Back to Top

 Skip navigation

Extra information
Methodology Previous Releases
International comparison:
See also:
YouTube Video
For more information on this release:
E-mail: Martina O'Callaghan (+353) 21 453 5491 Brian Ring (+353) 21 453 5747
For general information on CSO statistics: (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN 2009-5112
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Quarterly National Household Survey

Quarter 1 2014

IndicatorQuarter 1 2014Annual change
Employed1,888,200 +42,700
In labour force2,146,300 +8,800
Not in labour force1,450,200-6,800

Employment increases by 2.3% in year to Q1 2014

go to full release

There was an annual increase in employment of 2.3% or 42,700 in the year to the first quarter of 2014, bringing total employment to 1,888,200.  This compares with an annual increase in employment of 3.3% in the previous quarter and an increase of 1.1% in the year to Q1 2013.

Summary Points for Q1 2014

  • The increase in total employment of 42,700 in the year to Q1 2014 was represented by an increase in full-time employment of 46,400 (+3.3%) and a decrease in part-time employment of 3,700 (-0.8%). See table 1 and figure 1.
  • On a seasonally adjusted basis, employment increased by 1,700 (+0.1%) over the previous quarter. This follows on from a seasonally adjusted increase in employment of 10,600 (+0.6%) in Q4 2013, an increase of 19,000 (+1.0%) in Q3 2013, an increase of 12,700 (+0.7%) in Q2 2013 and an increase of 16,300 (+0.9%) in Q1 2013. See table 3.
  • The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate decreased from 12.2% to 12.0% over the quarter while the number of persons unemployed fell by 4,500. See table 3.
  • Unemployment decreased by 33,900 (-11.6%) in the year to Q1 2014 bringing the total number of persons unemployed to 258,100. This is the seventh quarter in succession where unemployment has declined on an annual basis. See table 1.
  • The long-term unemployment rate decreased from 8.4% to 7.3% over the year to Q1 2014.  Long-term unemployment accounted for 60.5% of total unemployment in Q1 2014 compared with 61.8% a year earlier and 63.5% in the first quarter of 2012. See table 6.
  • The total number of persons in the labour force in the first quarter of 2014 was 2,146,300, representing an increase of 8,800 (+0.4%) over the year.  This compares with an annual labour force decrease of 9,400 (-0.4%) in Q1 2013.  The number of persons not in the labour force in Q1 2014 was 1,450,200, a decrease of 6,800 (-0.5%) over the year. See table 1.

 Note: Please see background notes for discussion on the interpretation in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc.

After each Census of Population the sample of households for the QNHS is updated to ensure the sample remains representative.The new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was introduced incrementally from Q4 2012 to Q4 2013. This change in sample can lead to some level of variability in estimates, particularly at more detailed levels and some caution is warranted in the interpretation of trends involving the period of its introduction.



  • The annual increase of 42,700 (+2.3%) in employment was represented by an increase of 32,700 (+3.3%) in male employment and an increase of 10,000 (+1.2%) in female employment over the year. See tables 1, 7 and figure 1.
  • Employment increased in nine of the fourteen economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated) and fell in five. The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing (+14.9% or 14,400), the Professional, scientific and technical activities (+11.4% or 11,800) and the Accommodation and food service activities (+11.2% or 13,500) sectors. See table 2 and figure 2 below.


NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ1 2013Q1 2014
1- Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2- Industry
3- Construction
4- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
5- Transportation and storage
6- Accommodation and food storage activities
7- Information and communication
8- Financial, insurance and real estate activities
9- Professional, scientific and technical activities
10- Administrative and support service activities
11- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
12- Education
13- Human health and social work activities
14- Other NACE activities


  • In the case of the Agriculture, forestry and fishing sector it can be noted that estimates of employment in this sector have shown to be sensitive to sample changes over time. Given the introduction of the sample based on the 2011 Census of Population as outlined in the note above, particular caution is warranted in the interpretation of the trend in this sector at this time. See table 2 and figure 2 above.
  • The greatest rates of decline were recorded in the Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (-2.2% or -5,900), Financial, insurance and real estate activities (-1.9% or –1,900) and Human health and social work activities (-1.3% or -3,200) sectors. See table 2 and figure 2 above.
  • The overall employment rate among persons aged 15-64 was 60.8% in Q1 2014 compared to 59.3% in Q1 2013. See table 8.
  • The number of employees in Q1 2014 was 1,555,500, up 28,300 (+1.9%) over the year. The number of self-employed persons increased by 14,900 or +4.9% to 318,400. See table 5.


Public Sector Employment

  • Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector employment estimates over time. Table A2 in the annex shows these estimates of public sector employment.
  • The number of employees in the public sector declined by 2,500 (-0.7%) in the year to Q1 2014, bringing the total number of employees in the public sector to 375,500. The total reduction in employment in the public sector over the three years from Q1 2011 to Q1 2014 was 33,900 (-8.3%). See table A2.
  • The number of employees in the private sector showed an increase of 29,000 (+2.6%) over the year to Q1 2014, compared with an increase of 12,300 in the year to Q1 2013. The total number of employees in the private sector increased by 52,400 (+4.7%) over the three years from Q1 2011 to Q1 2014. See table A2.



  • Male unemployment decreased by 23,400 (-12.5%) to 163,500 over the year to Q1 2014 while female unemployment decreased by 10,500 (-10.0%) to 94,600 over the same period. See tables 1 and 7.
  • The overall unadjusted unemployment rate decreased from 13.7% to 12.0% over the year to Q1 2014. See tables 1 and 8.
  • In the year to Q1 2014, the number of persons classified as long-term unemployed decreased by 24,400 (-13.5%), bringing total long-term unemployment to 156,200. Short-term unemployment decreased by 10,500 (-9.7%) over the year to 98,300. See table 6 and figure 3 below.
Q1 11 Male78200130000
Q1 14 Male53300107600
Q1 11 Female4940047000
Q1 14 Female4500048500
  • The unemployment rate for 15-24 year olds (youth unemployment rate) decreased from 26.7% to 25.3% over the year to Q1 2014. See table 8.
  • The previously published standardised unemployment rate (SUR) for February 2014 was 11.9%. This was based on the short-term trend in the Live Register since the previous QNHS seasonally adjusted unemployment rate benchmark from Q4 2013. This rate is now revised to 12.0% in line with the QNHS estimate for Q1 2014. Provisional estimates for more recent months are included in table A3 in the annex and are subject to update once Live Register information becomes available for May 2014. See table A3.


Labour force

  • As with employment, the number of persons in the labour force is also influenced by changes in the size of the working age population (demographic effect).  Up to the start of 2008 this demographic effect had been adding 65,000 or more to the labour force on an annual basis, primarily driven by net inward migration.  This demographic effect peaked at almost 88,000 in the second quarter of 2007. See tables 1 and 7.
  • With the decline in inward migration the positive demographic effect started to fall in the second half of 2007 and continued to decline throughout 2008 and 2009 before becoming negative in Q4 2009. In Q1 2014 this negative demographic effect contributed 12,000 to the overall change in the labour force. This negative demographic effect is exclusively concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups.
  • In addition to the demographic effect the change in the size of the labour force is influenced by changes in participation. Overall, there was a positive participation effect of 20,700 on the size of the labour force over the year. This is also reflected in an increase in the overall participation rate from 59.5% to 59.7% over the year to Q1 2014. See tables 1 and 8.
  • Of those persons not in the labour force, the number classified as being in the potential additional labour force was 46,000, representing a decrease of 12,400 (-21.3%) in the year to the first quarter of 2014. See table 1.


International Comparisons

  • The employment rate in Ireland increased by 2.1 percentage points to 61.4% over the year to Q4 2013. The employment rate in the EU-28 in Q4 2013 was 64.3%. See table 11.
  • The unadjusted unemployment rate among the EU-28 countries in the fourth quarter of 2013 was 10.6% while the comparable rate in Ireland was 11.8%.  The highest unemployment rates among the EU-28 countries in Q4 2013 were recorded in Greece and Spain (27.6% and 26.0% respectively) while the lowest rate of 5.0% was recorded in both Germany and Austria. See table 11.
  • The latest figures available at the time of finalising this release indicate that the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for the EU-28 for February 2014 was 10.5% compared to the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate of 12.0% for Ireland for Q1 2014.


Table 1 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and ILO Economic Status
ILO Economic StatusQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
In labour force 1,187.21,184.11,178.41,195.21,207.31,197.11,187.8
In employment 972.1988.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.3
full-time 842.6845.7845.9862.2882.5891.3879.1
part-time 129.6142.3145.6143.5145.8146.9145.2
of which:part-time, not underemployed68.577.178.378.584.183.281.5
  part-time, underemployed61.165.267.365.061.763.763.7
Unemployed 215.1196.2186.9189.6179.0158.9163.5
seeking full-time work/future job-starter198.3179.3171.7174.2164.1144.7150.6
seeking part-time work
seeking work as self-employed10.910.
Not in labour force 577.2578.5584.2564.7557.9569.4577.3
Potential additional labour force 32.236.332.935.832.327.427.6
Others 544.9542.3551.3528.9525.6542.0549.8
Total males aged 15 or over 1,764.41,762.71,762.71,759.91,765.21,766.51,765.1
Unemployment rate % 18.116.615.915.914.813.313.8
Participation rate % 67.367.266.967.968.467.867.3
In labour force 959.7959.4959.1975.4974.8966.0958.6
In employment 852.9860.9854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0
full-time 552.3553.0545.2555.6566.1561.7558.5
part-time 300.6307.9308.8308.6304.9310.0305.5
of which:part-time, not underemployed222.8227.3220.2224.3227.4230.3227.5
  part-time, underemployed77.880.688.584.377.679.678.0
Unemployed 106.898.5105.1111.2103.894.394.6
seeking full-time work/future job-starter78.973.579.682.878.871.969.8
seeking part-time work 25.323.723.726.923.621.023.7
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 869.7874.5872.7850.9852.8864.9872.9
Potential additional labour force 19.922.225.524.224.321.918.4
Others 849.9852.2847.3826.7828.5843.0854.5
Total females aged 15 or over 1,829.41,833.91,831.91,826.31,827.71,830.91,831.4
Unemployment rate % 11.110.311.011.410.69.89.9
Participation rate % 52.552.352.453.453.352.852.3
All persons       
In labour force 2,146.92,143.52,137.52,170.72,182.12,163.12,146.3
In employment 1,825.01,848.91,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.2
full-time 1,394.81,398.71,391.11,417.81,448.61,453.01,437.5
part-time 430.2450.2454.4452.1450.7456.8450.7
of which:part-time, not underemployed291.3304.4298.5302.8311.4313.5309.0
  part-time, underemployed138.9145.8155.9149.4139.3143.3141.7
Unemployed 321.9294.6292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1
seeking full-time work/future job-starter277.2252.8251.2257.0242.9216.6220.5
seeking part-time work 31.330.628.834.230.827.828.7
seeking work as self-employed13.411.
Not in labour force 1,446.91,453.01,457.01,415.61,410.71,434.31,450.2
Potential additional labour force 52.158.558.460.056.649.346.0
Others 1,394.81,394.51,398.61,355.61,354.11,385.01,404.2
Total persons aged 15 or over 3,593.83,596.53,594.53,586.33,592.83,597.43,596.5
Unemployment rate % 15.013.713.713.913.011.712.0
Participation rate % 59.759.659.560.560.760.159.7
Employment rate % (persons aged 15-64)       
Male  61.963.263.564.665.966.565.7
Female  54.755.455.155.956.356.455.9
Total persons  58.359.359.360.261.161.460.8
Table 2 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)Q1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing71.379.085.591.997.4102.096.8
B-FTotal Industry264.9262.8258.2266.8270.6271.0265.3
G-UTotal Services634.8643.9646.6646.2658.7664.4661.6
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles138.8141.2143.1141.5138.0138.3138.9
HTransportation and storage 72.472.773.370.072.473.272.9
IAccommodation and food service activities54.955.757.260.764.266.565.4
JInformation and communication54.258.454.256.959.260.157.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities46.448.848.645.747.245.345.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities60.661.962.063.365.767.769.2
NAdministrative and support service activities33.432.230.429.032.633.732.2
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security51.050.950.947.748.448.849.5
QHuman health and social work activities44.547.948.851.648.849.348.4
R-UOther NACE activities 39.637.340.242.243.740.542.0
Not stated*******
Total males972.1988.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.3
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing9.211.010.711.613.314.813.7
B-FTotal Industry74.577.676.174.376.776.273.9
G-UTotal Services768.4771.3766.9778.1780.4780.2776.1
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles132.5132.2131.0130.0135.3132.1129.3
HTransportation and storage 17.916.215.516.015.816.516.6
IAccommodation and food service activities62.762.563.168.973.569.268.4
JInformation and communication24.324.823.123.422.922.523.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities54.654.
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities37.440.341.844.845.547.546.4
NAdministrative and support service activities29.
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security48.545.144.347.547.746.246.9
QHuman health and social work activities195.1197.8198.7193.0194.8200.4195.9
R-UOther NACE activities 58.958.959.659.656.257.556.6
Not stated*******
Total females852.9860.9854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0
All persons       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing80.590.096.2103.4110.6116.8110.5
B-FTotal Industry339.3340.4334.3341.1347.3347.2339.3
G-UTotal Services1,403.31,415.31,413.51,424.21,439.21,444.61,437.7
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles271.3273.4274.1271.5273.3270.4268.2
HTransportation and storage
IAccommodation and food service activities117.6118.3120.3129.6137.7135.7133.8
JInformation and communication78.583.277.480.482.082.580.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities101.0102.899.798.9101.597.197.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities98.0102.2103.9108.0111.3115.2115.7
NAdministrative and support service activities62.563.259.558.064.764.562.5
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security99.596.
QHuman health and social work activities239.6245.7247.5244.6243.6249.6244.3
R-UOther NACE activities 98.596.299.8101.899.998.098.6
Not stated*[3.2]*****
Total persons1,825.01,848.91,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.2
Table 3 Seasonally adjusted series of persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex, ILO Economic Status and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
ILO Economic Status/NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
In labour force1,196.01,187.11,187.11,194.51,196.21,200.21,196.5
In employment979.9984.5999.31,007.41,022.61,033.51,032.8
 of which:Full-time 847.5842.2851.9864.1878.3886.2886.5
  Part-time 132.0141.2148.3143.9144.0145.8147.7
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing72.878.587.291.297.0101.198.7
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles138.9142.2142.9141.2138.0138.9138.5
HTransportation and storage 72.372.372.471.772.172.773.6
IAccommodation and food service activities55.555.958.061.062.966.566.4
JInformation and communication54.758.555.356.059.059.959.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities46.948.449.146.046.745.145.6
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities60.562.462.462.265.968.369.1
NAdministrative and support service activities33.832.330.829.331.733.832.6
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security51.050.851.847.048.348.748.8
QHuman health and social work activities45.947.850.350.448.549.349.9
R-UOther NACE activities 39.538.340.042.242.741.741.8
Not in labour force566.5575.7573.3568.9567.4566.6566.3
Unemployment rate %
Participation rate %67.967.367.567.767.867.967.9
In labour force968.4962.4967.4968.9970.0969.1966.7
In employment858.1858.8859.8863.1868.3869.2870.2
 of which:Full-time 557.8552.3551.0554.8561.5561.1564.4
  Part-time 299.9306.0308.3308.5307.4308.0305.3
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing9.610.911.111.513.014.714.2
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles132.4131.8131.2131.5133.9131.6129.7
HTransportation and storage 17.916.215.515.816.016.516.7
IAccommodation and food service activities63.863.464.468.971.070.270.0
JInformation and communication24.824.923.522.922.922.623.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities55.254.051.653.054.051.753.0
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities37.340.141.944.046.447.346.7
NAdministrative and support service activities30.
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security48.945.044.647.347.546.347.3
QHuman health and social work activities196.1196.7199.5193.3195.1199.0196.5
R-UOther NACE activities 59.259.359.859.655.657.956.8
Not in labour force860.1870.5863.0859.7858.2860.5862.7
Unemployment rate %11.310.811.111.110.310.310.0
Participation rate %52.952.552.853.
All persons       
In labour force2,162.42,149.02,153.12,166.92,164.32,168.92,162.1
In employment1,837.81,842.71,859.11,871.81,890.81,901.41,903.1
 of which:Full-time 1,407.11,394.91,405.11,418.51,437.81,447.21,453.7
  Part-time 430.0448.4454.3453.1451.6455.2450.6
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing82.589.798.4102.3109.9116.4112.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles271.4273.7274.1272.7272.0270.4268.2
HTransportation and storage 89.889.388.486.487.989.989.2
IAccommodation and food service activities119.4119.7122.4129.9133.7137.0136.4
JInformation and communication79.483.478.779.181.982.382.3
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities102.0102.8100.699.1100.597.198.5
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities97.9102.5103.9106.9112.0115.4115.9
NAdministrative and support service activities63.763.760.758.262.864.963.8
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security99.895.995.395.495.695.196.4
QHuman health and social work activities241.8244.7249.9244.2242.6248.6246.7
R-UOther NACE activities 98.597.399.7101.399.499.198.6
Not in labour force1,427.01,445.51,436.71,428.31,425.81,426.71,429.5
Unemployment rate %
Participation rate %60.359.860.060.260.360.360.2
See Background Notes for further detail. The not stated group presented in Table 2 has not been separately seasonally adjusted.
Table 4 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and occupation (SOC2010)
Broad occupational groupQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
1.Managers, directors and senior officials99.2104.8103.8105.299.5101.6104.4
3.Associate professional and technical137.6132.1129.6130.1131.3134.8133.8
4.Administrative and secretarial39.342.242.542.843.340.939.5
5.Skilled trades236.0245.3246.2252.1265.7277.1270.3
6.Caring, leisure and other services22.422.722.723.724.023.825.2
7.Sales and customer service52.653.056.753.453.054.653.6
8.Process, plant and machine operatives123.1120.9121.5119.6123.6122.0119.5
Other/Not stated[3.0]**[2.6][3.6][4.3]5.0
Total males972.1988.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.3
1.Managers, directors and senior officials47.945.246.046.748.649.350.4
3.Associate professional and technical82.485.384.386.684.485.386.9
4.Administrative and secretarial168.6163.9159.3166.5168.8169.8169.3
5.Skilled trades25.025.623.
6.Caring, leisure and other services122.7123.0120.4120.7119.2123.7117.7
7.Sales and customer service105.0106.8105.3106.7106.5105.8100.7
8.Process, plant and machine operatives22.922.825.122.524.521.021.3
Other/Not stated[3.2]**[2.8]***
Total females852.9860.9854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0
All persons       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials147.1150.0149.8151.9148.1150.9154.8
3.Associate professional and technical220.0217.4213.9216.8215.7220.1220.7
4.Administrative and secretarial207.9206.1201.8209.4212.0210.7208.8
5.Skilled trades261.0270.8269.2276.3291.8304.5296.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services145.1145.7143.0144.4143.3147.5142.9
7.Sales and customer service157.7159.8162.0160.1159.5160.4154.4
8.Process, plant and machine operatives145.9143.7146.5142.1148.1143.0140.9
Other/Not stated6.
Total persons1,825.01,848.91,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.2
Note: From Q1 2011 occupational estimates are now captured and coded on the basis of the newer UK SOC2010 classification. The CSO has re-coded previous quarters to 2007 inclusive on the basis of the text string captured under the old UK SOC90 classification. As with the introduction of any new classification comparability of estimates over time can be impacted - users should bear this in mind when comparing results from quarters prior to Q1 2011 to those from Q1 2011 onwards.
Table 5 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and employment status
Employment statusQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
 Self employed (with paid employees)70.464.166.665.563.666.667.2
 Self employed (with no paid employees)162.0168.6173.2176.2184.6193.4186.7
 Total self employed232.4232.7239.8241.7248.2260.0253.9
 Assisting relative5.
 Total males972.1988.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.3
 Self employed (with paid employees)21.119.521.621.321.121.820.1
 Self employed (with no paid employees)37.539.042.140.840.642.744.4
 Total self employed58.658.563.762.161.764.564.5
 Assisting relative5.
 Total females852.9860.9854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0
All persons       
 Self employed (with paid employees)91.483.688.286.884.788.487.2
 Self employed (with no paid employees)199.5207.5215.3217.0225.2236.1231.1
 Total self employed290.9291.1303.4303.8309.9324.5318.4
 Assisting relative11.214.714.915.315.713.914.3
 Total persons1,825.01,848.91,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.2
Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and duration of unemployment (ILO)
Duration of unemployment (ILO)Q1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
 Less than 1 year64.
 1 year and over148.9131.7126.2123.3115.9108.7107.6
 Not stated*******
 Total males215.1196.2186.9189.6179.0158.9163.5
 Less than 1 year50.753.249.857.953.646.645.0
 1 year and over55.444.754.451.849.246.848.5
 Not stated*******
 Total females106.898.5105.1111.2103.894.394.6
All persons       
 Less than 1 year114.9116.1108.8121.8113.795.298.3
 1 year and over204.3176.4180.5175.0165.1155.5156.2
 Not stated[2.7]**[3.9][4.1]*[3.6]
 Total persons321.9294.6292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1
Long-term unemployment rate %
Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by ILO economic status, sex, age group and quarter
 Employed Unemployed In labour force
   Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14 Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14 Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14
 15-1912.711.813.7 21.318.719.6
 20-2456.960.059.4 31.825.122.5 88.785.181.9
 Total 15-24 (Youths)69.671.873.1 40.432.028.4 110.0103.8101.5
 25-34253.2247.3246.1 66.654.746.3 319.7301.9292.3
 35-44269.8276.1284.0 49.044.638.9 318.7320.6322.9
 45-54216.6222.9234.5 38.134.830.7 254.7257.7265.2
 55-5977.081.586.3 13.513.510.7 90.595.097.1
 60-6452.055.359.0 58.762.167.2
 65+34.036.741.3 *** 34.837.341.7
 Total males972.1991.61,024.3 215.1186.9163.5 1,187.21,178.41,187.8
 15-1913.112.811.8 19.619.417.2
 20-2469.063.155.3 17.115.313.6 86.178.369.0
 Total 15-24 (Youths)82.175.967.1 23.621.819.1 105.797.886.2
 25-34258.4252.5247.5 34.930.726.5 293.3283.2274.0
 35-44220.3226.5240.7 26.524.422.5 246.8250.9263.3
 45-54179.0185.3186.6 14.917.717.5 193.9203.0204.1
 55-5965.864.768.3 [4.0]6.45.8 69.771.074.1
 60-6433.336.238.3 [2.6][3.6][2.8] 35.939.841.0
 65+ *** 14.413.515.8
 Total females852.9854.0864.0 106.8105.194.6 959.7959.1958.6
All persons           
 15-1925.924.725.5 15.113.411.4 40.938.136.8
 20-24125.8123.1114.7 48.940.436.1 174.8163.5150.9
 Total 15-24 (Youths)151.7147.7140.2 64.053.847.5 215.7201.5187.7
 25-34511.6499.8493.5 101.585.372.8 613.1585.1566.3
 35-44490.1502.5524.7 75.469.061.4 565.5571.5586.1
 45-54395.6408.1421.1 53.052.648.2 448.6460.7469.3
 55-59142.8146.2154.7 17.519.816.5 160.3166.0171.1
 60-6485.391.597.3 9.210.410.9 94.6101.8108.2
 65+48.049.756.7 *** 49.250.857.5
 Total persons1,825.01,845.61,888.2 321.9292.0258.1 2,146.92,137.52,146.3
Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by key economic rates, sex, age group and quarter
 Employment rate (15-64) Unemployment rate Participation rate
   Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14 Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14 Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14
 15- 40.536.630.1
 20-2440.145.046.0 35.929.527.5 62.563.963.4
 Total 15-24 (Youths)24.526.126.8 36.830.828.0 38.737.837.2
 25-3470.471.474.1 20.818.115.8 88.987.288.1
 35-4477.278.680.4 15.413.912.1 91.291.391.4
 45-5474.675.578.2 15.013.511.6 87.887.388.5
 55-5962.665.468.3 73.676.276.8
 60-6447.449.852.6 11.410.912.1 53.555.959.9
 65+::: 14.014.415.5
 Total males61.963.565.7 18.115.913.8 67.366.967.3
 15- 32.933.831.7 14.514.512.7
 20-2448.847.545.6 19.919.519.8
 Total 15-24 (Youths)29.728.426.1 22.322.322.2 38.336.633.6
 25-3468.068.269.3 11.910.89.7 77.276.576.7
 35-4463.164.167.0 70.771.073.3
 45-5460.862.161.7 65.968.167.4
 55-5953.151.353.3 56.356.457.8
 60-6430.432.433.6 32.835.636.1
 Total females54.755.155.9 52.552.452.3
All persons           
 15- 36.835.230.8 14.813.813.2
 20-2444.546.245.8 28.024.723.9 61.761.460.2
 Total 15-24 (Youths)27.127.326.5 29.726.725.3 38.537.235.5
 25-3469.169.871.6 16.614.612.9 82.981.782.2
 35-4470.271.373.7 13.312.110.5
 45-5467.768.869.9 11.811.410.3 76.877.777.9
 55-5957.858.360.8 10.912.09.6 64.966.367.2
 60-6438.941.143.0 9.810.210.1 43.145.747.9
 Total persons58.359.360.8 15.013.712.0 59.759.559.7
Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and ILO Economic Status
RegionQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
Border, Midland and Western       
 In employment ('000)456.4458.1467.8476.5478.6482.9476.4
 Unemployed ('000)90.085.881.682.180.171.768.5
 In labour force ('000)546.4543.9549.4558.6558.7554.6544.9
 Unemployment rate (%)16.515.814.914.714.312.912.6
 Participation rate (%)56.956.857.458.658.858.657.5
 In employment ('000)174.5171.5176.8183.1181.8185.8183.8
 Unemployed ('000)31.733.932.433.232.529.027.6
 In labour force ('000)206.2205.4209.3216.3214.3214.8211.4
 Unemployment rate (%)15.416.515.515.315.213.513.1
 Participation rate (%)52.152.453.355.154.855.254.6
 In employment ('000)104.8105.7106.9109.7111.2111.1110.2
 Unemployed ('000)24.221.522.020.018.717.618.4
 In labour force ('000)129.0127.2128.9129.7129.9128.8128.6
 Unemployment rate (%)18.716.917.115.414.413.714.3
 Participation rate (%)59.057.858.659.159.359.058.4
 In employment ('000)177.1180.9184.0183.7185.6185.9182.4
 Unemployed ('000)34.130.427.
 In labour force ('000)211.2211.3211.2212.7214.6210.9204.8
 Unemployment rate (%)16.214.412.913.613.511.910.9
 Participation rate (%)
Southern and Eastern       
 In employment ('000)1,368.71,390.81,377.81,393.41,420.71,427.01,411.9
 Unemployed ('000)231.9208.9210.4218.6202.7181.5189.6
 In labour force ('000)1,600.51,599.61,588.21,612.01,623.41,608.51,601.5
 Unemployment rate (%)14.513.113.213.612.511.311.8
 Participation rate (%)60.860.660.261.261.460.760.5
 In employment ('000)541.5556.3547.1555.1570.1572.1572.9
 Unemployed ('000)82.669.870.075.467.163.266.2
 In labour force ('000)624.1626.0617.0630.5637.2635.3639.1
 Unemployment rate (%)
 Participation rate (%)61.661.960.962.562.762.262.6
 In employment ('000)228.8225.5220.6219.0216.7225.9225.1
 Unemployed ('000)
 In labour force ('000)262.0257.5257.3255.8252.6258.1254.7
 Unemployment rate (%)12.712.414.314.414.212.511.6
 Participation rate (%)64.462.863.
 In employment ('000)150.4150.1146.5150.9153.1151.3144.5
 Unemployed ('000)28.627.427.026.224.518.222.2
 In labour force ('000)179.0177.5173.5177.1177.6169.5166.7
 Unemployment rate (%)16.015.415.614.813.810.713.3
 Participation rate (%)60.059.658.659.860.057.256.6
 In employment ('000)181.3181.8186.5187.7193.8197.1195.8
 Unemployed ('000)45.642.
 In labour force ('000)226.9224.0228.6229.9232.2233.3232.3
 Unemployment rate (%)20.118.818.418.316.615.515.7
 Participation rate (%)
 In employment ('000)266.6277.0277.1280.7287.1280.6273.5
 Unemployed ('000)41.837.634.738.036.731.835.2
 In labour force ('000)308.5314.6311.8318.7323.8312.4308.7
 Unemployment rate (%)13.611.911.111.911.310.211.4
 Participation rate (%)58.759.559.060.361.158.758.1
 In employment ('000)1,825.01,848.91,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.2
 Unemployed ('000)321.9294.6292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1
 In labour force ('000)2,146.92,143.52,137.52,170.72,182.12,163.12,146.3
 Unemployment rate (%)15.013.713.713.913.011.712.0
 Participation rate (%)59.759.659.560.560.760.159.7
Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by Principal Economic Status (PES)
Principal Economic StatusQ1 12Q4 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14
 At work950.6960.0962.2974.4993.41,008.6997.4
 Home duties9.
 Total males1,764.41,762.71,762.71,759.91,765.21,766.51,765.1
 At work821.0828.0823.2829.0835.1840.5836.9
 Home duties516.3491.2480.7478.0468.2462.4464.8
 Total females1,829.41,833.91,831.91,826.31,827.71,830.91,831.4
All persons       
 At work1,771.61,788.11,785.51,803.51,828.51,849.11,834.3
 Home duties525.3499.5488.7486.7478.1473.7476.1
 Total persons3,593.83,596.53,594.53,586.33,592.83,597.43,596.5
Note: The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a respondent's own subjective assessment - see Background Notes.
Table 11 Labour Force Survey results classified by ILO Economic Status for persons in EU member states
  Employment rate % (15-64 years) Unemployment rate % (15-74 years) Participation rate % (15 years and over)
  Q4 11Q4 12Q4 13Annual change Q4 11Q4 12Q4 13Annual change Q4 11Q4 12Q4 13Annual change
     Q4 13 pp    Q4 13 pp    Q4 13 pp
EU2764. 9.910.710.6-0.1 57.457.757.6-0.1
EU1565.465.265.30.1 10.010.910.8-0.1 58.158.358.1-0.2
Eurozone64.263.763.70.0 10.511.811.80.0
Belgium62.261.961.6-0.3 53.553.653.4-0.2
Bulgaria58.659.459.60.2 11.412.413.10.7 52.853.654.00.4
Czech Republic66.
Denmark72.972.472.2-0.2 63.462.561.7-0.8
Germany73.373.373.70.4 60.460.360.40.1
Estonia65.867.268.31.1 61.461.160.9-0.2
Ireland59.059.361.42.1 14.613.811.8-2.0 60.159.660.10.5
Greece53.550.248.9-1.3 20.726.127.61.5
Spain56.854.654.70.1 22.926.026.00.0 59.359.258.8-0.4
France63.663.864.10.3 9.610.410.1-0.3 56.556.856.5-0.3
Italy56.956.555.7-0.8 9.611.612.71.1 48.949.649.2-0.4
Cyprus66.464.261.8-2.4 9.012.816.03.2 63.263.663.4-0.2
Latvia62. 15.013.911.3-2.6 58.760.159.5-0.6
Lithuania61.162.364.32.0 13.913.211.4-1.8 57.057.558.20.7
Hungary56.557.859.71.9 10.710.79.1-1.6 51.452.352.90.6
Malta57.359.561.11.6 50.451.752.71.0
Netherlands75.375.074.2-0.8 65.265.365.1-0.2
Austria72.372.472.40.0 61.461.361.60.3
Poland59.560.060.80.8 9.810.19.8-0.3 55.756.056.10.1
Portugal 62.960.562.11.6 60.960.560.3-0.2
Romania57.959.359.50.2 54.054.654.70.1
Slovenia64.464.263.2-1.0 58.157.957.2-0.7
Slovakia59.359.459.80.4 14.114.414.3-0.1
Finland68.668.567.9-0.6 58.858.357.9-0.4
Sweden73.473.574.30.8 63.063.463.80.4
United Kingdom69.670.871.30.5 62.563.062.9-0.1
Source: Eurostat
Note:Trends in some member states may be affected by changes in methodology
 pp refers to percentage point change
 Eurozone consists of EU15 states (with the exceptions of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom), Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Estonia and Slovakia.
Table A1 Estimated number of persons aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and ILO Economic Status
Nationality   ILO Economic Status Total
   In employmentUnemployedIn labour forceNot in labour force 
Q1 14         
Irish nationals 1,609.7207.21,816.91,298.3 3,115.3
Non-Irish nationals278.550.9329.4151.9 481.2
of which:      
 United Kingdom49.510.860.344.7 105.1
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK25.1[2.4]27.59.1 36.6
 EU15 to EU28*128.523.9152.436.0 188.4
 Other75.413.889.162.0 151.1
Total persons1,888.2258.12,146.31,450.2 3,596.5
Q1 13         
Irish nationals 1,580.0233.31,813.31,309.8 3,123.1
Non-Irish nationals265.658.7324.2147.2 471.4
of which:      
 United Kingdom45.511.857.345.7 102.9
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK28.0*30.010.5 40.4
 EU15 to EU27122.630.4153.034.8 187.7
 Other69.514.584.056.3 140.3
Total persons1,845.6292.02,137.51,457.0 3,594.5
Year on year changes       
Irish nationals 29.7-26.13.6-11.4 -7.8
Non-Irish nationals12.9- 9.8
of which:      
 United Kingdom4.0-1.03.1-0.9 2.1
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK-2.9*-2.4-1.4 -3.8
 EU15 to EU28*6.0-6.5-0.61.3 0.7
 Other5.8- 10.8
Total persons42.7-33.98.8-6.8 2.0
Note: Persons whose nationality is not stated are included with Irish nationals
* Data for Q1 2014 include Croatia for the EU15 to EU28 classification and this should be borne in mind when comparing year on year changes
Table A2 Number of employees in the Public Sector by sub-sector and in the Private Sector
      Q1 11Q1 12Q1 13Q4 13Q1 141Year on year change Q1 14
Civil Service44.539.739.238.938.7-0.5
Garda Siochána14.313.713.313.013.0-0.3
Regional bodies34.633.932.
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies354.3337.8328.3327.6324.4-3.9
Semi-State bodies 55.151.449.748.951.11.4
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies409.4389.2378.0376.5375.5-2.5
Total Private Sector1,105.71,116.81,129.11,170.81,158.129.0
1 Preliminary Data
Table A3 Seasonally Adjusted Standarised Unemployment Rates (SUR) by month
Month  2011201220132014
January  14.515.013.912.1
February  14.415.113.712.0
March  14.414.913.612.0
April  14.414.813.611.8
May  14.414.713.6 
June  14.514.813.3 
July  14.714.713.0 
August  14.814.712.7 
September  14.714.512.6 
October  14.814.412.4 
November  14.914.212.2 

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) began in September 1997, replacing the annual April Labour Force Survey (LFS). The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter.   Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997.  As of the first quarter of 2009 the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) is now undertaken on a calendar quarter basis.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December.

Data Collection

Information is collected on laptop computers, using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) software.

Sample Design

A two-stage sample design is used. A new sample was introduced in Q4 2012 as a result of the 2011 Census of Population. The sample frame of households is clustered into blocks (small areas) with each block containing 60 occupied households on the night of the 2011 Census of Population. The sample frame is stratified using administrative county and population density.  In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling and in the second stage 20 households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS).  This ensures that each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection and results in a total quarterly sample of 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

The number of valid responding households in Q1 2014 was 19,287.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the QNHS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. As the new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was introduced incrementally across each quarter from Q4 2012 to Q4 2013, the new sample is fully effective from Q4 2013.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality control totals.  The population estimates for April of each year are published in a separate release.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates have been calculated using the de facto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). From Q2 2006 onwards a new concept of usual residence will be used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the QNHS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification.  Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988.  The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work.

Inactive Population (not in labour  force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed.

Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates

The rates given in this release are based on the ILO classification.  The Participation Rate is the number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 or over. The Employment Rate is the number of employed aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 to 64.  The Unemployment Rate is the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the total labour force.

Duration of Unemployment

The duration of unemployment is the length of time since a person last had a job or began looking for work, whichever is more recent.  The long-term unemployment rate is the number of persons unemployed for one year or more expressed as a percentage of the total labour force.

Part-time Underemployment

The calculation of part-time underemployment is based on ILO and Eurostat recommendations and uses the following criteria to derive underemployment:

1.    Working part-time

2.    Willing to work additional hours

3.    Available to work additional hours

This indicator is only available from quarter 3 2008 onwards as estimates prior to that quarter were based on one single question which included the need for the person to be looking for additional work. From quarter 3 2008 the indicator is derived from a series of separate questions which allow this requirement to be excluded.

Potential Additional Labour Force

The Potential Additional Labour Force (PALF) is the sum of the two groups ‘persons seeking work but not immediately available’ and ‘persons available for work but not seeking’. Persons in the PALF are not part of the standard labour force, which encompasses only employed and unemployed people but however they have a stronger attachment to the labour market than other persons not in the labour force. The new indicators have been defined by the European statistical office (Eurostat) following extensive international discussion regarding appropriate indicators to supplement the unemployment rate.

Further background information regarding the methodology and approach adopted by Eurostat in building these new indicators can be found at the link below. European wide and individual country results are also available from this link: Click here

Principal Economic Status Classification

Results are also available using the Principal Economic Status (PES) classification which was used in the Labour Force Survey and the Census of Population.  The PES classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation with regard to employment and given the following response categories:

 • At work

• Unemployed

• Student

• Engaged on home duties

• Retired

• Other.

NACE Industrial Classification

The QNHS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature generale des activites economique dans les Communautes europeennes) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006.  Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Table 2 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS outputs. From Q4 1997 to Q4 2008 the NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use.

NACE Rev. 2 classification is more detailed than the NACE Rev. 1.1 classification. In particular more sections are now identified for services activities with the aim of better capturing economic activity within services. In cases where there is a direct one to one correspondence (e.g. section H

‘Hotels and restaurants’ in NACE Rev. 1.1 directly corresponds to section I ‘Accommodation and food service activities’ sector in NACE Rev. 2) then the two different series can be expected to be broadly comparable.

However, the series will not be exactly the same, as the process of applying NACE Rev. 2 involved a very detailed recoding process whereby the new NACE classification was applied to each record in each quarter. The detailed nature of this process means it should be expected that even in the case of a one to one correspondence between a NACE Rev. 2 and NACE Rev. 1.1 section; minor differences in the level of the estimates may be seen.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 2004 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates will be published.

Occupation Classification

As a result of changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the QNHS) the CSO is obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO has changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010. This change is also being implemented for the Census 2011 results.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly.  This newer classification reflects the evolution over a period of time of certain occupational areas which were developing rapidly, both in terms of their scale and the complexity of work organisation. One particular example which highlights the impact of these changes on published results is the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of

‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available from this link: Click here

NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994. The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. The composition of the regions is set out below.

Border, Midland and Western NUTS2 Region      Southern and Eastern NUTS2 Region          
Border Cavan Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Fingal
  Louth   South Dublin
  Sligo Mid-East Kildare
Midland Laois   Wicklow
  Longford Mid-West Clare
  Offaly   Limerick City
  Westmeath   Limerick County
      North Tipperary
West Galway City    
  Galway County South-East Carlow
  Mayo   Kilkenny
  Roscommon   South Tipperary
      Waterford City
      Waterford County
    South-West Cork City
      Cork County


Seasonal Adjustment Methodology

To correct for typical seasonal patterns, the series presented in Table 3 have been seasonally adjusted. Since Q1 2011 the seasonal adjustment of data from the QNHS is completed by applying the X-12-ARIMA model, developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. Seasonal adjustment is conducted using the direct approach, where each individual series is independently adjusted.  As a result of this direct seasonal adjustment approach it should be noted that the sum of any component series may not be equal to seasonally adjusted series to which these components belong, e.g. the seasonally adjusted number of males in employment and the seasonally adjusted number of females in employment will not necessarily add up to the total employment on a seasonally adjusted basis.

The X-12-ARIMA method has the X-11 moving averages process at its core, but builds on this by providing options for pre-treating the series using a regARIMA approach for prior adjustment and series extension. In essence this methodology will estimate seasonal factors while taking account of calendar effects (e.g timing of Easter), outliers, temporary changes and level shifts.

For additional information on the use of X-12-ARIMA see detailed note in the Q1 2011 QNHS release.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Calculation of Rates and Estimates of Change

Rates and estimates of change presented in this release are calculated from whole unrounded numbers. Due to rounding, these may differ from the rates and estimates of change calculated from the rounded volumes presented in the tables.

Interpretation of volume and rate changes

The overall change in the number of people employed, unemployed, in the labour force and not in the labour force is a function both of changes in the population as well as changes in the proportion of people with that status.  Therefore, in interpreting changes in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc, both changes in population and changes in the relevant rates should be considered.

In recent years there has been a natural decline in the number of people in younger age groups arising from the falling number of births through the 1980’s until 1994 when a low of 48,255 births was recorded (compared with 74,278 in 2009). For example there were 326,030 people born in Ireland between 1982 and 1986 and, all other things being equal, these people would have been in the 20-24 age group in 2006. However between 1986 and 1990 there were nearly 50,000 fewer births which would create a natural decrease in the 20-24 age group of close to 50,000 between 2006 and 2010.

In addition to natural changes in population, net migration has been a significant feature of population change in Ireland in recent years and net migration has also been most heavily concentrated in younger age groups. Evidence shows that migration is also most heavily concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups.  As a result of both natural decrease and net outward migration, the population of persons in the younger age groups has fallen and this should be borne in mind when considering the changes in the number of people in these age groups who are employed, unemployed and in the labour force.

 Additional Data Series

Additional data series previously included in the QNHS release can still be accessed through the CSO website and are available from this link: Click here

Labour market data can also be accessed from Statbank, the CSO’s main data dissemination service, through the CSO website from this link: Click here

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.


upArrowHide Background Notes