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For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Jim Dalton +353 21 453 5623 Martina O'Callaghan +353 21 453 5491
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CSO statistical release, , 11am

LFS National Minimum Wage Estimates

Quarter 4 2018

IndicatorQ4 2017Q4 2018Annual change Annual change (%)
Employees reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage24,60024,500-100-0.4
Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage126,000112,700-13,300-10.6
Total employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less150,700137,200-13,500-9.0
Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,596,2001,679,60083,4005.2
Not stated136,300133,300-3,000-2.2
Total employees1,883,1001,950,10067,0003.6
    
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less (%)18.67.6--
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated

7.6% of employees earned the National Minimum Wage or less in Q4 2018

Figure 1 Share of employees by NMW status (excluding not stated) Q4 2018
go to full release

In Q4 2018, 7.6% of employees for whom earnings data was reported, earned the National Minimum Wage (NMW) or less. This was down from 8.6% in Q4 2017.

The number of employees who self-reported earning less than the NMW was 24,500 and this fell very slightly from Q4 2017. The number of employees who self-reported earnings equal to the NMW was 112,700 and this was down 13,300 (10.6%) from a year earlier. Therefore, in total 137,200 employees self-reported that they earned the NMW or less in Q4 2018 and this was down by 13,500 (9.0%) from Q4 2017.

The proportion of employees who reported earning more than the NMW was 92.4%, up from 91.4% a year earlier. See tables 1a and 1b and figure 1.

 

 

 

This release presents results based on questions relating to the National Minimum Wage (NMW) included in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) from Q2 2016. Users should note that from Q3 2017, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). Please see background notes for further information.

The LFS is not designed to be an earnings survey; rather it is the official source of employment and unemployment statistics in Ireland and is conducted across a representative sample of households throughout the country. Therefore, the earnings data in this release is based on each respondent self-reporting their income and as a result some caution is urged in the interpretation of this data. In addition, as the data presented in the release is collected directly from individual respondents, caution is urged in comparing these results to data collected directly from business enterprises.

In addition, as a number of respondents did not report their status with regard to the NMW, these respondents are identified as ‘Not stated’ in the relevant data tables and are excluded from the denominator in calculating the share or proportion of all respondents on the NMW.

 

Females more likely than males to earn NMW or less

The results show that females are more likely than males to earn the NMW or less and this has been a consistent feature of the series since it began in Q2 2016. Of the 137,200 employees who reported earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018, 75,900 or 55.3% were female while 61,300 or 44.7% were male. This compares to an overall even split of all employees in the State of 50.0% each for males and females. The greater share (88.9%) of the fall of 13,500 in the number of persons who reported earning the NMW or less in the year to Q4 2018 was accounted for by males.

In total, 6.8% of all male employees in the State earned the NMW or less and the corresponding figure for females was 8.3% in Q4 2018. See tables 3a and 3b and figure 2.

Majority on NMW or less in the Services Sector

In Q4 2018, the Services sector accounted for more than four out of five (83.5%) of all employees who reported earning the NMW or less, which continued a similar trend from earlier periods. Specifically, the Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles sector accounted for 28.2% of all employees who reported earning the NMW or less while the Accommodation and food services activities sector accounted for 27.8%. By comparison, the Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles sector accounted for 14.3% of all employees in the State while the Accommodation and food services sector accounted for 7.9%. See table 4b and figure 3.

%
Male
earning
NMW or
less
44.7
Female
earning
NMW or
less
55.3
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorShare of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or lessShare of total employees
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing4.21.3
B-F Industry12.218.4
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of
motor vehicles and motorcycles
28.214.3
I Accommodation and food service activities27.87.9
N Administrative and support service activities4.94.7
Q Human health and social work activities5.214
R-U Other NACE activities 94.3

Elementary and Sales and customer service occupations more likely to earn NMW or less

The greater incidence of employees earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018 was in the Elementary and Sales and customer service occupation groups. Elementary occupations accounted for 37.1% of all employees earning the NMW or less while the share for those in the Sales and customer service group was 24.0%. Both were up slightly from Q4 2017.

Within both groups, 23.6% of all employees in the Elementary occupation group reported earning the NMW or less while 19.9% of all employees in the Sales and customer service occupation group reported earning the NMW or less.

Overall, these groups combined accounted for 21.0% of all employees in the State. See table 5b.

Half of those earning NMW or less were in the 15-24 age group

Half (50.0%) of those earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018 were in the 15-24 (youths) age group and this was up from 47.1% in Q4 2017. This age cohort represented just over one in ten (11.8%) of all employees in the State in Q4 2018. Persons aged 25-34 accounted for 20.6% of all employees on the NMW or less while representing 24.1% of all employees. Persons aged 35-44 accounted for 13.6% of all employees on the NMW or less while representing 28.6% of all employees. Finally, those persons aged 45-54 accounted for 7.9% of all employees who reported earning the NMW or less while they represented 21.2% of all employees in the State.

In terms of the proportions within age cohorts who reported earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018, almost one third (32.0%) of all employees in the 15-24 (youths) age group earned the NMW or less and this was down from 35.0% a year earlier. This compares to 6.5% of all employees aged 25-34, 3.6% of those aged 35-44 and 2.8% of those aged 45-54. See table 6b and figure 4.

notepa
Age groupShare of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or lessShare of total employees
15-1922.22.8
20-2427.89
Total 15-24 (Youths)5011.8
25-3420.624.1
35-4413.628.6
45-547.921.2
55-5948

Over half of employees on NMW or less worked less than 30 hours per week

Over half (51.5%) of employees earning the NMW or less usually worked less than 30 hours per week in Q4 2018 compared to 54.1% a year earlier. A further 32.7% of employees earning the NMW or less worked between 35-44 hours per week, up from 31.0% in Q4 2017. Those working less than 30 hours per week accounted for 20.3% of all employees, while the share for those working between 35 and 44 hours was 60.2%.

Differences also emerge when one looks at the proportions within the hours worked groups; 37.1% of employees who worked less than 10 hours per week earned the NMW or less and the share for those between 10 and 19 hours was 24.7%. By comparison, the corresponding figure for those working between 20 and 29 hours was 13.1% and just 4.2% for those working between 35 and 39 hours. See table 8b.

Almost three in five employees earning the NMW or less were part-time

In Q4 2018, almost three in five persons (57.9%) earning the NMW or less were employed on a part-time basis. This was up from the 55.9% recorded in Q4 2017. In total, part-time employees accounted for one fifth (20.0%) of all employees in the State and this was down slightly from a year earlier. Full-time employees accounted for 42.1% of all employees on the NMW or less, down from 44.1% in Q4 2017. Full time employees accounted for 80.0% of all employees in the State.

Just over a fifth (21.9%) of all employees who worked part-time reported that they earned the NMW or less in Q4 2018 while 4.0% of all employees who worked full-time reported that the earned the NMW or less. See Table 9b and figure 5.

notepa
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or lessShare of total employees
Full-time42.180
Part-time57.920

Non-Irish Nationals more likely to earn NMW or less

Within both categories, 7.1% of Irish Nationals earned the NMW or less in Q4 2018 while the corresponding figure for non-Irish Nationals was 9.6%.

In Q4 2018, 77.3% of employees earning the NMW or less were Irish nationals and this was up slightly from a year earlier. The share for non-Irish Nationals, on the other hand, fell slightly to 22.7%.

In total Irish Nationals accounted for 82.1% of all employees in the State while the figure for non-Irish Nationals was 17.9%. See Table 13b.

Employees with Secondary as highest level of education more likely to earn NMW or less

Employees whose highest level of education was Secondary accounted for 61.0% of all employees who reported earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018. The corresponding figures for those with a Post-secondary non-tertiary and Third level honours degree or above were 14.4% and 11.1% respectively.

Those with Secondary as their highest level of education represented 30.8% of all employees while the figures for Post-secondary non-tertiary and Third level honours degree or above were 13.9% and 39.2% respectively.

In terms of the proportions within the education categories who reported earning the NMW or less in Q4 2018, 15.1% of those whose highest level of education was Higher secondary earned the NMW or less. This compares to 7.8% of all employees in Post-secondary non-tertiary and 2.1% in Third level honours degree or above. See table 14b and figure 6.

 

notepa
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or lessShare of total employees
Primary or below3.42
Lower secondary15.58
Higher secondary45.522.8
Post secondary non-tertiary14.413.9
Third level non-honours degree6.311.9
Third level honours degree or above11.139.2

* Denominator excludes employees where National Minimum Wage was Not stated

Table 1a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by detailed National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Detailed National Minimum Wage earnings statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage22.129.124.628.623.429.824.5
Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage132.3137.4126.0146.1118.3122.6112.7
Total employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
Total employees1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 1b Share of employees aged 15 years and over classified by detailed National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Detailed National Minimum Wage earnings statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage1.31.71.41.61.31.71.3
Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage8.07.97.28.46.76.86.2
Total employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage90.790.491.489.991.991.592.4
Total employees 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 2a Employees aged 15 years and over reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage by reason why
 '000
Employees reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage by reason whyQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
A special training rate[6.3][6.4][6.6][7.2][6.4][6.9][5.9]
An age-related rate[6.6]7.5[5.5][5.5][5.8]8.2[4.9]
A first job over 18 rate*****[4.5]*
Other reason[4.9]12.58.612.77.18.510.0
Not stated*******
Total22.129.124.628.623.429.824.5
Table 2b Share of employees aged 15 years and over reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage by reason why
%
Employees reporting earning less than National Minimum Wage by reason whyQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
A special training rate[28.5][22.0][26.8][25.2][27.4][23.2][24.1]
An age-related rate[29.9]25.8[22.4][19.2][24.8]27.5[20.0]
A first job over 18 rate*****[15.1]*
Other reason[22.2]43.035.044.430.328.540.8
Not stated*******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Table 3a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by gender and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Gender/National Minimum Wage earnings statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Male Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less70.281.673.382.363.668.161.3
  Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage753.7786.9793.5781.0810.3833.4846.4
   Not stated86.172.172.473.285.478.774.1
   Total910.0940.6939.1936.6959.3980.3981.8
Female Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less84.184.977.492.478.184.375.9
  Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage749.0782.9802.7778.7803.5815.5833.2
   Not stated77.559.963.959.972.262.759.3
   Total910.7927.6944.0931.0953.8962.4968.4
All employees Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
  Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 3b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by gender and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Gender/National Minimum Wage earnings statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by gender
Male  45.549.048.647.144.944.744.7
Female  54.551.051.452.955.155.355.3
Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by gender1
Male  49.750.049.649.849.850.150.0
Female  50.350.050.450.250.249.950.0
Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each gender category1
Male  8.59.48.59.57.37.66.8
Female  10.19.88.810.68.99.48.3
Total 9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 4a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
AAgriculture, forestry and fishingEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[3.9][5.0]*[4.2][4.5][7.2][5.7]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage17.619.418.316.920.017.618.5
   Not stated[4.6]******
   Total26.127.025.924.628.227.026.9
B-FTotal IndustryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less22.525.121.924.916.819.216.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage288.4304.3303.4301.1303.6321.9316.7
   Not stated25.722.124.223.129.526.125.3
   Total336.6351.5349.5349.1349.9367.2358.7
B-EIndustryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less16.917.514.817.510.713.314.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage222.0236.3231.4226.3223.5237.6232.6
   Not stated15.714.916.315.619.616.615.4
   Total254.6268.7262.5259.4253.8267.5261.9
FConstructionEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less5.6[7.6][7.1]7.4[6.1][5.9]*
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage66.468.071.974.880.184.384.2
   Not stated10.0[7.2]7.97.59.99.59.9
   Total82.082.887.089.796.199.796.8
G-UTotal ServicesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less127.7136.2124.0145.2120.0125.9114.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,193.31,242.61,270.11,237.31,283.81,305.51,340.5
   Not stated130.5103.6105.7105.1122.3109.6103.2
   Total1,451.51,482.31,499.81,487.71,526.11,541.01,558.4
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcyclesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less42.746.440.846.737.238.438.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage196.8207.8213.8194.5207.2210.9220.8
   Not stated30.617.719.720.723.319.718.2
   Total270.1272.0274.3261.9267.8268.9277.7
HTransportation and storage Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less****[4.8]**
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage64.063.565.163.669.072.276.2
   Not stated7.5**[4.2][5.4]**
   Total74.571.673.772.079.180.983.9
IAccommodation and food service activitiesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less38.743.043.148.642.044.438.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage82.298.098.895.6100.7105.1105.4
   Not stated19.311.416.215.316.715.814.3
   Total140.3152.4158.1159.5159.5165.3157.8
JInformation and communicationEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage88.196.594.891.494.1101.895.5
   Not stated[6.7]**[5.7][6.3][5.4][5.4]
   Total97.8103.2101.799.5101.8109.2102.8
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activitiesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage94.895.691.791.693.888.692.2
   Not stated[4.8]*[5.1]*[6][4.5][5.5]
   Total100.9100.797.396.6100.994.598.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical activitiesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage94.893.591.891.795.994.095.3
   Not stated6.9[4.5][5.3][4.5][6.7][5.5][4]
   Total104.3100.799.699.2105.5102.5102.1
NAdministrative and support service activitiesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less10.29.5[6.5]9.4[6.2][5.8][6.7]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage52.461.764.367.974.576.378.5
   Not stated9.89.58.19.010.39.110.0
   Total72.480.778.886.391.091.295.2
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social securityEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage87.188.595.294.898.295.8101.5
   Not stated[4][5.2][4.6][4.6][5][4.7][4.5]
   Total92.194.8100.6102.1104.4103.1107.0
PEducationEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[3]******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage137.6141.8148.6148.2147.3154.6162.3
   Not stated9.0[6.6]7.47.28.0[6.6]6.8
   Total149.7151.8158.0158.2158.9163.8170.4
QHuman health and social work activitiesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less10.010.79.710.27.48.6[7.1]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage229.5236.9240.6231.6239.9235.8247.2
   Not stated22.317.915.017.320.820.919.6
   Total261.8265.5265.2259.1268.1265.3273.8
R-UOther NACE activities Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less12.313.611.814.112.312.912.4
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage65.958.765.566.463.170.265.6
   Not stated9.616.815.212.613.613.111.4
   Total87.889.092.493.189.096.189.4
Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage****[6.4]**
   Not stated*******
   Total6.5[7.4]7.9[6.1]8.9[7.5][6.1]
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 4b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing[2.5][3.0]*[2.4][3.2][4.7][4.2]
B-FTotal Industry14.615.114.514.311.912.612.2
B-EIndustry11.010.59.810.07.68.710.2
FConstruction3.6[4.6][4.7]4.2[4.3][3.9]*
G-UTotal Services82.881.882.383.184.782.683.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles27.727.927.126.726.325.228.2
HTransportation and storage ****[3.4]**
IAccommodation and food service activities25.125.828.627.829.629.127.8
JInformation and communication*******
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities*******
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities*******
NAdministrative and support service activities6.65.7[4.3]5.4[4.4][3.8][4.9]
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security*******
PEducation[1.9]******
QHuman health and social work activities6.56.46.45.85.25.6[5.2]
R-UOther NACE activities 8.08.27.88.18.78.59.0
Not stated*******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector1
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing1.31.41.31.21.41.41.3
B-FTotal Industry18.819.018.618.818.318.918.4
B-EIndustry14.414.614.114.113.313.913.6
FConstruction4.34.44.54.74.95.04.8
G-UTotal Services79.779.479.879.780.079.580.1
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles14.514.614.613.913.913.814.3
HTransportation and storage 4.03.94.03.94.24.34.4
IAccommodation and food service activities7.38.18.18.38.18.37.9
JInformation and communication5.55.65.55.45.45.85.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities5.85.65.35.35.45.05.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities5.95.55.45.55.65.45.4
NAdministrative and support service activities3.84.14.04.54.64.64.7
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security5.35.25.55.65.75.55.6
PEducation8.58.48.68.78.68.79.0
QHuman health and social work activities14.514.314.313.914.113.614.0
R-UOther NACE activities 4.74.24.44.64.34.64.3
Not stated***[0.3][0.4]**
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector1
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing[18.1][20.6]*[19.9][18.4][29.0][23.5]
B-FTotal Industry7.27.66.77.65.25.65.0
B-EIndustry7.16.96.07.24.65.35.7
FConstruction7.8[10.1][9.0]9.0[7.1][6.5]*
G-UTotal Services9.79.98.910.58.58.87.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles17.818.316.019.415.215.414.9
HTransportation and storage ****[6.5]**
IAccommodation and food service activities32.030.530.433.729.429.726.6
JInformation and communication*******
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities*******
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities*******
NAdministrative and support service activities16.313.3[9.2]12.2[7.7][7.1][7.9]
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security*******
PEducation[2.1]******
QHuman health and social work activities4.24.33.94.23.03.5[2.8]
R-UOther NACE activities 15.718.815.317.516.315.515.9
Not stated*******
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 5a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by occupation (SOC2010) and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Broad occupational group/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
1.Managers, directors and senior officialsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage116.7121.7115.7109.4105.4111.6111.2
   Not stated6.6[5.8]*[5.1][6]*[5.1]
   Total125.0128.7121.0115.9112.1116.8118.0
2.ProfessionalsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage359.9372.4379.8375.7386.2394.5408.8
   Not stated14.515.017.915.023.113.617.1
   Total376.8391.0400.0394.6412.2411.9427.9
3.Associate professional and technicalEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[6.4][5.5][4.7][6.4]*[5.3][5.1]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage210.7220.7211.4204.2214.3212.4213.6
   Not stated16.214.112.011.014.315.514.2
   Total233.3240.3228.1221.6232.7233.1232.9
4.Administrative and secretarialEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less6.97.5[5.4]6.67.29.2[5.6]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage178.2183.4190.7190.0193.7192.3192.5
   Not stated15.013.112.713.114.711.510.8
   Total200.1204.0208.8209.7215.6213.1208.9
5.Skilled tradesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less13.416.817.815.911.917.413.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage140.3152.3152.1152.4152.7161.7171.3
   Not stated18.513.316.917.021.319.818.2
   Total172.3182.5186.7185.3185.8198.9202.7
6.Caring, leisure and other servicesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less17.017.617.620.416.413.715.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage123.8130.0139.8139.3134.2140.5142.8
   Not stated22.117.917.917.519.820.015.9
   Total162.8165.4175.3177.2170.4174.3174.2
7.Sales and customer serviceEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less38.440.235.044.032.333.132.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage109.4117.3126.2117.3129.1130.6132.7
   Not stated19.114.115.615.516.714.816.3
   Total167.0171.5176.8176.9178.0178.5182.0
8.Process, plant and machine operativesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less9.914.511.613.510.310.39.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage117.7117.0122.5122.1130.6131.9133.9
   Not stated13.89.010.310.213.814.011.5
   Total141.3140.5144.3145.9154.7156.1155.0
9.ElementaryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less58.059.554.761.354.957.750.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage140.5149.6150.1141.3157.0163.0164.8
   Not stated34.625.823.625.424.323.621.7
   Total233.1234.9228.4228.0236.3244.4237.3
 Other/Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage5.5[5.4][7.9]8.210.710.58.2
   Not stated[3.2]*[5.5]****
   Total9.09.513.712.315.315.711.2
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 5b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by occupation (SOC2010) and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Broad occupational group/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by occupation (SOC2010)
1.Managers, directors and senior officials*******
2.Professionals*******
3.Associate professional and technical[4.1][3.3][3.1][3.7]*[3.5][3.7]
4.Administrative and secretarial4.54.5[3.6]3.85.16.0[4.1]
5.Skilled trades8.710.111.89.18.411.49.7
6.Caring, leisure and other services11.010.611.711.711.69.011.4
7.Sales and customer service24.924.123.225.222.821.724.0
8.Process, plant and machine operatives6.48.77.77.77.36.87.1
9.Elementary37.635.736.335.138.737.937.1
 Other/Not stated*******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by occupation (SOC2010)1
1.Managers, directors and senior officials7.17.16.76.46.06.36.2
2.Professionals21.921.721.921.922.222.122.6
3.Associate professional and technical13.113.012.412.112.412.112.0
4.Administrative and secretarial11.211.011.211.311.411.210.9
5.Skilled trades9.39.79.79.79.49.910.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services8.58.59.09.28.68.68.7
7.Sales and customer service8.99.19.29.39.29.19.1
8.Process, plant and machine operatives7.77.67.77.88.07.97.9
9.Elementary12.012.011.711.712.112.311.9
 Other/Not stated0.4[0.3]0.50.50.70.60.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each occupation (SOC2010) category1
1.Managers, directors and senior officials*******
2.Professionals*******
3.Associate professional and technical[2.9][2.4][2.2][3.0]*[2.4][2.3]
4.Administrative and secretarial3.73.9[2.8]3.43.64.6[2.8]
5.Skilled trades8.79.910.59.47.29.77.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services12.111.911.212.810.98.99.9
7.Sales and customer service26.025.521.727.320.020.219.9
8.Process, plant and machine operatives7.811.08.710.07.37.26.8
9.Elementary29.228.526.730.325.926.123.6
 Other/Not stated*******
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 6a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by age group and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Age group/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
15-19Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less34.633.130.229.228.434.530.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage15.818.219.213.920.822.319.7
   Not stated8.7[5.9][6.7][5.2]8.47.87.7
   Total59.057.256.148.357.764.657.8
20-24Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less39.341.140.846.141.446.938.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage113.2110.6112.699.4112.2123.4125.8
   Not stated25.016.718.819.724.722.220.7
   Total177.5168.4172.2165.1178.3192.6184.7
15-24 (Youths)Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less73.974.271.075.369.981.568.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage128.9128.8131.7113.3133.0145.7145.5
   Not stated33.622.625.524.933.130.028.4
   Total236.5225.6228.3213.5236.0257.2242.5
25-34Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less33.438.032.145.331.731.028.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage390.4394.4405.4387.1400.7402.6409.9
   Not stated46.935.639.136.139.337.033.8
   Total470.7467.9476.6468.5471.7470.5472.0
35-44Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less21.224.223.123.416.018.818.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage451.8483.7480.5485.3493.7492.8500.9
   Not stated33.827.329.529.332.730.529.4
   Total506.8535.2533.2538.1542.4542.1549.1
45-54Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less15.117.212.615.611.411.810.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage323.5347.8352.5349.4356.1365.3373.8
   Not stated29.324.922.422.029.524.625.0
   Total367.8389.9387.4386.9397.0401.6409.7
55-59Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[5.1][6.3][6.0]8.2[6.5][3.8][5.5]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage119.5122.6127.6126.5127.8139.0139.5
   Not stated8.79.19.78.611.110.08.6
   Total133.3137.9143.3143.3145.5152.7153.6
60-64Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[3.6][4.4][4.1][4.1][4.1][3.5]*
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage69.074.174.975.178.980.084.6
   Not stated8.09.07.08.78.36.36.1
   Total80.687.586.087.991.389.793.6
65+Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage19.618.623.423.223.523.625.3
   Not stated[3.2][3.4]*[3.5][3.5]**
   Total24.924.228.229.529.328.829.6
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 6b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by age group and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Age group/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by age group
15-19  22.419.920.016.720.022.622.2
20-24  25.524.727.126.429.230.827.8
Total 15-24 (Youths) 47.944.647.143.149.353.550.0
25-34  21.622.821.325.922.420.320.6
35-44  13.714.515.313.411.312.313.6
45-54  9.810.38.48.98.07.77.9
55-59  [3.3][3.8][4.0]4.7[4.6][2.5][4]
60-64  [2.3][2.6][2.7][2.3][2.9][2.3]*
65+  *******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by age group1
15-19  3.03.02.82.52.83.22.8
20-24  9.28.78.88.48.79.59.0
Total 15-24 (Youths) 12.211.711.610.911.612.611.8
25-34  25.624.925.024.924.624.124.1
35-44  28.529.328.829.329.028.428.6
45-54  20.421.020.921.020.920.921.2
55-59  7.57.47.77.87.77.98.0
60-64  4.44.54.54.64.74.64.8
65+  1.31.21.41.51.51.41.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each age group1
15-19  68.764.561.167.757.760.760.8
20-24  25.827.126.631.727.027.523.3
Total 15-24 (Youths) 36.436.635.039.934.535.932.0
25-34  7.98.87.310.57.37.26.5
35-44  4.54.84.64.63.13.73.6
45-54  4.54.73.54.33.13.12.8
55-59  [4.1][4.9][4.5]6.1[4.8][2.7][3.8]
60-64  [5.0][5.6][5.2][5.2][4.9][4.2]*
65+  *******
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 7a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Region/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Northern and WesternEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less35.137.028.239.728.329.226.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage245.3251.0255.5251.3250.6257.7267.8
   Not stated22.123.525.723.024.125.721.6
   Total302.6311.5309.4314.1302.9312.6316.0
 Border Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less20.617.015.617.815.416.113.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage110.8115.0116.5115.3113.1112.9117.7
   Not stated11.914.112.910.610.711.010.4
   Total143.3146.1145.0143.6139.2140.0141.1
 WestEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less14.520.012.621.912.913.113.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage134.6136.0139.0136.1137.4144.8150.1
   Not stated10.29.412.812.513.414.711.3
   Total159.3165.4164.5170.4163.7172.6175.0
SouthernEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less53.964.155.762.053.156.947.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage461.1481.7485.7469.7490.5499.7499.3
   Not stated69.348.451.348.664.958.559.6
   Total584.3594.2592.7580.3608.5615.1606.1
 Mid-West Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less16.520.118.219.213.515.510.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage144.0137.8137.3133.5136.6144.8143.6
   Not stated17.417.223.119.327.419.721.0
   Total177.9175.1178.6172.0177.5180.0175.2
 South-EastEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less16.115.515.517.316.815.117.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage124.7128.1130.9121.0122.8119.0118.0
   Not stated9.311.37.510.616.818.921.4
   Total150.1155.0153.8148.9156.3153.0157.0
 South-WestEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less21.328.422.025.522.826.319.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage192.4215.8217.6215.2231.1235.9237.7
   Not stated42.719.920.718.720.819.917.2
   Total256.3264.2260.3259.4274.7282.1273.9
Eastern and MidlandEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less65.365.466.773.060.366.363.4
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage796.2837.1854.9838.7872.8891.5912.5
   Not stated72.260.159.361.468.657.252.1
   Total933.8962.6980.9973.11,001.71,015.01,028.0
 DublinEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less41.835.733.240.030.834.733.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage495.9519.1531.2522.6547.3553.8569.1
   Not stated43.432.936.238.444.236.828.8
   Total581.2587.7600.7601.1622.3625.3631.1
 Mid-EastEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less17.918.521.822.420.620.918.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage219.8235.3236.7228.5238.8246.2253.1
   Not stated20.520.217.017.119.716.120.4
   Total258.2274.0275.5268.0279.1283.2291.8
 Midland Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[5.6]11.211.710.68.910.711.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage80.682.887.087.586.791.690.2
   Not stated8.2[7.0][6.0][5.8][4.6]**
   Total94.4100.9104.7104.0100.2106.5105.0
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 7b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Region/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions
Northern and Western22.722.218.722.720.019.219.3
 Border 13.410.210.410.210.910.69.5
 West 9.412.08.412.59.18.69.9
Southern34.938.537.035.537.537.334.5
 Mid-West 10.712.112.111.09.510.27.8
 South-East 10.49.310.39.911.99.912.8
 South-West 13.817.114.614.616.117.313.9
Eastern and Midland42.339.344.341.842.643.546.2
 Dublin 27.121.422.022.921.722.824.1
 Mid-East 11.611.114.512.814.513.713.3
 Midland [3.6]6.77.86.16.37.08.7
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions1
Northern and Western16.916.616.216.815.915.916.2
 Border 7.97.67.67.77.37.27.2
 West 9.09.08.79.18.68.89.0
Southern31.131.431.030.731.030.930.1
 Mid-West 9.79.18.98.88.68.98.5
 South-East 8.58.38.48.07.97.47.5
 South-West 12.914.113.713.914.514.614.1
Eastern and Midland52.052.052.852.653.253.253.7
 Dublin 32.532.032.332.432.932.733.2
 Mid-East 14.314.614.814.514.814.814.9
 Midland 5.25.45.65.75.45.75.6
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each NUTS2 and NUTS3 region category1
Northern and Western12.512.89.913.610.210.29.0
 Border 15.712.911.813.412.012.59.9
 West 9.712.88.313.98.68.38.3
Southern10.511.710.311.79.810.28.7
 Mid-West 10.312.711.712.69.09.76.9
 South-East 11.410.810.612.512.011.312.9
 South-West 10.011.69.210.69.010.07.4
Eastern and Midland7.67.27.28.06.56.96.5
 Dublin 7.86.45.97.15.35.95.5
 Mid-East 7.57.38.48.97.97.86.7
 Midland [6.5]11.911.910.89.310.511.7
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 8a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by usual hours of work per week and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Usual hours of work per week/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
1-9 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less15.312.216.717.714.012.413.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage16.019.726.519.823.322.322.0
   Not stated*******
   Total34.935.647.640.341.137.138.8
10-19 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less39.228.133.035.929.727.829.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage79.172.981.682.481.181.089.2
   Not stated15.315.517.612.916.515.815.7
   Total133.7116.5132.2131.2127.2124.6134.2
20-29 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less30.240.231.834.432.132.628.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage173.4184.5193.1182.9182.0182.5187.0
   Not stated26.826.220.323.521.721.821.2
   Total230.4250.8245.2240.7235.9236.8236.6
30-34 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less7.112.29.110.110.09.9[6.3]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage83.296.297.598.0102.2106.6105.2
   Not stated7.9[5.3][4.6][5.0][6.1][4.8][4.8]
   Total98.2113.7111.2113.1118.3121.3116.3
35-39 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less25.526.823.232.123.029.724.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage536.3543.1532.2539.3566.0574.3575.1
   Not stated37.925.725.132.037.732.928.3
   Total599.8595.6580.5603.4626.7636.9628.2
40-44 hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less19.830.823.525.716.723.820.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage419.3428.0446.5436.1439.5461.5474.4
   Not stated49.035.745.537.746.738.636.0
   Total488.1494.5515.5499.4502.9523.9530.4
45 hours & overEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[4.2][7.0][6.0]8.9[4.4][7.1][4.9]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage136.6191.7184.0169.6177.8178.8184.6
   Not stated7.38.7[7.3]8.211.011.710.0
   Total148.1207.5197.3186.8193.1197.6199.5
Variable hoursEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less13.09.2[7.3]9.911.79.110.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage58.833.734.731.742.142.042.2
   Not stated15.711.011.510.914.013.213.6
   Total87.453.953.552.567.864.366.1
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 8b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by usual hours of work per week and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Usual hours of work per week/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by usual hours of work per week
1-9 hours  9.97.311.110.19.98.19.5
10-19 hours  25.416.921.920.521.018.221.4
20-29 hours  19.624.121.119.722.721.420.6
30-34 hours  4.67.36.05.87.16.5[4.6]
35-39 hours  16.516.115.418.416.219.518.1
40-44 hours  12.818.515.614.711.815.614.6
45 hours & over [2.7][4.2][4.0]5.1[3.1][4.7][3.6]
Variable hours 8.45.5[4.8]5.78.36.07.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by usual hours of work per week1
1-9 hours  1.91.82.52.22.11.91.9
10-19 hours  7.15.86.66.86.36.06.5
20-29 hours  12.312.912.912.512.211.911.9
30-34 hours  5.46.26.16.26.46.56.1
35-39 hours  33.932.831.832.933.633.533.0
40-44 hours  26.526.426.926.626.026.927.2
45 hours & over 8.511.410.910.310.410.310.4
Variable hours 4.32.52.42.43.12.82.9
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each usual hours of work per week category1
1-9 hours  48.938.238.747.237.535.837.1
10-19 hours  33.127.828.830.326.825.624.7
20-29 hours  14.817.914.115.815.015.213.1
30-34 hours  7.911.38.59.38.98.5[5.7]
35-39 hours  4.54.74.25.63.94.94.2
40-44 hours  4.56.75.05.63.74.94.0
45 hours & over [3.0][3.5][3.2]5.0[2.4][3.8][2.6]
Variable hours 18.121.4[17.4]23.721.717.819.6
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 9a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by full-time/part-time status and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Full and part-time status/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Full-timeEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less61.078.166.579.256.068.057.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,240.31,315.91,324.91,302.71,350.21,375.71,395.6
   Not stated111.584.589.191.0108.996.088.7
   Total1,412.91,478.41,480.51,472.91,515.11,539.71,541.9
Part-timeEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less93.388.484.295.585.784.479.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage262.4253.9271.3257.1263.6273.2284.0
   Not stated52.147.547.242.048.645.444.6
   Total407.8389.8402.6394.6398.0403.0408.2
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 9b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by full-time/part-time status and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Full and part-time status/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by full-time/part-time status
Full-time  39.546.944.145.339.544.642.1
Part-time  60.553.155.954.760.555.457.9
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by full-time/part-time status1
Full-time  78.580.379.779.780.180.180.0
Part-time  21.519.720.320.319.919.920.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each full-time/part-time status category1
Full-time  4.75.64.85.74.04.74.0
Part-time  26.225.823.727.124.523.621.9
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 10a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by permanency of employment and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Permanency of employment/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Permanent employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less108.1107.9100.7126.694.293.593.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,410.71,456.91,483.51,459.71,494.41,520.91,558.8
   Not stated124.493.4102.1103.3122.9106.1100.8
   Total1,643.21,658.21,686.41,689.61,711.61,720.41,753.2
Temporary employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less44.557.349.047.646.258.641.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage89.1109.8108.698.3115.1125.7116.6
   Not stated20.634.830.126.532.031.727.9
   Total154.2201.9187.8172.4193.3216.0186.1
Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage*******
   Not stated18.6*****[4.7]
   Total23.28.18.9[5.5]8.2[6.3]10.8
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 10b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by permanency of employment and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Permanency of employment/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by permanency of employment
Permanent employees 70.164.866.872.566.561.468.2
Temporary employees 28.834.432.527.232.638.530.4
Not stated *******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by permanency of employment1
Permanent employees 91.790.190.791.590.589.691.0
Temporary employees 8.19.69.08.49.210.28.7
Not stated [0.3]*[0.3]*[0.3]*[0.3]
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each permanency of employment category1
Permanent employees 7.16.96.48.05.95.85.7
Temporary employees 33.334.331.132.628.631.826.3
Not stated *******
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 11a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by supervisory duties and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Supervisory duties/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by supervisory duties and National Minimum Wage status
Person is a supervisorEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less7.213.810.611.8[7.6]9.38.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage479.7535.8544.0519.9528.1533.8550.8
   Not stated19.918.921.321.326.619.421.6
   Total506.8568.5575.9553.0562.3562.4580.8
Person is not a supervisorEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less147.1151.0139.4161.5132.6142.7128.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,020.61,012.21,042.71,030.91,078.51,109.51,121.5
   Not stated122.9107.0109.4107.8125.9115.4107.8
   Total1,290.61,270.21,291.61,300.31,337.01,367.61,358.0
Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage*21.89.58.9[7.3][5.7][7.3]
   Not stated20.8[6.1]**[5.0][6.7]*
   Total23.229.615.614.313.812.711.3
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 11b Share and proportion of mployees aged 15 years and over classified by supervisory duties and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Supervisory duties/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by supervisory duties
Person is a supervisor 4.78.37.06.8[5.4]6.16.0
Person is not a supervisor 95.390.792.592.493.693.693.8
Not stated *******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by supervisory duties1
Person is a supervisor 29.431.731.730.730.530.130.8
Person is not a supervisor 70.567.067.768.769.069.568.8
Not stated *1.40.60.60.5[0.3][0.4]
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each supervisory duties category1
Person is a supervisor 1.52.51.92.2[1.4]1.71.5
Person is not a supervisor 12.613.011.813.510.911.410.3
Not stated *******
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 12a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by duration of employment and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Duration of employment/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by duration of employment and National Minimum Wage status
Less than 3 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less20.826.422.414.622.132.321.7
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage59.381.571.965.765.278.682.3
   Not stated10.915.610.7[7.0]10.712.413.0
   Total91.1123.6105.087.498.0123.3116.9
3-5 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less21.119.315.622.112.419.018.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage64.764.369.669.267.867.372.5
   Not stated10.58.48.18.19.89.6[7.5]
   Total96.292.093.399.490.095.998.1
6-11 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less24.423.319.831.224.021.717.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage98.6103.989.499.7125.5116.6114.9
   Not stated16.515.313.110.116.816.711.1
   Total139.5142.5122.3141.0166.3155.1143.2
Total less than 1 yearEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less66.269.157.868.058.573.057.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage222.6249.7230.8234.6258.5262.6269.8
   Not stated37.939.431.925.337.338.831.5
   Total326.7358.1320.6327.9354.3374.3358.3
12-17 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less17.616.820.016.314.616.813.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage87.681.995.288.990.393.596.1
   Not stated13.6[7.7]9.414.111.39.0[6.8]
   Total118.7106.4124.6119.3116.3119.2116.0
18-23 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less10.911.99.813.210.58.39.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage66.177.672.967.069.881.670.7
   Not stated10.1[6.7][6.6]*[5.7]7.6[7]
   Total87.196.389.384.085.997.586.7
24-47 monthsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less23.522.624.926.221.521.525.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage165.8201.4210.3159.8202.6230.3231.9
   Not stated17.516.917.619.718.820.119.6
   Total206.7240.9252.8205.7242.9272.0276.8
48 months and greaterEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less32.236.633.244.730.926.428.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage923.8883.4916.6940.4927.0912.6953.2
   Not stated57.539.239.847.149.538.542.8
   Total1,013.5959.1989.71,032.21,007.4977.61,025.0
Total 1 year and overEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less84.187.987.9100.477.573.176.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,243.31,244.31,295.11,256.11,289.71,318.11,351.9
   Not stated98.670.573.484.885.375.276.3
   Total1,426.11,402.71,456.41,441.21,452.51,466.41,504.5
Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*9.5[4.9][6.3][5.7][6.3]*
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage36.975.870.369.165.668.357.9
   Not stated27.122.130.923.035.027.325.5
   Total67.9107.4106.198.4106.3102.087.3
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 12b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by duration of employment and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Duration of employment/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by duration of employment
Less than 3 months13.515.914.98.415.621.215.8
3-5 months13.711.610.412.78.812.513.2
6-11 months15.814.013.117.916.914.212.5
Total less than 1 year42.941.538.438.941.347.941.5
12-17 months11.410.113.39.310.311.09.5
18-23 months7.17.16.57.67.45.46.6
24-47 months15.213.616.515.015.214.118.4
48 months and greater20.922.022.025.621.817.321.1
Total 1 year and over54.552.858.357.554.748.055.6
Not stated *5.7[3.3][3.6][4.0][4.1]*
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by duration of employment1
Less than 3 months4.86.25.44.65.06.25.7
3-5 months5.24.84.95.34.64.85.0
6-11 months7.47.36.37.58.57.77.3
Total less than 1 year17.418.416.517.418.118.618.0
12-17 months6.35.76.66.16.06.16.0
18-23 months4.65.24.74.64.65.04.4
24-47 months11.412.913.510.712.814.014.2
48 months and greater57.753.054.456.854.652.154.1
Total 1 year and over80.176.779.278.277.977.278.6
Not stated 2.54.94.34.34.14.13.4
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each duration of employment category1
Less than 3 months26.024.523.818.225.329.120.9
3-5 months24.623.118.324.215.522.020.0
6-11 months19.818.318.123.816.115.713.0
Total less than 1 year22.921.720.022.518.521.817.4
12-17 months16.717.017.415.513.915.212.0
18-23 months14.213.311.916.513.19.211.3
24-47 months12.410.110.614.19.68.59.8
48 months and greater3.44.03.54.53.22.82.9
Total 1 year and over6.36.66.47.45.75.35.3
Not stated *11.1[6.5][8.4][8.0][8.4]*
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 13a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Nationality/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by nationality and National Minimum Wage status
Irish nationalsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less116.7126.5115.5133.9112.0116.1106.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,280.21,308.21,341.71,306.41,338.91,373.91,386.3
   Not stated129.4107.6110.7107.1131.4114.4111.8
   Total1,526.21,542.31,567.91,547.41,582.41,604.31,604.1
Non-Irish nationalsEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less37.740.035.140.829.736.331.1
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage222.6261.6254.5253.3274.9275.1293.3
   Not stated34.224.425.625.926.227.021.5
   Total294.4326.0315.2320.1330.7338.4346.0
of which:United KingdomEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage35.538.540.140.038.737.741.6
   Not stated*******
   Total39.645.144.245.946.646.248.4
  EU15 excl. Irl and UKEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage33.839.240.942.346.448.452.4
   Not stated[5.4]******
   Total41.645.848.650.052.551.957.7
  EU15 to EU28Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less17.718.414.116.814.614.410.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage93.398.896.895.199.898.8102.9
   Not stated13.3[7.1]11.1[9][7.4][10.3][8.5]
   Total124.3124.4122.0121.0121.9123.5121.9
  OtherEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less15.714.715.716.9[9.7]17.115.0
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage60.085.176.775.990.090.196.4
   Not stated13.3[10.9][8.1][10.5][10][9.6][6.6]
   Total88.9110.6100.5103.2109.7116.8118.0
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 13b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Nationality/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by nationality
Irish nationals75.676.076.676.679.076.277.3
Non-Irish nationals24.424.023.323.421.023.822.7
of which:United Kingdom*******
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK*******
 EU15 to EU2811.511.19.49.610.39.47.7
 Other10.28.810.49.7[6.8]11.210.9
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by nationality1
Irish nationals84.382.683.483.082.682.782.1
Non-Irish nationals15.717.416.617.017.417.317.9
of which:United Kingdom2.32.42.42.52.42.32.5
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK2.22.52.52.62.72.73.0
 EU15 to EU286.76.86.36.56.56.36.2
 Other4.65.75.35.45.76.06.1
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each nationality category1
Irish nationals8.48.87.99.37.77.87.1
Non-Irish nationals14.513.312.113.99.811.79.6
of which:United Kingdom*******
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK*******
 EU15 to EU2815.915.712.715.012.812.79.3
 Other20.714.717.018.2[9.7]16.013.5
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 14a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by highest level of education attained and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Highest level of education attained/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by highest level of education attained and National Minimum Wage status
Primary or belowEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less7.2[6.5][6.1][5.4][4.7][3.9][4.7]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage26.732.630.930.427.624.331.3
   Not stated6.8[6.2][5.7][6.0]6.9[4.0][5.8]
   Total40.645.342.741.739.232.241.7
Lower secondaryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less27.129.423.024.822.128.121.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage118.7122.9117.4122.5123.0128.5124.0
   Not stated18.615.413.415.318.816.613.9
   Total164.3167.6153.8162.7163.8173.2159.2
Higher secondaryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less65.674.770.380.065.666.362.4
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage316.2322.5341.3324.8343.2357.2351.7
   Not stated47.936.140.138.045.839.441.6
   Total429.8433.2451.7442.9454.5463.0455.8
Post secondary non-tertiaryEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less20.121.522.527.220.021.119.8
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage193.8204.1213.8204.9215.1224.4233.1
   Not stated21.217.415.916.619.019.519.4
   Total235.1243.0252.2248.8254.1265.0272.2
Third level non-honours degreeEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less11.49.3[7.7]11.48.99.3[8.7]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage193.4197.7200.7190.8195.5197.0207.2
   Not stated13.911.311.011.810.310.29.2
   Total218.7218.3219.4214.0214.6216.5225.0
Third level honours degree or aboveEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less17.719.416.921.518.218.215.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage615.1643.7664.2656.1678.4686.5697.6
   Not stated33.929.231.229.339.231.030.0
   Total666.7692.3712.2706.9735.8735.8742.8
Other/Not statedEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[5.2][5.7]*****
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage38.946.427.930.231.131.034.8
   Not stated21.316.418.916.017.620.713.5
   Total65.468.451.050.651.157.153.4
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 14b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by highest level of education attained and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Highest level of education attained/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by highest level of education attained
Primary or below 4.7[3.9][4.0][3.1][3.3][2.6][3.4]
Lower secondary 17.617.715.314.215.618.415.5
Higher secondary 42.544.946.645.846.343.545.5
Post secondary non-tertiary 13.012.914.915.614.113.814.4
Third level non-honours degree 7.45.6[5.1]6.56.36.1[6.3]
Third level honours degree or above11.511.711.212.312.811.911.1
Other/Not stated [3.4][3.4]*****
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by highest level of education attained1
Primary or below 2.02.32.12.11.81.62.0
Lower secondary 8.88.88.08.58.38.78.0
Higher secondary 23.022.923.623.323.323.522.8
Post secondary non-tertiary 12.913.013.513.413.413.613.9
Third level non-honours degree 12.411.911.911.711.611.511.9
Third level honours degree or above38.238.239.039.139.739.139.2
Other/Not stated 2.73.01.82.01.92.02.2
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each highest level of education attained category1
Primary or below 21.3[16.6][16.5][15.1][14.6][13.8][13.1]
Lower secondary 18.619.316.416.815.218.014.7
Higher secondary 17.218.817.119.816.115.715.1
Post secondary non-tertiary 9.49.59.511.78.58.67.8
Third level non-honours degree 5.64.5[3.7]5.64.44.5[4]
Third level honours degree or above2.82.92.53.22.62.62.1
Other/Not stated [11.8][10.9]*****
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 15a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by degree of urbanisation and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Degree of urbanisation/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by degree of urbanisation and National Minimum Wage status
Densely-populated areaEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less57.354.446.356.239.043.542.8
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage598.0619.0633.3632.4659.2673.4688.4
   Not stated62.245.949.151.959.650.942.5
   Total717.5719.3728.6740.5757.8767.7773.7
Intermediate areaEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less34.645.146.349.837.141.637.5
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage318.4376.1382.2365.7379.7384.8392.6
   Not stated36.637.034.635.139.132.936.8
   Total389.6458.2463.1450.6455.9459.2466.9
Thinly-populated areaEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less62.467.058.068.765.667.356.9
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage586.4574.7580.7561.7575.0590.8598.6
   Not stated64.849.052.746.058.857.654.1
   Total713.6690.7691.4676.4699.4715.7709.5
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 15b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by degree of urbanisation and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Degree of urbanisation/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by degree of urbanisation
Densely-populated area 37.132.730.732.227.528.531.2
Intermediate area 22.427.130.728.526.227.327.3
Thinly-populated area 40.440.238.539.346.344.241.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by degree of urbanisation1
Densely-populated area 39.538.838.939.739.839.840.2
Intermediate area 21.324.324.524.023.723.723.7
Thinly-populated area 39.237.036.636.336.536.536.1
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each degree of urbanisation category1
Densely-populated area 8.78.16.88.25.66.15.9
Intermediate area 9.810.710.812.08.99.88.7
Thinly-populated area 9.610.49.110.910.210.28.7
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated
Table 16a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by household composition and National Minimum Wage earnings status
 '000
Household composition/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Employees classified by household composition and National Minimum Wage status
1 person aged 65+, no persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less*******
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage[4.2]*[3.7][5.0]6.25.9[4.6]
   Not stated*******
   Total5.7[5.1][4.8]6.47.47.36.1
1 person aged <65, no persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less6.7[8.0]9.59.6[6.4][6.7][6.5]
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage104.4126.4127.5121.8135.5138.4133.2
   Not stated7.79.59.810.710.111.48.2
   Total118.8143.9146.8142.1152.0156.5147.9
2 persons (at least 1 aged 65+), no persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[3.2][3.5]*[3.6]***
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage33.829.936.036.335.038.141.4
   Not stated5.96.1[5.2][5.3][5.4][5.0][3.9]
   Total42.939.544.645.243.545.747.4
2 persons (both aged <65), no persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less18.320.817.223.516.217.616.6
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage300.7322.3332.1316.3323.4324.0332.0
   Not stated27.617.220.921.127.020.322.6
   Total346.6360.4370.2360.8366.6361.8371.1
3 or more persons (all aged 18 or older), no persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less46.651.246.162.348.349.145.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage322.6316.6321.2310.6335.5357.6377.3
   Not stated56.141.847.640.149.345.942.2
   Total425.3409.7414.9412.9433.1452.6464.8
1 person (aged 18 or older), 1 or more persons aged under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less[5.2][7.2][8.8]9.3[5.9][6.4][8.2]
Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage33.843.449.643.251.547.752.5
   Not stated*******
   Total40.853.761.856.061.357.664.6
2 persons (both aged 18 or older), 1-3 persons under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less30.334.428.228.424.927.322.4
Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage504.3513.7517.9520.9507.7508.1520.3
   Not stated30.227.427.725.229.830.528.1
   Total564.8575.6573.8574.5562.4565.9570.8
Other households with persons aged under 18Employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less43.340.536.937.336.542.235.3
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage199.0214.1208.2205.8219.0229.2218.3
   Not stated33.525.921.126.531.423.923.8
   Total275.8280.5266.1269.6286.9295.2277.4
All employeesEmployees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less154.3166.5150.7174.7141.7152.4137.2
   Employees reporting earning more than National Minimum Wage1,502.71,569.81,596.21,559.81,613.81,648.91,679.6
   Not stated163.6132.0136.3133.1157.6141.4133.3
   Total1,820.71,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.1
Table 16b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by household composition and National Minimum Wage earnings status
%
Household composition/National Minimum Wage statusQ4 16Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18
Share of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less by household composition
1 person aged 65+, no persons under 18*******
1 person aged <65, no persons under 184.3[4.8]6.35.5[4.5][4.4][4.7]
2 persons (at least 1 aged 65+), no persons under 18[2.1][2.1]*[2.1]***
2 persons (both aged <65), no persons under 1811.912.511.413.511.411.512.1
3 or more persons (all aged 18 or older), no persons under 1830.230.830.635.734.132.233.0
1 person (aged 18 or older), 1 or more persons aged under 18[3.4][4.3][5.8]5.3[4.2][4.2][6]
2 persons (both aged 18 or older), 1-3 persons under 1819.620.718.716.317.617.916.3
Other households with persons aged under 1828.124.324.521.425.827.725.7
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by household composition1
1 person aged 65+, no persons under 180.3[0.2][0.2][0.3]0.40.30.3
1 person aged <65, no persons under 186.77.77.87.68.18.17.7
2 persons (at least 1 aged 65+), no persons under 182.21.92.32.32.22.32.4
2 persons (both aged <65), no persons under 1819.319.820.019.619.319.019.2
3 or more persons (all aged 18 or older), no persons under 1822.321.221.021.521.922.623.3
1 person (aged 18 or older), 1 or more persons aged under 182.42.93.33.03.33.03.3
2 persons (both aged 18 or older), 1-3 persons under 1832.331.631.331.730.329.729.9
Other households with persons aged under 1814.614.714.014.014.615.114.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees reporting earning National Minimum Wage or less within each household composition category1
1 person aged 65+, no persons under 18*******
1 person aged <65, no persons under 186.0[6.0]6.97.3[4.5][4.6][4.7]
2 persons (at least 1 aged 65+), no persons under 18[8.7][10.5]*[9.0]***
2 persons (both aged <65), no persons under 185.76.14.96.94.85.24.8
3 or more persons (all aged 18 or older), no persons under 1812.613.912.616.712.612.110.7
1 person (aged 18 or older), 1 or more persons aged under 18[13.3][14.2][15.1]17.7[10.3][11.8][13.5]
2 persons (both aged 18 or older), 1-3 persons under 185.76.35.25.24.75.14.1
Other households with persons aged under 1817.915.915.115.314.315.513.9
Total9.39.68.610.18.18.57.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose National Minimum Wage status was Not stated

Background Notes

National Minimum Wage (NMW)            

The National Minimum Wage (NMW) was introduced in Ireland on April 1st, 2000. Since its introduction, the NMW has been adjusted on numerous occasions and for the reference years mentioned in this release, the adult rates were as follows:

2016: €9.15 per hour

2017: €9.25 per hour

2018: €9.55 per hour

The National Minimum Wage is the lowest average hourly rate that can be paid by an employer to an employee. There are a number of exceptions to the requirement to pay NMW which, for the period covered by this release, were as follows:

(a) a person who is a close relative of the employer (i.e. the spouse, civil partner, father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, step-father, step-mother, son, daughter, step-son, step-daughter, grandson, grand-daughter, brother, sister, half-brother or half-sister of an employer),

(b) a person taking part in a statutory apprenticeship (e.g. an apprentice printer, plumber, carpenter/joiner, electrician etc), or to

(c) non-commercial activity or work engaged in by prisoners under the supervision of the governor or person in charge of the prison concerned.

If an employee receives food (known as board) and/or accommodation (known as lodgings) from an employer, this may be considered in the minimum wage calculation although these board or lodging offsets are allowable up to a fixed maximum amount only.

Sub-Minimum Rates               

Prior to March 4th 2019, the legislation provided for three different categories of sub-minimum rates, which were fixed as a percentage of the national hourly rate. These rates applied to:

(a)    those under 18 years of age,

(b)    those over 18 who are in a first job (for up to two years), and

(c)    those over 18 who are undergoing a prescribed course of study or training (known as trainee rates). Maximum periods of training range from 3 months to 3 years and training must be certified.

Labour Force Survey (LFS) and questions on the NMW

The following questions on the NMW were introduced to the LFS from Q2 2016 onwards and, using the 2018 rate as indicative, they are as follows:

The National Minimum Wage is €9.55 per hour. Are your gross hourly earnings excluding bonuses, overtime and allowances:

  1.    Less than €9.55 per hour
  2.    Exactly €9.55 per hour
  3.    More than €9.55 per hour

Do you earn less than €9.55 per hour because you are on:

  1.     A special training rate
  2.     An age-related rate
  3.     A first job over 18 rate
  4.     Other reason

The LFS is not designed to be an earnings survey and therefore the NMW data in this release is based on each respondent self-reporting their income. Consequently, some caution is urged in the interpretation of this data. In addition, as the data presented in the release is collected directed from individual respondents, caution is urged in comparing these results to data collected directly from business enterprises.

A number of respondents did not report their status with regard to the NMW, these respondents are identified as ‘Not stated’ in the relevant data tables and are excluded from the denominator in calculating the share or proportion of all respondents on the NMW.

Purpose of the LFS

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017.  The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter. Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997. The LFS is undertaken on a calendar quarter basis which was first adopted in the QNHS in the first quarter of 2009.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December

Data Collection

The LFS is conducted using mixed mode data collection with the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). As with the QNHS, information is collected from each sample household over 5 successive quarters or Waves. However, in the LFS, the first interview is conducted by a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The four follow-up interviews are conducted using CATI from a dedicated call centre, where householders have agreed to conduct a telephone interview, and are conducted using face-to-face interviews where householders have not agreed to conduct a telephone interview.

Sample Design

A new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was selected for the LFS and this was introduced incrementally from Q1 2016. The sample is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

To account for the additional attrition resulting from the introduction of mixed mode data collection, the LFS sample has been increased incrementally from Q3 2017. An additional 1,300 households have been included in Wave 1 for each quarter up to Q3 2018 and this has resulted in a total sample of 32,500 from Q3 2018 onwards. The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the LFS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. It is important to note that there is no overlap in sample between the QNHS and the LFS.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality control totals. The LFS results also contain a non-response adjustment to make the results from the achieved sample representative of the target sample and the population.

New samples, both based on the 2011 Census of Population, were introduced incrementally for the QNHS in Q4 2012 and in Q3 2016. The former was stratified using administrative county and population density while the latter was stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. The quarterly sample in each case was 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varied over time depending on the level of response.

Households with all persons aged 75 and over and classified as inactive

Households that contain only respondents who are aged 75 or over who are each classified as Inactive (Not in the Labour Force) are not re-interviewed. This is to reduce unnecessary burden and instead answers are copied forward from the last available interview.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates were calculated using the defacto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). Since Q2 2006 a new concept of usual residence has been used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the state.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the LFS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises of persons employed plus unemployed.

NACE Industrial Classification

The LFS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature généraledes activités économiques dans les Communauté européenne) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006. Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Table 2 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS/LFS outputs. The NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use from Q4 1997 to Q4 2008.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series, NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 1998 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been published.

Occupation Classification

Following changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the LFS) (formerly the QNHS) the CSO has been obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly. One example which highlighted this change was the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of ‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available here.

NUTS2 and NUTS3 Regions

The regional classifications in this release is based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat. Until Q4 2017, the NUTS3 regions corresponded to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994 while the NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, were groupings of those historic NUTS3 regions.

However, the NUTS3 boundaries were amended on 21st of November 2016 under Regulation (EC) No. 2066/2016 and have come into force from Q1 2018. The LFS results have been revised according to the new groupings from Q1 2012. The changes resulting from the amendment are that County Louth has moved from the Border to the Mid-East and what was formerly South Tipperary has moved from the South-East to the Mid-West, resulting in the new NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions:

Northern & Western NUTS2 Region Southern NUTS2 Region Eastern & Midland NUTS2 Region
Border Cavan Mid-West Clare Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Limerick City & County   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Tipperary   Fingal
  Monaghan       South Dublin
  Sligo        
    South-East Carlow Mid-East Kildare
West Galway City   Kilkenny   Meath
  Galway County   Waterford City & County   Wicklow
  Mayo   Wexford   Louth
  Roscommon        
        Midland Laois
    South-West Cork City   Longford
      Cork County   Offaly
      Kerry   Westmeath

 

Non-response adjustment    

Non-response occurs when households that are sampled, and that are eligible for the survey, do not provide the requested information. This can lead to biased survey estimates if specific groups within the population are over- or under-represented and if these groups behave differently with respect to the survey variables (i.e. labour market outcomes). To correct for this, the CSO has introduced a non-response adjustment into the weighting procedure for the LFS.

The adjustment involves estimating response rates or propensities to respond as functions of characteristics available for responding and non-responding households, as well as characteristics of the areas where the households are located. Basically, the design weights have to be inflated by the inverse of the response propensities in order to compensate for the loss of units in the sample.

Linking the LFS sample with the Census of Population at household level provides a set of auxiliary variables which are available for both responding and non-responding LFS households. These include a mix of personal characteristics as well as characteristics of the dwelling and location (e.g. gender, age, marital status, education, personal employment status, dwelling type, area etc.). This allows the CSO to compare responding and non-responding households with respect to the characteristics available from the Census. This auxiliary information allows the use of “response propensities” to model non-response and adjust the grossing factors to compensate for non-response.

The response propensities are calculated using a logistic regression model where the dependent variable (Y) is an indicator variable corresponding to response (if the household responded then Y=1 and if the household did not respond then Y=0) and the independent variables are the set of auxiliary variables available from the Census. The estimated response propensities are then used to form adjustment cells or strata which are made up of respondents and non-respondents with similar estimated response propensities. Respondents within each cell/stratum are then weighted by the inverse of the observed response rate in that cell. This non-response adjusted weight is then used to inflate the original survey design weight to account for non-response. This approach is referred to as response propensity classification.

Back-casting methodology  

The introduction of the LFS in Q3 2017 constituted a break in series for the labour market estimates published by the CSO. To mitigate the effect of the introduction of the LFS on the coherence of the historic data series, a back-casting exercise was carried out to link the QNHS and the LFS. The result of this is that the published QNHS series from Q1 1998 to Q2 2017 has been revised.

As part of the roll-out of the LFS, a parallel run of the two surveys was carried out. This allowed the estimation of the effect of the introduction of the new survey on the various labour market estimates. Quarter 1 of 2017 was used as the reference period to calculate scaling factors which were used to link the results from the two surveys. Labour market estimates were calculated from both surveys for a range of cohorts (age, sex, ILO status etc.) and the ratio of the two estimates provided a scaling factor which was applied to the historic QNHS series to create a back-cast series. 

In Q3 2017, separate scaling factors were calculated for ILO status by age and sex together with the fifteen economic sector categories (table 2 of this release) by sex:

  • ILO status (Employed, Unemployed, Inactive) by sex (Male and Female) and by age (15-24 years and 25+ years)
  • NACE Rev. 2 groups (table 2 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

In Q1 2018, additional scaling factors were calculated for the eight NUTS3 regions by Labour Force ILO status, occupation categories (table 4 of this release) and highest level of education completed (supplementary table 8 of this release) by sex:

  • NUTS3 Regions (pre-Q1 2018 groupings) by Labour Force ILO status (Employed and Unemployed)
  • Occupation groups (table 4 of this release)
  • Highest level of education completed supplementary table 8 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

Therefore, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for these indicators. However, because of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. Consequently, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.       

Please refer to the following information notes for further details:

http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter32017/

http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter12018/

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

Implications of Census 2016 Final Results

The LFS results are weighted using population estimates which are updated every quarter. Every 5 years the Census of Population results are used to revise these population estimates, and LFS results are revised therefore.

The population concept of usual residence is used for the LFS, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the State plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

The final Census count was published on April 6, 2017. The total for this usually resident population concept which was enumerated on Census Night, April 24th, 2016, was 4,739,597 persons, while the existing estimate for the usually resident population for April 2016 is 4,673,700 as detailed in the 2016 Population and Migration Estimates release. There is a difference, therefore, of just over 65,900 or 1.4% between the two figures.

The CSO has revised the population estimates for 2011 to 2016 based on this final Census count. Estimates of persons employed and unemployed have been revised in line with the higher population totals.

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

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