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E-mail: sscu@cso.ie Justin Anderson (+353) 1 498 4316 Kieran Culhane (+353) 87 183 8704
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This release was compiled during the COVID-19 pandemic. To show the effect of the pandemic and related restrictions on the New Dwelling Completions, additional monthly analysis has been included for this quarter's release.

CSO statistical release, , 11am

New Dwelling Completions

Quarter 3 2020

 Number of new dwelling completions
 SingleSchemeApartmentTotals
Quarter 3 20191,2723,3121,0685,652
Quarter 3 20201,4672,8777745,118
 % change15.3%-13.1%-27.5%-9.4%

New dwelling completions back to 2019 level by September

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have continued to affect completions this quarter, but not on the same level seen in quarter 2. There were 5,118 new dwelling completions in Q3 2020. This was a 9.4% decrease on the 5,652 completions in Q3 2019. 

The Q3 data for 2020 also shows that:

  • Single dwellings completions rose 15.3% from 1,272 in Q3 2019 to 1,467 in Q3 2020.
  • The number of scheme dwellings completed fell 13.1% from 3,312 in Q3 2019 to 2,877 in Q3 2020.
  • The decrease in completions is most pronounced for apartments; with a 27.5% decrease from 1,068 in Q3 2019 to 774 in Q3 2020.
  • Scheme dwellings made up 56.2% of all new dwelling completions in Q3 2020 while 28.7% were single dwellings and 15.1% were apartments. This compares to 58.6% scheme, 22.5% single and 18.9% apartments for Q3 2019. See Table 1.

Figure 1a details the monthly breakdown of new dwelling completions in 2020 against 2019. After only 396 completions in April 2020 (a 73.0% drop from April 2019), when restrictions largely halted the construction industry, completions rose to 1,794 in July 2020. This figure is an 11.0% decrease from 2,016 in July 2019. There was then a drop to 1,390 in August 2019 (a decrease of 22.6% from the 1,797 completions in August 2019). In September 2020 there were 1,934 completions that saw the monthly completions above 2019 figures for the first time since March. This was an increase of 5.2% on the 1,839 completions in September 2019.

Month20192020
Jan12991620
Feb13911584
Mar15601766
Apr1469396
May16011232
Jun17511619
Jul20161794
Aug17971390
Sep18391934

ESB domestic connections dataset used as a primary source

The primary data source used for the New Dwellings Completions series is the ESB Networks new domestic connections dataset where the date that the connection is energized determines the date of completion. It is accepted that the ESB domestic connections dataset is overestimating new dwellings and the CSO has adjusted for this overcount by using additional information from the ESB and other data sources.

ESB connections are classified into four categories: new dwelling completions, UFHDs (previously finished houses in UnFinished Housing Developments), reconnections and non-dwellings. The dwelling type (single, scheme, apartment) and urban-rural divide are defined by the ESB Network. See Background Notes and Methodology for a more detailed discussion of the classification.

The New Dwelling Completions series is based on the number of domestic dwellings connected by the ESB Network to the electricity supply and may not accord precisely with Local Authority or Eircode Routing Key boundaries.

The CSO has utilised other available data sources to validate and enhance the ESB connections dataset. However, this was only possible where the connections dataset could be confidently linked to another dataset using unique identifiers or by address matching. As the level of Eircode collection, coverage and storage increases across data sources in the housing sector, it is expected that the precision of estimates on new dwelling completions can be further enhanced.

Student accommodation

There has been a significant level of construction output in the student accommodation sector. These are generally connected to the ESB Network as commercial connections and are therefore not included in the ESB domestic connections dataset and have also not been included in ESB connections released by DHPLG. The data available on this sector is on a “bed space” basis and it is not currently possible to report on it as dwellings, which are self-contained units of living accommodation. Based on consultation with stakeholders in this sector, student accommodation may be included in future New Dwelling Completions reports as a separate category. There were no bed spaces completed in the student accommodation sector in Q3 2020. Total completed bed spaces since Q2 2016 stands at 9,439.

New dwelling completions in rural areas rise in Q3 2020

The ESB domestic connections dataset provides information on the type of connection and whether it is in an urban or rural area. Figure 2 below shows that in Q3 2020, the number of completions in urban areas has fallen 15.6% from 4,592 in Q3 2019 to 3,877 in Q3 2020. The number of completions in rural areas has risen 17.1% to 1,241 in Q3 2020 from 1,060 in Q3 2019. Despite this occurrence, still over three-quarters (75.8%) of new dwelling completions in Q3 2020 were in urban areas with 24.2% being in rural areas. This compares to 81.2% urban and 18.8%% rural in Q3 2019. See Table 2.

UrbanRural
Q1 20161413565
Q2 20161657737
Q3 20161675811
Q4 20162119905
Q1 20172059704
Q2 20172417849
Q3 20172830937
Q4 20173584974
Q1 20182664797
Q2 20183427969
Q3 20183640992
Q4 201842941137
Q1 20193361889
Q2 201936981123
Q3 201945921060
Q4 201952071177
Q1 20204040930
Q2 20202475772
Q3 202038771241

Highest number of completions in the Mid-East in Q3 2020

The region with the highest number of new dwelling completions in Q3 2020 was the Mid-East with 1,303 followed by 1,145 in Dublin. Together these regions contain 47.8% of completions in the quarter. The next highest region was the South-West where there were 918 completions, which is a 66.0% increase from 553 in Q3 2019. In Dublin, there were 40.9% fewer completions than the 1,937 in Q3 2019.

Most apartments completed are still in Dublin where there were 498. This is 64.3% of the total apartments completed this quarter. There were 340 apartments completed in Dublin City alone (43.9% of national apartment completions). Of all completions in Dublin, 43.5% were apartments. In Dublin City, this proportion rises to 77.8%.

The Mid-East region accounts for 34.0% (978) of the total scheme dwellings in Q3 2020. Kildare was the county with by far the highest number of scheme completions in Q3 2020 with 441. The next highest was Meath with 271.

The West region had the highest number of single dwelling completions in the quarter (242) followed closely by the South-West (240) and the Mid-East (236). Cork County (168), Galway County (124) and Meath (106) all had over 100 single completions this quarter.  See Table 3.

Classification into local authorities has taken into account boundary changes between Cork City and Cork County which came into effect in May 2019. All historical data within the tables below and the Statbank interactive tables has been revised to now be based on the new boundaries. However, data within archived releases has stayed as is. 

 

'Naas' is the Eircode area with the most completions in Q3 2020

Figure 3 shows the number of new dwelling completions at the Eircode Routing Key level for Q3 2020. The Eircode area with the highest number of new dwelling completions was W91 'Naas' (248 completions) followed by H91 'Galway' (174) and T12 'Cork Southside' (168). Of the Eircode Routing Keys areas with the ten most new dwelling completions in the quarter, six are around Dublin suburbs and its commuter belt, with V94 'Limerick' (127) and V93 'Killarney' (112) the exceptions along with 'Galway' and 'Cork Southside' mentioned above. 

New dwelling completions and ESB connections

Total domestic ESB connections in Q3 2020 totalled 6,096, a decrease of 8.7% on Q3 2019. The ESB domestic connections series continues to show a comparable trend to the NDC series compiled by the CSO as shown in Figure 4, with the two figures getting closer over recent years. The number of new dwelling completions as a percentage of total ESB domestic connections has increased significantly over the last five years, from a low of 52.1% in Q1 2015 to stand at 84.0% in Q3 2020.

There is still a noticeable difference in volume between the two series. The starting point for the NDC series is the ESB domestic connections dataset, with adjustments made to account for previously finished houses in unfinished housing developments (UFHDs), reconnections and non-dwellings as shown in Figure 5 and Table 4.

New dwelling completionsESB connections
Q1 201619783150
Q2 201623943486
Q3 201624863874
Q4 201630244413
Q1 201727633902
Q2 201732664566
Q3 201737674991
Q4 201745585726
Q1 201834614457
Q2 201843965460
Q3 201846325739
Q4 201854316729
Q1 201942505279
Q2 201948215787
Q3 201956526679
Q4 201963847514
Q1 202049705919
Q2 202032473890
Q3 202051186096

Reconnections static in Q3 2020

The number of previously finished dwellings in unfinished housing developments (UFHDs) continues to decline, decreasing 41.8% from 189 in Q3 2019 to 110 in Q3 2020. This represents a drop of 84.6% from the peak in Q3 2014 when 716 UFHDs were connected to the ESB Network. UFHDs made up just 1.8% of all ESB domestic connections in Q3 2020 compared to 21.7% at the peak in 2014. A property which is reconnected to the ESB Network after having been disconnected for more than two years is assigned a new MPRN and is therefore included in the ESB connections datasets and here considered to be a reconnection. There were 621 reconnections in Q3 2020, the same number as that in Q3 2019. The number of non-dwellings has risen 13.8% from 217 in Q3 2019 to 247 in Q2 2020. See Figure 5 and Table 4.

UFHDReconnectionNon-dwelling
Q1 2016497478197
Q2 2016363521208
Q3 2016559630199
Q4 2016438710241
Q1 2017369550220
Q2 2017414648238
Q3 2017320684220
Q4 2017261627280
Q1 2018212568216
Q2 2018181646237
Q3 2018185703219
Q4 2018308751239
Q1 2019176592261
Q2 2019154617195
Q3 2019189621217
Q4 2019209736185
Q1 2020111596242
Q2 202071405167
Q3 2020110621247

Highest number of reconnections in Border region in Q3 2020

Table 5 shows the type of ESB connection by NUTS3 region in Q3 2020. The Border region has the highest number of reconnections (113) with the most UFHDs in the South-West (40). There were no UFHDs in Dublin in Q3 2020. This is the first time any region has had zero UFHDs in a quarter since the series began in 2011. Dublin has the highest proportion of connections being new dwelling completions (94.9%) with the Border region having the lowest (66.2%).

Average new dwelling size continues to gradually fall

Figure 6 shows that the average new dwelling size is continuing to gradually fall year on year. The decline in the average new dwelling size index is due to an increase in the proportion of completed dwellings being apartments and a decrease in the size of single dwellings (see Table 6). The average new dwelling size index is obtained by linking ESB connections to BER assessment data from the SEAI for new dwelling completions (see Table 7 in Background Notes and Methodology for match rates).

Index (2016 = 100)
2011113.65159876442
2012117.399445426579
2013117.130542792096
2014107.66620987935
2015103.161177049217
2016100
201791.3256958377342
201888.9603154785693
201984.7781490419176
2020*83.9224605899681
* Provisional based on Q1 - Q3 2020
Table 1: New dwelling completions by type of dwelling, 2011 - Q3 2020
Period SingleSchemeApartmentTotal
2011Q11,1564472721,875
2011Q21,1943802171,791
2011Q31,1973051851,687
2011Q41,2672261481,641
 Year4,8141,3588226,994
2012Q17972111231,131
2012Q2847194761,117
2012Q3868244931,205
2012Q49893151541,458
 Year3,5019644464,911
2013Q163817477889
2013Q27212811441,146
2013Q3727267391,033
2013Q48614332131,507
 Year2,9471,1554734,575
2014Q16253091601,094
2014Q27123652411,318
2014Q37285061701,404
2014Q49106151771,702
 Year2,9751,7957485,518
2015Q16596061061,371
2015Q27356741611,570
2015Q38798992552,033
2015Q49791,1151512,245
 Year3,2523,2946737,219
2016Q16999393401,978
2016Q28861,2562522,394
2016Q39771,2232862,486
2016Q41,0921,6492833,024
 Year3,6545,0671,1619,882
2017Q18701,4164772,763
2017Q21,0311,7804553,266
2017Q31,1252,0016413,767
2017Q41,2262,6886444,558
 Year4,2527,8852,21714,354
2018Q19682,0174763,461
2018Q21,1512,7604854,396
2018Q31,2082,8335914,632
2018Q41,3523,3637165,431
 Year4,67910,9732,26817,920
2019Q11,0882,5675954,250
2019Q21,3152,8246824,821
2019Q31,2723,3121,0685,652
2019Q41,3923,8071,1856,384
 Year5,06712,5103,53021,107
2020Q11,0932,8441,0334,970
2020Q28691,8425363,247
2020Q31,4672,8777745,118
Table 2: New dwelling completions by urban-rural divide, 2011 - Q3 2020
Period UrbanRuralTotal
2011Q18411,0331,874
2011Q27061,0811,787
2011Q36021,0851,687
2011Q44891,1521,641
 Year2,6384,3516,989
2012Q14157161,131
2012Q23687491,117
2012Q34257781,203
2012Q46028541,456
 Year1,8103,0974,907
2013Q1329560889
2013Q25346111,145
2013Q33986351,033
2013Q47747331,507
 Year2,0352,5394,574
2014Q15405541,094
2014Q27166021,318
2014Q37956091,404
2014Q49127901,702
 Year2,9632,5555,518
2015Q18325391,371
2015Q29526181,570
2015Q31,2817512,032
2015Q41,4208242,244
 Year4,4852,7327,217
2016Q11,4135651,978
2016Q21,6577372,394
2016Q31,6758112,486
2016Q42,1199053,024
 Year6,8643,0189,882
2017Q12,0597042,763
2017Q22,4178493,266
2017Q32,8309373,767
2017Q43,5849744,558
 Year10,8903,46414,354
2018Q12,6647973,461
2018Q23,4279694,396
2018Q33,6409924,632
2018Q44,2941,1375,431
 Year14,0253,89517,920
2019Q13,3618894,250
2019Q23,6981,1234,821
2019Q34,5921,0605,652
2019Q45,2071,1776,384
 Year16,8584,24921,107
2020Q14,0409304,970
2020Q22,4757723,247
2020Q33,8771,2415,118
Table 3: New dwelling completions by type of dwelling and Local Authority - Q3 2020
Local AuthoritySingleSchemeApartmentTotal - Q3 2020
Border1869240318
Cavan4118463
Donegal78515134
Leitrim110011
Monaghan3421257
Sligo2222953
West24217911432
Galway City542047
Galway County124678199
Mayo80533136
Roscommon3317050
Mid-West17915117347
Clare64473114
Limerick646810142
Tipperary5136491
South-East18324117441
Carlow2638064
Kilkenny4441388
Waterford397613128
Wexford74861161
South-West24058197918
Cork City1025962331
Cork County16822116405
Kerry6210119182
Dublin755724981,145
Dublin City2869340437
Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown1510281198
Fingal2022844292
South Dublin1217333218
Mid-East236978891,303
Louth371057149
Kildare494410490
Meath10627111388
Wicklow4416171276
Midlands126835214
Laois3445382
Longford1910231
Offaly393042
Westmeath3425059
Note: Local Authority based on substation of dwelling where available
Table 4: ESB by Type of connection, 2011 - Q3 2020
Period NDCUFHDReconnectionNon-DwellingTotal
2011Q11,8753832412052,704
2011Q21,7913312242092,555
2011Q31,6873262991952,507
2011Q41,6413383262182,523
 Year6,9941,3781,09082710,289
2012Q11,1312783021791,890
2012Q21,1173572941961,964
2012Q31,2054312711632,070
2012Q41,4583853931852,421
 Year4,9111,4511,2607238,345
2013Q18893542801561,679
2013Q21,1463233471611,977
2013Q31,0333933921441,962
2013Q41,5074364541922,589
 Year4,5751,5061,4736538,207
2014Q11,0944223981652,079
2014Q21,3186275602152,720
2014Q31,4047166491632,932
2014Q41,7026036832103,198
 Year5,5182,3682,29075310,929
2015Q11,3713427421792,634
2015Q21,5704537462102,979
2015Q32,0333846701943,281
2015Q42,2454927302623,729
 Year7,2191,6712,88884512,623
2016Q11,9784974781973,150
2016Q22,3943635212083,486
2016Q32,4865596301993,874
2016Q43,0244387102414,413
 Year9,8821,8572,33984514,923
2017Q12,7633695502203,902
2017Q23,2664146482384,566
2017Q33,7673206842204,991
2017Q44,5582616272805,726
 Year14,3541,3642,50995819,185
2018Q13,4612125682164,457
2018Q24,3961816462375,460
2018Q34,6321857032195,739
2018Q45,4313087512396,729
 Year17,9208862,66891122,385
2019Q14,2501765922615,279
2019Q24,8211546171955,787
2019Q35,6521896212176,679
2019Q46,3842097361857,514
 Year21,1077282,56685825,259
2020Q14,9701115962425,919
2020Q23,247714051673,890
2020Q35,1181106212476,096
Table 5: ESB by type of connection and NUTS3, Q3 2020
RegionNew dwelling completionsUFHDReconnectionNon-DwellingTotal ESB connections
Border3182011331482
Dublin1,14505661,207
Mid-East1,303672461,427
Midlands21484115278
Mid-West347167443480
South-East441157925560
South-West91840100551,113
West43258626549
Total regions5,1181106212476,096
Note: NUTS3 region based on substation of dwelling where available   
Table 6: New dwelling completions by average floor size, 2011 - Q3 2020
 201120122013201420152016201720182019Q1-Q3 2020
Estimated weight in mix (%)        
Single69%71%64%54%45%37%30%26%24%26%
Scheme19%20%25%33%46%51%55%61%59%57%
Apartment12%9%10%14%9%12%15%13%17%18%
 
Estimated average size of dwelling (sqm)    
Single228230237224219232225222219213
Scheme107115125141137135129127122121
Apartment73687775847782848382
 
Average dwelling size (sqm)186.5192.7192.2176.7169.3164.1149.9146.0139.1137.7
Average dwelling size index (2016 = 100)11411711710810310091898584
% change 3.3%-0.2%-8.1%-4.2%-3.1%-8.7%-2.6%-4.7%-1.0%

Background Notes and Methodology

Scope and Background

The New Dwelling Completions series is produced by the CSO on a quarterly basis. A Housing Analytics Group (HAG) was established in 2017 by the Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government (DHPLG). This group, which met for the first time in May 2017, consists of representatives of bodies with a significant interest and role in housing, housing policy and related policy areas. 

The HAG focused on a review of housing related data published nationally and in particular on the number of dwellings built every year. Arising from the work of this group and other direct discussions between the CSO and DHPLG, a significant outcome was to assess the suitability of current housing indicators for estimating the number of new dwelling completions in Ireland.

Historically, the number of new dwellings built in Ireland, as published by the DHPLG, was based on the number of connections to the ESB Network. However, in recent years it became apparent that this series was overestimating the levels of new dwelling construction in Ireland. The New Dwelling Completions series will look to replace this and other available indicators of housing activity in Ireland. This series will include information on dwelling type, urban/rural location, activity by Local Authority and by Eircode Routing Key. It will continue to be based on domestic ESB connections but will correct for over-coverage by using additional information from ESB Networks and incorporating data from other sources. It also includes data on the number of reconnections and on houses from unfinished housing developments that are coming back into use. This will provide policy-makers with a valuable insight into the number of new dwellings available for occupation in the quarterly period concerned and also show data on the numbers of dwellings being constructed.

Geographic Split

The New Dwelling Completions data series is based on the number of new dwellings connected by the ESB Network to the electricity supply and may not accord precisely with Local Authority or Eircode Routing Key boundaries. The NDC series is split into counties and Eircode Routing Keys based on the information of the substation rather than the exact location of the dwelling. As Eircode becomes available as the unique identifier, it will replace the source of identifying the location of a new dwelling. 

The breakdown of ESB connections by type of connection and dwelling is based on NUTS3 regions as described below:

  • Border: Cavan, Donegal, Leitrim, Monaghan, Sligo
  • Dublin: all four local authorities within Dublin
  • Mid-East: Kildare, Louth, Meath, Wicklow
  • Midlands: Laois, Longford, Offaly, Westmeath
  • Mid-West: Clare, Limerick, Tipperary
  • South-East: Kilkenny, Waterford, Wexford
  • South-West: Cork City and County, Kerry
  • West: Galway City and County, Mayo, Roscommon

Classification

ESB connections are classified into four categories:

  • New dwelling completion: Recently constructed dwelling, where a dwelling is a self-contained unit of living accommodation.
  • Reconnection: A dwelling that has been reconnected to the ESB Network after a period of two years of disconnection.
  • UFHD: Connection to the ESB Network of previously completed dwellings in Unfinished/Ghost estates. A methodology was developed to identify houses that were complete in 2011 and were subsequently connected to the ESB Network. Although these dwellings may have required finishing to become available for use they are not new dwelling completions for the purposes of this publication. However, dwellings in Unfinished/Ghost estates which were not in a complete state in 2011 are included as new dwelling completions on connection to the ESB Network.
  • Non-dwelling: A building connected to the ESB Network through a domestic connection that is not constructed for residential use. 

The dwelling type is defined by the ESB Network and classified into three categories:

  • Single: If a single domestic dwelling or farm premises is to be connected to the ESB Network, Form NC21 must be completed and the dwelling is defined as 'single'.
  • Scheme: If a new multi-unit development with two or more houses is to be connected to the ESB Network, Form NC12 must be completed and each dwelling is defined as 'scheme'. 
  • Apartment: If a new multi-unit development with two or more apartments is to be connected to the ESB Network, Form NC12 must be completed and each dwelling is defined as 'apartment'.

The classification of urban and rural dwellings is also defined by the ESB Network and based on the Distribution Use of System (DUoS) tariff, which is a fee that ESB Networks charge Electricity Suppliers for use of the Electricity Distribution System3

  • Urban: DUoS Group = DG1, urban domestic.
  • Rural: DUoS Group = DG2, rural domestic.

Coverage

Only domestic connections where a dwelling is a self-contained unit of living accommodation is included in the New Dwelling Completions series. Commercial properties, shared and communal living arrangements are excluded.

Revisions

The New Dwelling Completions series is a new statistical product compiled from third party data sources. The series will be revised on an ongoing basis as more timely and accurate data sources become available and these data sources can be matched to the ESB new connections data set. BER Assessment data is used to validate the status of New Dwelling Completions, reconnections, UFHDs and non-dwellings. This will result in regular revisions to previous quarters due to the time lag between ESB connections and BER assessment. Historical data within the current release and StatBank interactive tables are impacted by revisions but data within archived releases has not been revised.

Data sources

The primary data source used for the New Dwellings Completions series is the ESB domestic connections dataset where the date that the connection is energised determines the date of completion. It is accepted that the ESB domestic connections dataset overestimates new dwellings and the CSO has adjusted for this overcount by using additional information from the ESB and other data sources. The ESB domestic connections dataset is matched by the CSO to Building Energy Rating (BER) data, compiled by the Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland (SEAI). Under the Statutory Instrument (S.I.) No. 243 of 2012, all residential property for sale must disclose their BER assessment (with some very minor exceptions). The BER includes detailed information on the type of dwelling, the type of certificate (Provisional, Final, Existing) as well as the date of assessment and construction. As the collection, storage and maintenance of Eircode improve, other data sources can be further consulted to improve the accuracy of the series.

Average New Dwelling Size Index

The average new dwelling size index is based on measurements of the total floor area recorded by a BER Assessor in accordance with the BER Regulations, the BER Assessor's Code of Practice and all other directions issued by the SEAI4. As an MPRN, the unique identifier for an ESB connection is required for the BER certification process it is possible to link new housing completions data to BER certificates to produce the index. The match rate between new dwelling completions and BER certificates is consistently highest among scheme dwellings. Table 7 shows the percentage of new dwelling completions that can be matched to a BER certificate by dwelling type and year. Between 2015 and 2019, approximately nine out of ten scheme dwellings had a BER certificate compared to less than one in five single dwellings. The match rate for apartments has increased in recent years to stand at 76% in 2019.

Table 7: New dwelling completions and BER match rate, 2011 - Q3 2020
PeriodSingleSchemeApartmentOverall match rate
201115%73%46%30%
201214%79%28%28%
201315%80%45%34%
201415%87%61%45%
201520%89%27%52%
201622%90%50%60%
201722%94%68%69%
201820%93%66%71%
201919%94%76%73%
Q1-Q3 20208%79%63%58%

While the time lag between connection to the ESB network and BER assessment can explain missing ber certificates, the data in table 7 indicates that there are additional factors at play for single dwellings and apartments.

The low match rate for single dwellings is due to the large number of self builds where dwellings are not intended for sale or rent, similarly, the low match rate for apartments can be explained by dwellings not intended for sale. these include conversions from single dwellings as well as social housing and developments in the build-to-rent sector. such developments will often have a range of provisional ber certificates or a partial number of bers for the development without having a final ber for all properties. 

1 form nc2: https://www.esbnetworks.ie/docs/default-source/publications/nc2_single-domestic-hr-no-crops.pdf?sfvrsn=a75c33f0_34

2 form nc1: https://www.esbnetworks.ie/docs/default-source/publications/nc1_multi-unit-development-hr-no-crops.pdf?sfvrsn=7e4433f0_38

3 rules for the application of duos tariff group: https://www.esbnetworks.ie/docs/default-source/publications/rules-for-application-of-duos-tariff-group.pdf?sfvrsn=a44b33f0_4

4 ber assessor support: https://www.seai.ie/home-energy/building-energy-rating-ber/support-for-ber-assessors/domestic-ber-resources/

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