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International comparison:
For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Jim Dalton +353 21 453 5623 Martina O'Callaghan +353 21 453 5491
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CSO statistical release, , 11am

LFS Agency Worker Employment Estimates

Quarter 1 2019

IndicatorQ1 2018Q1 2019Annual change Annual change (%)
Employees reporting agency worker status56,60050,400-6,200-11.0
Employees reporting non-agency worker status1,793,3001,904,300111,0006.2
Not stated17,60012,200-5,400-30.7
Total employees1,867,5001,966,80099,3005.3
    
Proportion of employees reporting agency worker status (%)13.12.6--
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated

2.6% of employees were classified as agency workers in Q1 2019

Figure 1 Share of employees by Agency Worker status Q1 2019
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This release presents results of an analysis of employees in the Labour Force Survey who self-reported as being in the paid employment of an employment agency and are thus referred to as ‘agency workers’ in this release.

In Q1 2019, 2.6% of employees were classified as agency workers. This was down from 3.1% in Q1 2018.

The number of employees who reported as being an agency worker was 50,400 a decrease of 6,200 (-11.0%) from Q1 2018.

The proportion of employees who reported not being an agency worker was 97.4%, up from 96.9% a year earlier. See tables 1a and 1b and figure 1.

 

Agency workers more likely to be female than male

The results showed that in Q1 2019, agency workers were more likely to be female rather than male. Of the 50,400 employees who were agency workers in Q1 2019, 26,200 or 52.0% were female while 24,200 or 48.0% were male. This compares to an overall even split of all employees in the State of 50.0% each for males and females. The greater share (59.7%) of the fall of 6,200 in the number of agency workers in the year to Q1 2019 was accounted for by males. See table 2a and 2b and figure 2.

In Q1 2019, 2.5% of all male employees in the State were agency workers while the corresponding figure for females was 2.7%. See table 2b.

 

Over a quarter of agency workers were employed in the Agriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and Construction sectors

In Q1 2019, just over a quarter (26.8%) of agency workers were employed in the Agriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and Construction sectors and this was up from 21.2% in Q1 2018.

The Human health and social work activities sector accounted for 17.9% of agency workers, while all other NACE economic sectors combined accounted for over half (55.2%) of all agency workers. See table 3b and figure 3.

%
Male 48
Female 52
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorShare of agency workers Share of total employees
A, B-F Agriculture, forestry and fishing, Industry and Construction26.819.9
Q Human health and social work activities17.913.8
G-P, R-U Other NACE activities 55.266

Over a third of agency workers were employed as an Associate professional and higher occupation

The greater incidence of employees (33.1%) reporting as agency workers were in the Associate Professionals and higher occupation groups; this grouping of occupations accounted for 39.8% of all employees in the State.

The Elementary group, while representing 12.1% of total employees in the State, accounted for 17.5% of all agency workers. See table 4b.

Just over two fifths of agency workers were in the 15-34 age group

In Q1 2019, just over two fifths (43.3%) of agency workers were in the 15-34 age group and this was up from 38.9% in Q1 2018. This age cohort represented 36.0% of all employees in the State in Q1 2019. Persons aged 35-44 accounted for 25.8% of agency workers while representing 28.3% of total employees in Q1 2019. Persons aged 45-54 accounted for 19.0% of agency workers while representing 21.2% of total employees during the same period.

Finally, those persons aged 55 years and over accounted for 12.1% of agency workers while representing 14.5% of all employees in the State. See table 5b and figure 4.

notepa
Age groupShare of agency workersShare of total employees
15-3443.336
35-4425.828.3
45-541921.2
55+12.214.5

Six out of ten agency workers worked less than 40 hours per week

Approximately six out every ten (57.3%) agency workers worked less than 40 hours per week in Q1 2019, down slightly from 58.8% a year earlier. Persons who worked less than 40 hours per week accounted for 59.7% of all employees in the State.

A further 38.5% of agency workers worked 40 hours and over per week, up from 36.2% in Q1 2018. See table 7b.

Seven in ten agency workers were in full-time employment

In Q1 2019, just over seven in ten agency workers (72.0%) were in full-time employment. This was down from the 75.4% recorded in Q1 2018. Full-time employees accounted for 78.9% of all employees in the State and this was down slightly from 79.0% a year earlier.

Part-time employees accounted for 28.0% of all agency workers, up from 24.6% a year earlier. Part-time employees accounted for 21.1% of all employees in the State in Q1 2019. See table 8b and figure 5.

 

 

notepa
Share of agency workersShare of total employees
Full-time7278.9
Part-time2821.1

A quarter of agency workers were non-Irish nationals

In Q1 2019, a quarter (26.2%) of agency workers were non-Irish nationals and this was up from 24.6% a year earlier. Non-Irish nationals accounted for 17.5% of all employees in the State in Q1 2019.

In Q1 2019, 73.6% of agency workers were Irish nationals and this was down from 75.4% a year earlier. Irish nationals accounted for 82.5% of all employees in the State in Q1 2019. See table 11b.

Almost half of agency workers had a third level non-honours degree or higher

Employees whose highest level of education was Third level non-honours degree or above accounted for 47.0% of all agency workers in Q1 2019. The corresponding figures for those with a Higher secondary or below and Post-secondary non-tertiary education were 33.3% and 16.3% respectively.

Those with Third level non-honours degree or above as their highest level of education represented 49.4% of all employees in the State while the figures for the Higher secondary or below and Post-secondary non-tertiary categories were 34.8% and 13.2% respectively. See table 12b.

In terms of the proportions within the education categories who were agency workers in Q1 2019, 3.2% of those whose highest level of education was Post-secondary non-tertiary were agency workers. This compares to 2.5% of  employees in each of the Higher secondary or below and the Third level non-honours degree or above classifications. See table 12b.

* Denominator excludes employees where agency worker status was Not stated

Table 1a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by agency worker status
 '000
Detailed agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Employee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
Total employees1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 1b Share of employees aged 15 years and over classified by agency worker status1
 %
Detailed agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Employee is agency worker3.03.12.72.72.32.6
Employee is not agency worker97.096.997.397.397.797.4
Total employees100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 2a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by gender and agency worker status
 '000
Gender/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
MaleEmployee is agency worker28.927.925.027.622.324.2
 Employee is not agency worker904.4899.6927.0945.9954.4952.6
 Not stated[5.8]9.0[7.3][6.7][5.1][6.2]
 Total939.1936.6959.3980.3981.8983.0
FemaleEmployee is agency worker27.328.726.624.423.126.2
 Employee is not agency worker909.1893.7920.7933.1941.4951.7
 Not stated[7.6]8.6[6.5][4.9]*[6]
 Total944.0931.0953.8962.4968.4983.9
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 2b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by gender and agency worker status
%
Gender/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of Employees who are agency workers by gender
Male51.449.348.453.149.148.0
Female48.650.751.646.950.952.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by gender1
Male49.950.150.150.450.350.0
Female50.149.949.949.649.750.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of Employees who are agency workers within each gender1
Male3.13.02.62.82.32.5
Female2.93.12.82.52.42.7
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 3a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector and agency worker status
 '000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
A, B-F Agriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and ConstructionEmployee is agency worker12.912.013.113.810.413.5
Employee is not agency worker360.1357.3362.8377.7373.0374.9
Not stated******
Total375.4373.7378.1394.2385.7390.7
QHuman health and social work activitiesEmployee is agency worker11.612.310.210.17.89.0
Employee is not agency worker250.6242.8255.3253.8265.8261.2
Not stated******
Total265.2259.1268.1265.3273.8271.8
G-P, R-UOther SectorsEmployee is agency worker31.532.228.328.127.227.8
Employee is not agency worker1,196.51,187.91,221.61,241.41,251.91,263.2
Not stated[6.5]8.58.2[6.2][5.4][7.2]
Total1,234.51,228.61,258.01,275.71,284.51,298.2
Not statedEmployee is agency worker******
Employee is not agency worker[6.4][5.3][8][6.1][5][5]
Not stated******
Total7.9[6.1]8.9[7.5][6.1][6.1]
All employees Employee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
  Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 3b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector and agency worker status
%
Economic Sector (NACE Rev.2)/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of Employees who are agency workers by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
A, B-FAgriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and Construction23.021.225.426.522.926.8
QHuman health and social work activities20.621.719.819.417.217.9
G-P, R-UOther sectors56.056.954.854.059.955.2
Not stated******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector1
A, B-FAgriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and Construction19.920.019.820.319.819.9
QHuman health and social work activities14.013.814.013.714.113.8
G-P, R-UOther sectors65.766.065.865.765.966.0
Not stated[0.4][0.3][0.4][0.3][0.3][0.3]
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of Employees who are agency workers within each NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector1
A, B-FAgriculture, forestry, fishing, Industry and Construction3.53.23.53.52.73.5
QHuman health and social work activities4.44.83.83.82.93.3
G-P, R-UOther sectors2.62.62.32.22.12.2
Not stated******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 4a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by occupation (SOC2010) and agency worker status
 '000
Broad occupational group/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
1-3Associate Professionals and higherEmployee is agency worker21.120.717.616.712.816.7
Employee is not agency worker723.6705.4735.3742.3763.0761.6
Not stated*[6.1]****
Total749.1732.2757.0761.8778.8781.0
6Caring, leisure and other servicesEmployee is agency worker[6.7]7.4[6.5][6.7][6.7][6.6]
Employee is not agency worker166.5167.6162.1166.2167.5169.3
Not stated******
Total175.3177.2170.4174.3174.2177.1
8Process, plant and machine operativesEmployee is agency worker[6.5][6.6][6.9][6.7][4.5][6.0]
Employee is not agency worker137.2137.5146.4147.8149.6152.2
Not stated******
Total144.3145.9154.7156.1155.0159.1
9ElementaryEmployee is agency worker[8.1][7.7][7.2]9.3[6.5]8.8
Employee is not agency worker219.1217.4226.7233.4229.5227.8
Not stated******
Total228.4228.0236.3244.4237.3238.4
4-5, 7Other OccupationsEmployee is agency worker13.614.013.412.514.712.1
Employee is not agency worker555.3553.9562.8575.1576.5583.4
Not stated******
Total572.2571.9579.5590.4593.6599.8
Not Stated Employee is agency worker******
Employee is not agency worker11.811.414.414.39.710.0
Not stated******
Total13.712.315.315.711.211.5
All employees Employee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
  Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 4b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by occupation (SOC2010) and agency worker status
%
Broad occupational group/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of Employees who are agency workers by occupation (SOC2010)
1-3Associate professionals and higher37.536.634.132.128.233.1
6Caring, leisure and other services[11.9]13.1[12.6][12.9][14.8][13.1]
8Process, plant and machine operatives[11.6][11.7][13.4][12.9][9.9][11.9]
9Elementary[14.4][13.6][14]17.9[14.3]17.5
4-5, 7Other Occupations24.224.726.024.032.424.0
Not stated******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by occupation (SOC2010) 1
1-3Associate professionals and higher39.839.339.639.340.039.8
6Caring, leisure and other services9.39.58.99.09.09.0
8Process, plant and machine operatives7.77.88.18.07.98.1
9Elementary12.212.212.312.612.212.1
4-5, 7Other Occupations30.430.730.330.430.530.5
Not stated0.60.60.80.70.50.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of Employees who are agency workers within each occupation (SOC2010)1
1-3Associate professionals and higher2.82.92.32.21.62.1
6Caring, leisure and other services[3.9]4.2[3.9][3.9][3.8][3.8]
8Process, plant and machine operatives[4.5][4.6][4.5][4.3][2.9][3.8]
9Elementary[3.6][3.4][3.1]3.8[2.8]3.7
4-5, 7Other Occupations2.42.52.32.12.52.0
Not stated******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 5a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by age group and agency worker status
 '000
Age group/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
15-34Employee is agency worker22.422.020.824.520.321.8
Employee is not agency worker675.3650.6679.9695.8689.1681.5
Not stated[7.1]9.3[7][7.4][5.1]8.4
Total704.9681.9707.7727.7714.5711.6
35-44Employee is agency worker15.715.513.711.611.013.0
Employee is not agency worker514.3518.3524.9528.6536.2540.5
Not stated******
Total533.2538.1542.4542.1549.1555.6
45-54Employee is agency worker9.812.711.011.39.79.6
Employee is not agency worker375.6372.4384.3388.9399.2405.5
Not stated******
Total387.4386.9397.0401.6409.7416.5
55+Employee is agency worker8.26.3[6.1][4.6][4.5]6.1
Employee is not agency worker248.3251.9258.7265.8271.2276.7
Not stated******
Total257.6260.6266.0271.3276.8283.1
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 5b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by age group and agency workers status
%
Age group/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of Employees who are agency workers by age group      
15-3439.938.940.347.144.743.3
35-4427.927.426.622.324.225.8
45-5417.422.421.321.721.419.0
55+14.611.1[11.8][8.8][9.9]12.1
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by age group1      
15-3437.336.436.937.336.536.0
35-4428.328.928.428.028.228.3
45-5420.620.820.820.721.121.2
55+13.714.013.914.014.214.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of Employees who are agency workers within each age group1      
15-343.23.33.03.42.93.1
35-443.02.92.52.12.02.3
45-542.53.32.82.82.42.3
55+3.22.4[2.3][1.7][1.6]2.2
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 6a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 regions and agency worker status
 '000
NUTS2 Region/ Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Northern and WesternEmployee is agency worker12.79.5[5.6][5.6][4.3][7.5]
Employee is not agency worker295.6300.8293.6304.5310.9308.3
Not stated******
Total309.4314.1302.9312.6316.0317.5
SouthernEmployee is agency worker16.519.320.920.218.020.7
Employee is not agency worker569.8552.6582.8591.6583.4591.5
Not stated[6.4]8.4[4.8]*[4.8][4.9]
Total592.7580.3608.5615.1606.1617.1
Eastern and MidlandEmployee is agency worker27.027.825.126.323.122.2
Employee is not agency worker948.1939.9971.4982.91,001.51,004.5
Not stated[5.8][5.4]*[5.8]*[5.6]
Total980.9973.11,001.71,015.01,028.01,032.3
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 6b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 regions and agency worker status
%
NUTS2 Region/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by NUTS2 regions
Northern and Western 22.616.8[10.9][10.8][9.5][14.9]
Southern 29.434.140.538.839.641.1
Eastern and Midland 48.049.148.650.650.944.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by NUTS2 regions1
Northern and Western 16.516.815.716.116.216.2
Southern 31.430.931.831.731.031.3
Eastern and Midland 52.252.352.552.352.852.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each NUTS2 region1
Northern and Western 4.13.1[1.9][1.8][1.4][2.4]
Southern 2.83.43.53.33.03.4
Eastern and Midland 2.82.92.52.62.32.2
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 7a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by usual hours of work per week and agency worker status
 '000
Usual hours of work per week/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
1-25 hoursEmployee is agency worker11.712.410.07.812.112.2
 Employee is not agency worker382.1367.3363.5364.2371.0377.8
 Not stated******
 Total397.4383.1375.3373.5384.8391.9
26-39 hoursEmployee is agency worker21.720.918.118.812.416.7
 Employee is not agency worker694.7718.6751.0760.6755.3759.1
 Not stated*[6.1][4.8]***
 Total719.4745.6773.9783.3769.3777.9
40 hours & overEmployee is agency worker21.520.521.022.817.619.4
 Employee is not agency worker686.8660.7671.3695.7710.3703.4
 Not stated*[5.0]****
 Total712.8686.2696.0721.5729.9728.1
Variable hoursEmployee is agency worker******
 Employee is not agency worker49.946.762.058.659.163.9
 Not stated******
 Total53.552.567.864.366.168.9
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 7b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by usual hours of work per week and agency worker status
%
Usual hours of work per week/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by usual hours of work per week  
1-25 hours20.821.919.415.026.724.2
26-39 hours38.636.935.136.227.333.1
40 hours or more38.336.240.743.838.838.5
Variable hours******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by usual hours of work per week1  
1-25 hours21.120.519.719.319.720.0
26-39 hours38.340.040.540.439.639.7
40 hours or more37.936.836.537.237.537.0
Variable hours2.72.73.43.23.23.4
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each usual hours of work per week1  
1-25 hours3.03.32.72.13.23.1
26-39 hours3.02.82.42.41.62.2
40 hours or more3.03.03.03.22.42.7
Variable hours******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 8a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by full-time/part-time status and agency worker status
 '000
Employees classified by full-time and part-time status/Agency worker status Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Full-timeEmployee is agency worker43.942.738.941.832.936.3
 Employee is not agency worker1,427.01,417.81,465.21,488.81,502.61,505.4
 Not stated9.512.411.09.1[6.4]9.1
 Total1,480.51,472.91,515.11,539.71,541.91,550.8
Part-timeEmployee is agency worker12.313.912.610.212.614.1
 Employee is not agency worker386.5375.5382.6390.2393.1398.8
 Not stated*[5.2]****
 Total402.6394.6398.0403.0408.2416.0
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 8b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by full-time/part-time status and agency worker status
%
Full and part-time status/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by full-time/part-time status
Full-time78.175.475.480.472.572.0
Part-time21.924.624.419.627.828.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by full-time/part-time status1  
Full-time78.779.079.279.379.178.9
Part-time21.321.020.820.720.921.1
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each full-time/part-time status1  
Full-time3.02.92.62.72.12.4
Part-time3.13.63.22.53.13.4
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 9a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by permanency of employment and agency worker status
 '000
Permanency of employment/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Permanent employeesEmployee is agency worker40.542.037.334.531.436.1
 Employee is not agency worker1,638.01,634.51,666.21,679.11,717.71,735.5
 Not stated7.913.18.1[6.8]*[6.9]
 Total1,686.41,689.61,711.61,720.41,753.21,778.5
Temporary employeesEmployee is agency worker15.514.414.117.213.614.1
 Employee is not agency worker170.5155.2176.2196.6171.3161.7
 Not stated******
 Total187.8172.4193.3216.0186.1177.2
Not statedEmployee is agency worker******
 Employee is not agency worker[5.1]*[5.3]*[6.8][7.0]
 Not stated******
 Total8.9[5.5]8.2[6.3]10.811.1
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 9b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by permanency of employment and agency worker status
%
Permanency of employment/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by permanency of employment  
Permanent employees72.174.272.366.369.271.6
Temporary employees27.625.427.333.130.028.0
Not stated******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by permanency of employment1  
Permanent employees89.890.689.788.790.190.6
Temporary employees9.99.210.011.19.59.0
Not stated[0.3]*[0.3]*[0.4]0.4
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each permanency of employment1  
Permanent employees2.42.52.22.01.82.0
Temporary employees8.38.57.48.07.48.0
Not stated******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 10a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by duration of employment and agency worker status
 '000
Duration of employment/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Less than 1 yearEmployee is agency worker17.516.016.518.314.319.4
 Employee is not agency worker301.2308.9334.8353.8341.3339.0
 Not stated******
 Total320.6327.9354.3374.3358.3361.6
1 year and overEmployee is agency worker37.138.633.832.629.129.9
 Employee is not agency worker1,415.21,396.11,414.31,429.81,472.81,495.8
 Not stated*[6.6]***[4.6]
 Total1,456.41,441.21,452.51,466.41,504.51,530.3
Not statedEmployee is agency worker******
 Employee is not agency worker97.188.398.795.481.769.5
 Not stated[7.4]8.1[6.4][5.5]**
 Total106.198.4106.3102.087.375.0
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 10b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by duration of employment and agency worker status
%
Duration of employment/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of Employees who are agency workers by duration of employment
Less than 1 year31.128.332.035.231.538.5
1 year and over66.068.265.562.764.159.3
Not stated******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by duration of employment1
Less than 1 year17.017.618.519.318.318.3
1 year and over77.777.676.275.777.478.1
Not stated5.34.95.35.04.33.6
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of Employees who are agency workers within each duration of employment1
Less than 1 year5.54.94.74.94.05.4
1 year and over2.62.72.32.21.92.0
Not stated******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 11a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and agency worker status
 '000
Nationality/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Irish nationalsEmployee is agency worker42.842.739.037.334.737.1
 Employee is not agency worker1,514.91,491.01,531.41,558.31,562.51,575.6
 Not stated10.915.512.39.47.48.6
 Total1,568.61,549.11,582.71,605.01,604.61,621.3
Non-Irish nationals Employee is agency worker13.413.912.514.7[10.7]13.2
 Employee is not agency worker298.6302.3316.3320.8333.3328.6
 Not stated******
 Total314.5318.4330.4337.7345.6345.5
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 11b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and agency worker status
%
Nationality/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by nationality  
Irish nationals 76.275.475.671.776.473.6
Non-Irish nationals23.824.624.228.3[23.6]26.2
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by nationality1  
Irish nationals 83.382.982.782.682.382.5
Non-Irish nationals16.717.117.317.417.717.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each nationality1  
Irish nationals 2.72.82.52.32.22.3
Non-Irish nationals4.34.43.84.4[3.1]3.9
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated
Table 12a Employees aged 15 years and over classified by highest level of education attained and agency worker status
 '000
Highest level of education attained/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Higher secondary or belowEmployee is agency worker17.419.417.416.114.116.8
 Employee is not agency worker627.5622.4635.4649.3639.0663.0
 Not stated*[5.4][4.7]***
 Total648.3647.3657.5668.3656.6683.7
Post secondary non tertiaryEmployee is agency worker11.59.49.48.29.18.2
 Employee is not agency worker239.5237.6242.9255.8262.8249.7
 Not stated******
 Total252.2248.8254.1265.0272.2258.7
Third level non-honours degree or aboveEmployee is agency worker26.325.922.724.920.823.7
 Employee is not agency worker899.8888.3923.9924.0944.8941.9
 Not stated[5.5][6.7]****
 Total931.6920.9950.4952.2967.9968.8
Other/Not statedEmployee is agency worker******
 Employee is not agency worker46.745.045.549.949.249.6
 Not stated******
 Total51.050.651.157.153.455.6
All employeesEmployee is agency worker56.256.651.652.045.450.4
 Employee is not agency worker1,813.51,793.31,847.71,879.11,895.81,904.3
 Not stated13.417.613.811.68.912.2
 Total1,883.11,867.51,913.11,942.71,950.11,966.8
Table 12b Share and proportion of employees aged 15 years and over classified by highest level of education attained and agency worker status
%
Highest level of education attained/Agency worker statusQ4 17Q1 18Q2 18Q3 18Q4 18Q1 19
Share of employees who are agency workers by highest level of education attained  
Higher secondary or below31.034.333.731.031.133.3
Post secondary non tertiary20.516.618.215.820.016.3
Third level non-honours degree or above46.845.844.047.945.847.0
Other/Not stated******
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Share of total employees by highest level of education attained 1
Higher secondary or below34.534.734.434.533.634.8
Post secondary non tertiary13.413.413.313.714.013.2
Third level non-honours degree or above49.549.449.849.149.749.4
Other/Not stated2.62.52.52.72.62.6
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
 
Proportion of employees who are agency workers within each highest level of education attained1
Higher secondary or below2.73.02.72.42.22.5
Post secondary non tertiary4.63.83.73.13.33.2
Third level non-honours degree or above2.82.82.42.62.22.5
Other/Not stated******
Total3.03.12.72.72.32.6
1 Note: Denominator excludes employees whose agency worker status was Not stated

Background Notes

Introduction

This release presents results of an analysis of employees in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) who self-reported as being in the paid employment of an employment agency and are thus referred to as ‘agency workers’ in this release.

Labour Force Survey (LFS) and question on agency workers

The following question is asked of all employees in the LFS:

Do you have a contract with an employment agency that placed you in your current job and pays your salary?

1 Yes

 2 No

A number of respondents did not report their status with regard to agency work, these respondents are identified as ‘Not stated’ in the relevant data tables and are excluded from the denominator in calculating the share or proportion of all respondents who are agency workers.

Purpose of the LFS

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017.  The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter. Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997. The LFS is undertaken on a calendar quarter basis which was first adopted in the QNHS in the first quarter of 2009.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December

Data Collection

The LFS is conducted using mixed mode data collection with the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). As with the QNHS, information is collected from each sample household over 5 successive quarters or Waves. However, in the LFS, the first interview is conducted by a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The four follow-up interviews are conducted using CATI from a dedicated call centre, where householders have agreed to conduct a telephone interview, and are conducted using face-to-face interviews where householders have not agreed to conduct a telephone interview.

Sample Design

A new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was selected for the LFS and this was introduced incrementally from Q1 2016. The sample is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

To account for the additional attrition resulting from the introduction of mixed mode data collection, the LFS sample has been increased incrementally from Q3 2017. An additional 1,300 households have been included in Wave 1 for each quarter up to Q3 2018 and this has resulted in a total sample of 32,500 from Q3 2018 onwards. The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the LFS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. It is important to note that there is no overlap in sample between the QNHS and the LFS.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality control totals. The LFS results also contain a non-response adjustment to make the results from the achieved sample representative of the target sample and the population.

Households with all persons aged 75 and over and classified as inactive

Households that contain only respondents who are aged 75 or over who are each classified as Inactive (Not in the Labour Force) are not re-interviewed. This is to reduce unnecessary burden and instead answers are copied forward from the last available interview.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates were calculated using the defacto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). Since Q2 2006 a new concept of usual residence has been used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the state.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the LFS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises of persons employed plus unemployed.

NACE Industrial Classification

The LFS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature généraledes activités économiques dans les Communauté européenne) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS/LFS outputs. The NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use from Q4 1997 to Q4 2008.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series, NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 1998 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been published.

Occupation Classification

Following changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the LFS) (formerly the QNHS) the CSO has been obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly. One example which highlighted this change was the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of ‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available here.

NUTS2 and NUTS3 Regions

The regional classifications in this release is based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat. Until Q4 2017, the NUTS3 regions corresponded to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994 while the NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, were groupings of those historic NUTS3 regions.

However, the NUTS3 boundaries were amended on 21st of November 2016 under Regulation (EC) No. 2066/2016 and have come into force from Q1 2018. The LFS results have been revised according to the new groupings from Q1 2012. The changes resulting from the amendment are that County Louth has moved from the Border to the Mid-East and what was formerly South Tipperary has moved from the South-East to the Mid-West, resulting in the new NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions:

Northern & Western NUTS2 Region Southern NUTS2 Region Eastern & Midland NUTS2 Region
Border Cavan Mid-West Clare Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Limerick    Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Tipperary   Fingal
  Monaghan       South Dublin
  Sligo        
    South-East Carlow Mid-East Kildare
West Galway   Kilkenny   Meath
  Mayo   Waterford    Wicklow
  Roscommon   Wexford   Louth
           
        Midland Laois
    South-West Cork    Longford
      Kerry   Offaly
          Westmeath

 

Non-response adjustment    

Non-response occurs when households that are sampled, and that are eligible for the survey, do not provide the requested information. This can lead to biased survey estimates if specific groups within the population are over- or under-represented and if these groups behave differently with respect to the survey variables (i.e. labour market outcomes). To correct for this, the CSO has introduced a non-response adjustment into the weighting procedure for the LFS.

The adjustment involves estimating response rates or propensities to respond as functions of characteristics available for responding and non-responding households, as well as characteristics of the areas where the households are located. Basically, the design weights have to be inflated by the inverse of the response propensities in order to compensate for the loss of units in the sample.

Linking the LFS sample with the Census of Population at household level provides a set of auxiliary variables which are available for both responding and non-responding LFS households. These include a mix of personal characteristics as well as characteristics of the dwelling and location (e.g. gender, age, marital status, education, personal employment status, dwelling type, area etc.). This allows the CSO to compare responding and non-responding households with respect to the characteristics available from the Census. This auxiliary information allows the use of “response propensities” to model non-response and adjust the grossing factors to compensate for non-response.

The response propensities are calculated using a logistic regression model where the dependent variable (Y) is an indicator variable corresponding to response (if the household responded then Y=1 and if the household did not respond then Y=0) and the independent variables are the set of auxiliary variables available from the Census. The estimated response propensities are then used to form adjustment cells or strata which are made up of respondents and non-respondents with similar estimated response propensities. Respondents within each cell/stratum are then weighted by the inverse of the observed response rate in that cell. This non-response adjusted weight is then used to inflate the original survey design weight to account for non-response. This approach is referred to as response propensity classification.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

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