,983.103,583.291,159.08
Tax and Social Contributions
 Tax on income and social contributions 0.062.414.7716.2340.4474.16140.51239.52359.44978.68185.86
 Employer's social insurance contributions 0.501.594.5013.0430.6848.0178.81112.86167.27303.5276.14
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid 0.751.613.502.152.663.177.615.0911.8315.305.37
 Total Tax and Social Contributions 1.315.6112.7731.4273.78125.35226.93357.47538.541,297.49267.37
Net Disposable Income 194.81305.05435.75554.90690.38841.05979.541,181.051,444.562,285.80891.71
Table A4 Demographic characteristics of individuals by net disposable equivalised income deciles, 2016
Decile  12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€)  <199.58<252.75<289.04<340.26<394.73<449.41<520.23<604.58<766.88>766.88 
Distribution across deciles%%%%%%%%%%%
Sex             
Male  10.59.810.710.310.19.09.810.010.09.9100.0
Female  9.510.29.39.610.011.010.210.010.010.1100.0
Age group             
 0-17  12.910.29.810.59.910.49.710.19.07.4100.0
 18-64  9.510.37.59.210.110.210.110.510.812.0100.0
 65+  6.48.221.612.69.98.310.17.88.46.5100.0
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)
 At work  3.04.54.98.310.211.213.113.215.216.3100.0
 Unemployed  25.822.713.610.29.78.23.42.51.91.9100.0
 Student  20.813.310.611.910.49.46.55.74.86.5100.0
 Home duties  16.114.720.011.89.57.86.46.33.44.1100.0
 Retired  7.18.916.511.810.48.910.49.09.17.8100.0
 Not at work due to illness or disability  15.729.816.311.78.36.73.45.41.70.9100.0
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)
Primary or below12.915.422.613.212.57.87.04.72.51.4100.0
Lower secondary14.614.213.011.012.111.28.96.55.13.5100.0
Higher secondary10.710.99.010.910.612.110.710.28.76.3100.0
Post leaving cert 9.69.110.011.812.411.410.611.48.25.5100.0
Third level non degree5.47.74.68.17.98.512.515.515.414.3100.0
 Third level degree or above  2.72.93.85.15.06.99.611.420.731.9100.0
Household composition
 1 adult aged 65+  8.6012.3038.608.508.603.105.802.705.006.90100.0
 1 adult aged <65  15.922.95.47.04.82.58.46.88.418.0100.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+  6.87.015.114.79.19.910.710.110.26.4100.0
 2 adults, both aged <65  7.48.76.37.07.67.98.110.113.623.1100.0
 3 or more adults  5.38.94.38.914.112.411.912.811.110.2100.0
 1 adult with children aged under 18  24.221.715.412.611.36.43.90.43.21.0100.0
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18  8.36.67.88.89.811.510.513.712.510.6100.0
 Other households with children aged under 18 15.312.811.413.010.410.911.45.45.34.2100.0
Number of persons at work in the household            
 0  26.821.018.99.15.74.74.23.93.22.4100.0
 1  9.511.912.114.213.09.78.37.65.58.2100.0
 2  0.92.84.27.811.112.313.214.716.716.4100.0
3+  1.91.81.36.77.117.119.316.617.111.2100.0
Tenure status             
 Owner-occupied  6.37.18.19.310.010.011.912.212.712.5100.0
 Rented at the market rate  17.312.711.69.013.69.97.27.35.36.1100.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free  19.620.016.613.67.310.24.42.92.62.7100.0
Urban/rural location             
 Urban areas  9.49.98.99.89.410.59.510.510.511.6100.0
 Rural areas  11.210.212.310.411.49.011.18.99.06.6100.0
Region
 Border, Midland and Western  13.212.812.013.210.59.48.78.17.05.1100.0
 Southern and Eastern  8.99.09.38.89.810.210.410.711.011.7100.0
Table A5 Summary of deprivation indicators by net equivalised income decile, 2016
  Number of deprivation indicators experienced
Distribution across deciles0123+Total2+
DecileWeekly threshold (€)%%%%%%
2016 64.714.37.113.9100.021.0
1<199.5836.112.411.539.9100.051.5
2<252.7536.120.311.432.2100.043.6
3<289.0448.420.58.322.8100.031.1
4<340.2648.522.315.214.0100.029.2
5<394.7359.618.27.914.3100.022.3
6<449.4174.612.46.96.1100.013.0
7<520.2375.314.85.14.8100.09.9
8<604.5882.512.42.72.4100.05.1
9<766.8889.67.11.22.1100.03.3
10>766.8896.42.50.60.4100.01.0

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The primary focus of the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) is the collection of information on the income and living conditions of different types of households in Ireland, in order to derive indicators on poverty, deprivation and social exclusion.  It is a voluntary (for selected respondents) survey of private households.   It is carried out under EU legislation (Council Regulation No 1177/2003) and commenced in Ireland in June 2003. 

Reference period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year with household interviews being conducted on a weekly basis.  The income reference period for SILC is the 12 months immediately prior to the date of interview.  Therefore, the income referenced spans the period from January 2015 to December 2016.  In 2016, the achieved sample size was 5,219 households and 13,186 individuals.

Timeliness

For 2016, the results of the SILC survey were published twelve months after the end of the reference period and eleven months after the end of the data collection period.   It is important to take into account a number of factors when comparing the timeliness of the Irish results with those of other countries.   These factors include; the timing and duration of the data collection fieldwork and the exact reference year of the data collected.  For example, some EU member states use income data from the previous year (T-1) as a proxy for current (T) annual income.   As noted above, the income referenced in Ireland’s 2016 SILC data spans the period from January 2015 to December 2016.

Rotational Sample Design

The SILC sample is a rotational sample.  In 2014, both a new sample and a new sampling methodology were introduced.   However, as an earlier wave of the sample introduced in 2013 still existed in the overall sample, the new improved sample represents just over 90% of the overall sample in 2016.

There is both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal element to the SILC sample.  Households interviewed for the first time are Wave 1 households.   Households who are interviewed in subsequent years are Wave 2 households (2nd year in the sample), Wave 3 households (3rd year in the sample) or Wave 4 (4th and final year in the sample).  The initial sample design attempts to seed the sample with 25% for each new wave.  However, due to non-response and sample attrition the waves are not evenly balanced in the sample with Wave 1 households usually tending to dominate.

The CSO has strengthened its own rules and procedures around sample implementation.  One of the key improvements in sample implementation over the past number of years is the ruling out of the substitution of households by interviewers.

Response Rates

The overall response rate for the SILC survey in 2016 was 58%.   The response rate is heavily influenced by the Wave 1 response rate which was 33% in 2016.   The response rates tend to be a lot higher for Wave 2-4 households and in 2016 the response rate for Wave 2-4 households was 83%.

Sample design (Waves 1-3 households in 2016) 

In 2014, a new sampling methodology was introduced to improve the robustness of the SILC Sample.   However, as an earlier wave of the sample introduced in 2013 still existed, the new improved sample represents just over 85% of the overall achieved sample.  The sample methodology takes into account response rates and attrition rates to ensure the CSO achieves the required effective sample size required by Eurostat.   The following is a brief overview of the revised SILC sample methodology:

  • The SILC sample is a multi-stage cluster sample resulting in all households in Ireland having an equal probability of selection.
  • The sample is stratified by NUTS4 and quintiles derived from the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index.
  • A sample of 1,200 blocks (i.e. Household Survey Collection Unit Small Areas, Census 2011) from the total population of blocks is selected.
  • Blocks are selected using probability proportional to size (PPS), where the size of the block is determined by the number of occupied households on Census night 2011.
  • All occupied households on Census night 2011 within each block are eligible for selection in the SILC sample.
  • Households within blocks are selected using simple random sampling without replacement (SRS) for inclusion in the survey sample.

Sample design (Wave 4 Households in 2016) 

A two-stage cluster sample design was used.  This comprised of a first stage sample of 1,690 blocks (or small areas) selected at county level to proportionately represent eight strata reflecting population density.  Each block was selected to contain, on average, 30 dwellings for SILC.  The eight population density strata groups used were as follows:

  • 1 Cities
  • 2 Suburbs of cities
  • 3 Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the suburbs of cities
  • 4 Towns and their environs with populations of 5,000 or over (large urban)
  • 5 Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the environs of larger towns
  • 6 Towns and their environs with a population of 1,000 to 5,000 (other urban)
  • 7 Mixed urban/rural areas
  • 8 Rural areas

The second stage of sampling involved the random selection of households for each block.

Weighting

A design weight is assigned to each household which is calculated as the inverse proportion to the probability with which the household was sampled.  For SILC, the probability of the selection of a household is based on two elements; the probability of the selection of a block and the probability of selection of a household within that block.  The design weights were calculated separately for each wave.

For Wave 1 households, the design weights were calculated as outlined above and adjusted so as to be proportional to the 2016 sample as a whole.   For Wave 2-4 households, base weights were calculated by firstly adjusting the personal weights from the previous year for non-response.  The Weight Share Method was then applied to calculate a base weight for the household.  These design weights were then adjusted so as to be proportional to the original sample as a whole.

In accordance with Eurostat recommendation, CALMAR was used to calculate the household cross-sectional weights.  Benchmark information was used to gross up the data to population estimates. The benchmark estimates were based on:

  • Age by sex: Individual population estimates are generated from population projections from census data. Age is broken down into four categories: 0-14, 15-34, 35-64 and 65 and over.
  • Region: Household population estimates in each of the eight NUTS3 regions are generated using Labour Force Survey (LFS) data.
  • Household composition: Household composition estimates are also generated from the LFS. The following categories are used:

¨       One adult, no children

¨       Two adults, no children

¨       Three or more adults, no children

¨       One adult, one or more children

¨       Two adults, one to three children

¨       Other households with children

Due to the “integrative” calibration method, the personal weight generated in CALMAR is equal to the household weight. Because there is no individual non-response within a household, the weights for personal cross-sectional respondents aged 16 and over are the same as the overall personal weight.

Precision estimates and statistical significance

Estimates were calculated in SAS using the Jackknife and the Taylor Linearisation methodology.   For the mean equivalised net disposable income, the ‘At Risk of Poverty’ rate, the ‘Deprivation’ rate and the ‘Consistent Poverty’ rate, the Jackknife Method in PROC SURVEYMEANS was used.  The Taylor Linearisation Method in PROC SURVEYMEANS was used to measure the precision of the quantiles. 

SAS routines and macros were developed to calculate the precision of the more complex statistics, i.e. the Gini Coefficient and the Quintile Share Ratio (QSR), using the Jackknife Method.   The variance of the Gini and the QSR was estimated using the methodology outlined in Lohr1 Ch. 9 ( Variance Estimation in Complex Surveys).    The calculations of the precision estimates took into account the weighting,  the complex structure of the sample, (i.e. the fact that the sample was a cluster sample as opposed to a simple random sample) and other complications arising from the methods adopted.

When measuring the year on year change of a statistic, we take into account both the variance of the statistic in each year (sample) and the covariance of the statistic between samples.

1Sampling: Design and Analysis, 2nd Edition, Sharon L. Lohr (2010).

Data collection

The annual SILC survey is the main data source for SILC. Information is collected from all household members on laptop computers by trained interviewers, using Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) software. 

In addition, the CSO has two primary micro data sources.   These are the Department of Social Protection (DSP) social welfare data and Revenue Commissioners’ employee income data.  The CSO continues to work with DSP and Revenue to ensure good quality data is available on a timely basis.

Definitions of Income

Gross income

Income details are collected at both a household and individual level in SILC.  In analysis, each individual’s income is summed up to household level and in turn added to household level income components to calculate gross household income.  The components of gross household income are:

Direct Income:

Employee income

Gross employee cash or near cash income

Gross non-cash employee income

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Gross cash benefits or losses from self-employment

Other direct income:

  • Value of goods produced for own consumption
  • Pension from individual private plans
  • Income from rental of property or land
  • Regular inter-household cash transfers received
  • Interests, dividends, profit from capital investments in unincorporated business
  • Income received by people aged under 16

Social Transfers:

Unemployment related payments
Old-age payments (note that this includes all occupational pensions and other such social welfare payments to those aged 65 and over)
Family/children related allowances:

  • Maternity/adoptive benefit
  • Child benefit
  • Single parent allowances
  • Carers’ benefit

Housing allowances:

  • Rent supplement
  • Free phone/electricity etc
  • Fuel allowances
  • Exceptional needs payments

Other Social transfers:

  • Survivor's benefits
  • Sickness benefits
  • Disability benefits
  • Education related allowances
  • Social exclusion not elsewhere classified

Disposable income

Tax and social insurance contributions are also summed to household level and subtracted from the gross household income to calculate the total disposable household income.   The components of disposable household income are gross household income less:

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Regular inter-household cash transfer paid

Tax on income and social insurance contributions

Tax deducted at source from individual private pension plans 

Real/Nominal income figures

Both nominal and real income figures are included in this release.   Real income figures have been adjusted for inflation by applying a deflator to the nominal income figures.  The deflator is derived from the monthly CPI and takes into account the rolling nature of the income data collected by SILC.

Equivalence scales

Equivalence scales are used to calculate the equivalised household size in a household.  Although there are numerous scales, we focus on the national scale in this release.  The national scale attributes a weight of 1 to the first adult, 0.66 to each subsequent adult (aged 14+ living in the household) and 0.33 to each child aged less than 14.  The weights for each household are then summed to calculate the equivalised household size.

Equivalised disposable household Income

Disposable household income is divided by the equivalised household size to calculate equivalised disposable income for each person, which essentially is an approximate measure of how much of the income can be attributed to each member of the household.  This equivalised income is then applied to each member of the household.

Household composition

For the purposes of deriving household composition, a child was defined as any member of the household aged 17 or under.  Households were analysed as a whole, regardless of the number of family units within the household.  The categories of household composition are:

  • 1 adult aged 65+
  • 1 adult aged <65
  • 2 adults at least 1 aged 65+
  • 2 adults, both aged <65
  • 3 or more adults
  • 1 adult, with children aged under 18
  • 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18
  • Other households with children aged under 18

Tenure status

Tenure status refers to the nature of the accommodation in which the household resides.  The status is provided by the respondent during the interview and responses are classified into the following three categories:

  • Owner-occupied
  • Rented at the market rate
  • Rented at below the market rate or rent free ( includes Local Authority housing, rent-free lettings or rents agreed at below the market rate)

Urban/rural location

From 2014 onwards due to the new sampling methodology, areas are now classified as Urban or Rural based on the following population densities derived from Census of Population 2011:

Urban

  •       Population density >100,000
  •       Population density 50,000 – 99,999
  •       Population density 20,000 – 49,999
  •       Population density 10,000 – 19,999
  •       Population density 5,000 – 9,999
  •        Population density 1,000 – 4,999

Rural

  •       Population density <199 – 999
  •       Rural areas in counties

Prior to 2014, areas were classified as Urban or Rural based on the following population densities:

Urban

  •      Cities
  •      Suburbs of cities
  •      Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the suburbs of cities
  •      Towns and their environs with populations of 5,000 or over (large urban)
  •      Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the environs of larger towns
  •      Towns and their environs with a population of 1,000 to 5,000 (other urban)

Rural

  •      Mixed urban/rural areas
  •      Rural areas. 

In the 2014 sample, wave 2-4 households retain this earlier urban-rural categorisation of households.

Regions

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994.  The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. 

Indicators

At risk of poverty rate 

This is the share of persons with an equivalised income below a given percentage (usually 60%) of the national median income.   It is also calculated at 40%, 50% and 70% for comparison.   The rate is calculated by ranking persons by equivalised income from smallest to largest and then extracting the median or middle value.   Anyone with an equivalised income of less than 60% of the median is considered at risk of poverty at a 60% level.

Deprivation rate

Households that are excluded and marginalised from consuming goods and services which are considered the norm for other people in society, due to an inability to afford them, are considered to be deprived.  The identification of the marginalised or deprived is currently achieved on the basis of a set of eleven basic deprivation indicators:

  1. Two pairs of strong shoes
  2. A warm waterproof overcoat
  3. Buy new (not second-hand) clothes
  4. Eat meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day
  5. Have a roast joint or its equivalent once a week
  6. Had to go without heating during the last year through lack of money
  7. Keep the home adequately warm
  8. Buy presents for family or friends at least once a year
  9. Replace any worn out furniture
  10. Have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month
  11. Have a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight for entertainment

Individuals who experience two or more of the eleven listed items are considered to be experiencing enforced deprivation.  This is the basis for calculating the deprivation rate.

Consistent poverty

The consistent poverty measure looks at those persons who are defined as being at risk of poverty and experiencing enforced deprivation (experiencing two or more types of deprivation).

An individual is defined as being in ‘consistent poverty’ if they are

  • Identified as being at risk of poverty and
  • Living in a household deprived of two or more of the eleven basic deprivation items listed above 

Relative at risk of poverty gap

This is the difference between the median equivalised income of persons below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold and the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, expressed as a percentage of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.   The purpose of the indicator is to measure how far below the poverty threshold the median income of people at risk of poverty is.  The closer the median income of those at risk of poverty is to the at risk of poverty threshold the smaller the percentage will be.

At risk of poverty rate before social transfers

This indicator is calculated based on two alternative measures of equivalised income.  The first calculates equivalised income as the total disposable household income including old-age and survivors’ benefits but excluding all other social transfers.  The second excludes all social transfers.  Any person with an equivalised income before social transfers of less than 60% of the median after social transfers is considered at risk of poverty before social transfers (i.e. the same threshold is used for calculating the rate before and after social transfers).

At risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time

For a given year, the “at risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time” is the share of the population whose income in a given year is below the at risk of poverty threshold calculated in the standard way for a previous base year and then adjusted for inflation.  The purpose of this indicator is to get some indication of the changes in ‘absolute poverty’ over time.  The deflator is derived from the monthly CPI and takes into account the rolling nature of the income data collected by SILC.

Gini coefficient

This is the relationship between cumulative shares of the population (ranked according to the level of income from lowest to highest) and the cumulative share of total income received by them, i.e. the Lorenz Curve.  If there was perfect equality (i.e. each person receives the same income) the Gini coefficient would be 0%.  A Gini coefficient of 100% would indicate there was total inequality and the entire national income was in the hands of one person.

Calculation of the Gini Coefficient

 

Wgti = Final calibrated weight per individual ‌

Eq_Inci= Equivalised disposable income ‌

 

 

Inequality of income distribution (S80/S20) quintile share ratio

This is the ratio of the average equivalised income received by the 20% of persons with the highest income (top quintile) to that received by the 20% of persons with the lowest income (lowest quintile).

Acknowledgement 

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the SILC survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

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