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Extra information
For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Jim Dalton (+353) 87 6780316 Martina O'Callaghan (+353) 21 453 5491
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN 2565-5728

This release has been compiled during the COVID-19 crisis. The results contained in this release reflect some of the economic impacts of the COVID-19 situation. For further information see Information Note - Labour Force Survey (LFS) Quarter 2 2020

CSO statistical release, , 11am

Labour Force Survey (LFS)

Quarter 2 2020

IndicatorStandard LFS Methodology (ILO) Q2 2020COVID-19 Adjusted Estimates June 2020 (end of Q2 2020)
Employed persons aged 15 years and over2,222,5001,783,567
Employment rate for those aged 15-64 years65.7%52.2%
Unemployed persons aged 15-74 years118,700531,412
Unemployment rate for those aged 15-74 years5.1%23.1%
In labour force2,341,200-
Not in labour force1,632,600-

COVID-19 continues to impact the labour market in Q2 2020

Figure 1 Numbers in employment (ILO) in the second quarters 2016 to 2020
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The LFS is the official source of labour market statistics for Ireland including the official rates of employment and unemployment. These official measures are based on the International Labour Organisation (ILO) concepts and definitions. The ILO measures are the international standard and all EU Member States are legally obliged to compile and provide this data to Eurostat on a quarterly basis through the LFS. These ILO criteria are one reason why the LFS may not fully capture the impact of COVID-19 on the labour market. Please see the Information Note - Labour Force Survey (LFS) Quarter 2 2020 which was published yesterday for more information.

As the Central Statistics Office (CSO) is obliged to follow standard definitions and methodology when calculating official estimates from the LFS, it has been decided to compile the Quarter 2 2020 LFS estimates in the usual way and provide separate COVID-19 adjusted estimates. This approach preserves the methodology of the LFS while at the same time providing transparency around the impact of COVID-19 on the Labour Market within Ireland.

Since March 2020, the CSO has been producing a supplementary measure of monthly unemployment in parallel with the routine Monthly Unemployment Estimates, which incorporates those in receipt of the Pandemic Unemployment Payments into the calculation to produce a COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Monthly Unemployment. This new measure was most recently published as part of the Monthly Unemployment Estimates release for July 2020 and will continue to be made available for as long as deemed necessary by the CSO.

As part of the process to generate estimates for the LFS for Q1 2020, the CSO also made a COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Employment available. These estimates have been updated as part of the preparations for publishing this Q2 2020 LFS release today. The estimate for the end of Q2 2020 is calculated by subtracting those who were in receipt of the Pandemic Unemployment Payment at the end of June 2020 from the numbers in employment during Q2 2020. A corresponding estimate has also been produced for the end of July 2020.

In the same way that the COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Unemployment can be considered an upper bound for unemployment the COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Employment can be considered as the lower bound for employment. The reality is that there is not enough information currently available for those in receipt of the Pandemic Unemployment Payment at an individual level to know what the labour market status of those individuals are.

The COVID-19 Adjusted Measures of Employment and Unemployment are subject to change when more information becomes available that allows a better estimate of the impact of COVID-19 on the labour market in Ireland to be constructed. The CSO have access to data for those in receipt of the Pandemic Unemployment Payment and those who are benefitting from the Temporary Wage Subsidy Scheme and are continuing to investigate more targeted COVID-19 Adjusted Measures by matching these and other data sources to the LFS. 

Alongside this LFS release today, the Labour Market analysis area of the CSO are also publishing the first in a series of high-level insight bulletins investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the labour market. These new outputs are designed to provide additional insight into the effect of COVID-19 on the labour market in Ireland by providing high-level supplementary analysis to users alongside the current outputs and metrics. The data is sourced from the LFS, administrative datasets and linkage of these sources. The insight bulletin being published today is specifically designed to give some context to the standard LFS results for Q2 2020 and is available here: Labour Market Insight Series. Further iterations of this new output are likely to provide extra detail and focus on specific aspects of the labour market.

Summary points for Q2 2020

  • Using the standard International Labour Organisation (ILO) criteria, the unadjusted number of persons aged 15 years and over in employment stood at 2,222,500 in Q2 2020 with an associated Employment Rate of 65.7% for those aged 15-64 years.
  • At the end of June 2020, the COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Employment, or lower bound of the number of persons aged 15 years and over in employment, is estimated to have been 1,783,567 with an associated COVID-19 Adjusted Employment Rate of 52.2% for those aged 15-64 years.
  • By the end of July 2020, this new COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Employment is currently estimated to have been 1,947,922 with an associated COVID-19 Adjusted Employment Rate of 57.2%.
  • Using the standard ILO criteria, the unadjusted number of persons aged 15-74 years who were unemployed in Q2 2020 stood at 118,700 with an associated Unemployment Rate of 5.1% for those aged 15-74 years.
  • At the end of June 2020, the COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Unemployment, or the upper bound of the number of persons aged 15-74 years who were unemployed, was 531,412 with an associated COVID-19 Adjusted Unemployment Rate of 23.1% for those aged 15-74 years.
  • By the end of July 2020, the COVID-19 Adjusted Measure of Unemployment is currently estimated to have been 386,935 with an associated COVID-19 Adjusted Unemployment Rate of 16.7%.

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017. The LFS release for Q3 2017 also incorporated revisions to population estimates based on the 2016 Census of Population.  Adjustments were made to the historic data in Q3 2017 and Q1 2018 to allow comparability with the new LFS for a range of indicators. For other indicators, the series before and after Q3 2017 may not be directly comparable and users should remember this when examining all changes, both quarterly and annual.

Further information is available in the background notes and in the information notes which accompanied the Q3 2017 and Q1 2018 LFS releases.

See: Information Note Q3 2017 and Information Note Q1 2018

 

For more information contact Jim Dalton at 087-678 0316 or Martina O’Callaghan at 021-453 5491

Employment

  • Looking at the standard LFS labour market measures based on the ILO criteria, there was an annual decrease in employment of -3.4% or 77,600 in the year to the second quarter of 2020, bringing total employment to 2,222,500. This compares with an annual increase of 2.2% or 51,500 in employment in the previous quarter and an increase of 2.0% or 45,000 in the year to Q2 2019. See Table 1.
  • The decrease in total employment of 77,600 in the year to Q2 2020 was represented by a decrease in full-time employment of 19,800 (-1.1%) and a decrease in part-time employment of 57,800 (-12.5%). See Table 1 and Figure 1.
  • The annual decrease of 77,600 (-3.4%) in employment was represented by a decrease of 35,800 (-2.9%) in male employment and a decrease of 41,700 (-3.9%) in female employment over the year. See Tables 1, 7 and Figure 1.
  • Employment decreased in 7 of the 14 economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated). The largest rate of decrease was recorded in the Accommodation and food service activities sector (-29.6% or 53,600). See Table 2 and Figure 2.
  • Employment increased in 6 of the 14 economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated). The largest rate of increase was recorded in the Financial, insurance and real estate activities sector (1% or 19,300). See Table 2 and Figure 2.
  • The overall employment rate among persons aged 15-64 was 65.7% in Q2 2020 compared to 69.1% in Q2 2019. See Table 8.
  • The number of employees in Q2 2020 was 1898,500, down 70,900 (-3.6%) over the year. The number of self-employed persons decreased by 9,400 (-2.9%) over the year to 308,500. See Table 5.
  • On a seasonally adjusted basis, employment decreased by 149,800 (-6.3%) over the previous quarter. This follows on from a seasonally adjusted increase in employment of 23,200 (+1.0%) in Q1 2020, an increase of 28,900 (+1.2%) in Q4 2019, an increase of 20,200 (+0.9%) in Q3 2019 and a decrease of 20,500 (-0.9%) in Q2 2019. See Table 3.
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 2019Q2 2020
1100.85898.302
2282.551289.479
3146.27128.507
4297.879282.318
5105.77594.024
6181.087127.526
7117.878135.174
8112.909132.226
9139.098141.014
10109.65490.833
11111.816118.851
12179.689194.725
13288.05288.033
14119.84496.981
KEY  
1- Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2- Industry
3- Construction
4- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
5- Transportation and storage
6- Accommodation and food storage activities
7- Information and communication
8- Financial, insurance and real estate activities
9- Professional, scientific and technical activities
10- Administrative and support service activities
11- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
12- Education
13- Human health and social work activities
14- Other NACE activities

Public Sector Employment

  • Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector employment estimates over time. In particular, employment data coded to Sectors P (Education) and Q (Human health and social work activities) of the NACE Rev. 2 Industrial Classification, which is presented in Tables 2 and 3, are not exclusively public sector employment.
  • Table A2 in the annex shows the most recently available estimates of public sector employment from the EHECS survey at the time of this release being finalised.

Unemployment

  • Looking at the standard LFS labour market measures based on the ILO criteria, there was an annual decrease in unemployment of 12,000 (-9.2%) in the year to Q2 2020, bringing total unemployment to 118,700. See Table 1.
  • Male unemployment decreased by 8,200 (-11.3%) to 64,800 over the year to Q2 2020, while female unemployment decreased by 3,800 (-6.6%) to 54,000 over the same period. See Tables 1 and 7.
  • The overall unadjusted unemployment rate decreased from 5.4% to 5.1% over the year to Q2 2020. See Tables 1 and 8.
  • In the year to Q2 2020, the number of persons classified as long-term unemployed decreased by 15,200 (-37.1%), bringing total long-term unemployment to 25,700. Short-term unemployment increased by 4,300 (+5.0%) over the year to 91,400. See Table 6 and Figure 3.
  • The long-term unemployment rate decreased from 1.7% in Q2 2019 to 1.1% in Q2 2020. Long-term unemployment accounted for 21.6% of total unemployment in Q2 2020. See Table 6.
  • The unemployment rate for 15-24 year olds (youth unemployment rate) increased from 15.7% to 16.6% over the year to Q2 2020. See Table 8.
  • The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate remained unchanged at 4.9% from Q1 2020 to Q2 2020, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed decreased by 8,000 (-6.6%) to 113,900. See Table 3.
Short-termLong-term
Q2 17 Male41.50647.766
Q2 20 Male48.55614.814
Q2 17 Female37.53425.868
Q2 20 Female42.83710.859

Labour Force

  • Looking at the standard LFS labour market measures based on the ILO criteria, the total number of persons in the labour force in Q2 2020 was 2,341,200, representing a decrease of 89,600 (-3.7%) over the year.  This compares with an annual labour force increase of 31,400 (+1.3%) in Q2 2019.  The number of persons not in the labour force in Q2 2020 was 1,632,600, an increase of 150,800 (+10.2%) over the year. See Table 1.
  • As with employment, the number of persons in the labour force is also influenced by changes in the size of the working age population (demographic effect).  Up to late 2008 this demographic effect had been adding at least 30,000 to the labour force on an annual basis, primarily driven by net inward migration.  This demographic effect peaked at over 90,500 in the second quarter of 2007. See Tables 1 and 7.
  • With the decline in inward migration the positive demographic effect started to fall in the second half of 2007 and continued to decline throughout 2008 and 2009 before becoming negative in Q3 2009. This continued for each quarter until Q1 2014. The demographic effect has been positive since Q2 2014 and in Q2 2020 a positive demographic effect contributed an increase of 26,600 to the overall change in the labour force.
  • In addition to the demographic effect, the change in the size of the labour force is influenced by changes in participation. The overall participation rate decreased by 3.2 percentage points to 58.9% over the year, the net result of changes in individual age groups for the same period was a negative participation effect of 116,200. See Tables 1 and 8.
  • Of those persons not in the labour force, the number classified as being in the potential additional labour force was 273,500 in the second quarter of 2020. See Table 1.
Table 1 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and ILO Economic Status
'000
ILO Economic StatusQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males
In labour force 1,295.71,303.51,314.91,332.41,335.31,334.41,270.9
In employment 1,215.51,237.51,242.01,260.11,273.11,270.61,206.1
full-time 1,070.91,104.11,111.61,119.81,121.71,129.51,084.6
part-time 144.6133.4130.3140.3151.4141.2121.5
of which:part-time, not underemployed89.394.286.196.0106.299.177.0
  part-time, underemployed55.339.244.244.345.242.144.5
Unemployed 80.265.973.072.462.263.764.8
seeking full-time work/future job-starter68.857.363.663.052.753.753.8
seeking part-time work 8.07.48.18.88.98.2[9.2]
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 594.2610.0606.6595.2601.2608.5680.8
Potential additional labour force 61.850.057.650.943.151.5131.0
Others 532.4560.0548.9544.3558.1557.0549.8
Total males aged 15 or over 1,889.91,913.51,921.51,927.61,936.51,942.81,951.7
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)6.25.15.65.54.74.85.1
Participation rate % 68.668.168.469.169.068.765.1
 
Females
In labour force 1,103.61,112.81,115.81,122.41,136.41,133.51,070.3
In employment 1,039.51,064.41,058.11,066.81,088.01,082.81,016.3
full-time 727.8724.8726.4733.6746.6742.2733.6
part-time 311.7339.6331.6333.2341.4340.6282.7
of which:part-time, not underemployed238.3272.0262.8265.7278.3270.9219.8
  part-time, underemployed73.467.668.867.563.169.762.9
Unemployed 64.148.457.855.648.450.754.0
seeking full-time work/future job-starter44.433.739.137.231.433.339.0
seeking part-time work 17.714.317.817.515.416.113.8
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 854.8870.2875.2875.5869.8882.0951.8
Potential additional labour force 70.258.269.558.855.656.7142.5
Others 784.6811.9805.7816.7814.3825.3809.3
Total females aged 15 or over 1,958.41,983.01,991.11,998.02,006.32,015.52,022.1
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)5.84.45.25.04.34.55.1
Participation rate % 56.456.156.056.256.656.252.9
 
All persons
In labour force 2,399.32,416.32,430.82,454.92,471.72,467.92,341.2
In employment 2,255.02,301.92,300.02,326.92,361.22,353.52,222.5
full-time 1,798.71,828.91,838.11,853.41,868.31,871.71,818.3
part-time 456.3473.0462.0473.5492.9481.8404.2
of which:part-time, not underemployed327.6366.1349.0361.7384.5370.0296.8
  part-time, underemployed128.7106.9113.0111.8108.4111.8107.4
Unemployed 144.3114.4130.8128.0110.6114.4118.7
seeking full-time work/future job-starter113.291.0102.7100.284.187.192.8
seeking part-time work 25.621.726.026.324.224.323.1
seeking work as self-employed[5.5]******
Not in labour force 1,448.91,480.21,481.81,470.71,471.01,490.51,632.6
Potential additional labour force 131.9108.2127.1109.698.7108.1273.5
Others 1,317.01,372.01,354.71,361.01,372.31,382.41,359.1
Total persons aged 15 or over 3,848.33,896.53,912.63,925.63,942.83,958.43,973.8
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)6.04.85.45.24.54.75.1
Participation rate % 62.362.062.162.562.762.358.9
 
Employment rate % (Persons aged 15-64)
Male  73.874.374.675.375.675.471.1
Female  63.464.363.763.964.864.460.4
Total persons  68.569.369.169.670.269.865.7
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 2 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)Q2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing91.391.388.586.992.591.883.9
B-FTotal Industry330.2338.3336.5348.8337.9345.5322.2
B-EIndustry192.8204.7201.5210.6203.3210.0204.2
FConstruction137.4133.6135.0138.1134.7135.5118.0
G-UTotal Services789.3803.9813.7821.3839.5831.1797.4
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles155.2150.5149.7152.2159.0160.5149.0
HTransportation and storage 79.986.885.786.087.984.776.6
IAccommodation and food service activities81.478.479.278.981.474.858.7
JInformation and communication77.783.681.491.789.587.594.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities58.157.757.856.858.661.067.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities78.777.977.274.875.783.376.2
NAdministrative and support service activities58.463.265.665.366.764.757.6
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security51.952.554.454.455.557.757.8
PEducation43.148.853.249.453.948.351.9
QHuman health and social work activities57.556.260.562.362.662.264.5
R-UOther NACE activities 47.348.248.949.648.846.442.9
Not stated*******
Total males1,215.51,237.51,242.01,260.11,273.11,270.61,206.1
 
Females       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing15.212.412.412.414.315.514.4
B-FTotal Industry90.294.192.395.595.588.795.8
B-EIndustry81.983.081.083.783.076.585.3
FConstruction8.411.111.211.812.512.210.5
G-UTotal Services929.0955.2950.0956.3975.4976.6904.3
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles142.9154.2148.2148.7151.2149.3133.3
HTransportation and storage 17.618.920.017.820.119.017.4
IAccommodation and food service activities95.796.6101.898.197.895.868.9
JInformation and communication37.634.436.539.238.140.440.8
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities52.653.355.157.556.558.664.4
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities62.561.561.958.065.566.164.8
NAdministrative and support service activities45.247.244.143.945.447.133.2
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security53.758.257.459.961.557.961.1
PEducation123.5130.6126.5134.4137.7144.2142.8
QHuman health and social work activities228.5230.5227.5228.9231.7227.9223.5
R-UOther NACE activities 69.369.770.969.869.970.454.1
Not stated*******
Total females1,039.51,064.41,058.11,066.81,088.01,082.81,016.3
 
All persons       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing106.5103.8100.999.4106.9107.398.3
B-FTotal Industry420.4432.3428.8444.2433.4434.2418.0
B-EIndustry274.7287.7282.6294.3286.3286.5289.5
FConstruction145.7144.6146.3149.9147.1147.7128.5
G-UTotal Services1,718.31,759.11,763.71,777.61,814.91,807.71,701.7
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles298.1304.7297.9300.9310.2309.8282.3
HTransportation and storage 97.4105.8105.8103.8108.0103.794.0
IAccommodation and food service activities177.1175.0181.1177.0179.2170.6127.5
JInformation and communication115.3118.0117.9130.8127.6127.8135.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities110.7111.0112.9114.3115.1119.6132.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities141.2139.3139.1132.8141.1149.5141.0
NAdministrative and support service activities103.7110.4109.7109.2112.1111.890.8
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security105.6110.8111.8114.3117.0115.6118.9
PEducation166.6179.4179.7183.8191.6192.5194.7
QHuman health and social work activities286.0286.7288.0291.2294.3290.0288.0
R-UOther NACE activities 116.6118.0119.8119.4118.7116.797.0
Not stated9.8[6.7][6.7][5.6][6.0]**
Total persons2,255.02,301.92,300.02,326.92,361.22,353.52,222.5
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 3 Seasonally adjusted series of persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex, ILO Economic Status and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
ILO Economic Status/NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
In labour force1,294.41,310.71,316.81,323.91,334.91,340.81,273.3
In employment1,218.91,243.41,246.01,253.91,269.51,275.91,210.4
 of which:Full-time 1,074.41,107.01,113.71,115.01,122.61,131.31,085.4
  Part-time 144.1134.3130.3139.9150.7142.0121.8
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing91.191.288.787.891.491.484.4
B-EIndustry197.2202.5206.2206.2205.3207.7209.0
FConstruction136.2134.9134.0137.0135.4136.8117.2
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles156.0151.3150.4152.6157.2161.1149.7
HTransportation and storage 79.687.785.686.087.185.676.6
IAccommodation and food service activities82.178.679.777.881.875.258.9
JInformation and communication79.383.983.088.790.487.996.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities57.157.456.857.559.360.666.6
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities78.278.076.475.575.983.275.4
NAdministrative and support service activities58.364.265.565.265.965.757.6
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security51.552.753.954.755.458.057.2
PEducation43.749.653.350.252.149.251.8
QHuman health and social work activities57.157.860.161.362.364.064.0
R-UOther NACE activities 47.848.849.448.848.446.943.3
Unemployed76.970.269.168.764.868.062.1
Not in labour force593.6602.4605.1604.7600.7601.4678.8
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)6.05.45.35.24.95.14.9
Participation rate %68.668.568.568.669.069.165.2
 
Females       
In labour force1,100.31,119.81,113.91,120.01,133.81,140.01,068.8
In employment1,036.71,074.31,055.21,066.71,080.91,092.91,013.5
 of which:Full-time 730.1726.9730.1733.0741.6743.3738.4
  Part-time 314.0340.3334.5333.0338.0341.2285.2
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing15.112.412.311.915.115.514.4
B-EIndustry81.483.980.883.083.277.185.2
FConstruction8.311.011.211.812.512.210.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles145.4155.1151.2148.3147.9150.0136.2
HTransportation and storage 18.218.820.817.819.618.918.0
IAccommodation and food service activities94.398.999.996.798.998.167.5
JInformation and communication37.735.236.739.237.141.241.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities52.753.955.256.357.059.364.5
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities62.062.161.458.564.966.564.4
NAdministrative and support service activities44.746.543.444.246.646.332.7
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security52.858.456.560.661.757.960.2
PEducation124.7128.2128.0136.6136.6141.5144.5
QHuman health and social work activities229.8231.1229.1228.1230.4228.3225.3
R-UOther NACE activities 68.569.970.269.770.670.553.6
Unemployed62.951.456.651.150.853.951.8
Not in labour force858.0862.5877.1878.8872.7874.6953.2
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)5.74.65.14.64.54.74.9
Participation rate %56.256.555.956.056.556.652.9
 
All persons       
In labour force2,392.12,426.32,433.62,445.32,468.02,476.82,345.1
In employment2,254.72,320.42,299.92,320.22,349.12,372.32,222.5
 of which:Full-time 1,798.51,838.81,838.01,847.41,865.61,879.91,818.3
  Part-time 458.6474.8464.9471.4490.1483.3407.0
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing106.1103.3100.9100.2106.4106.598.5
B-EIndustry278.5288.4286.5288.3287.7287.2293.6
FConstruction144.5145.6145.1149.0148.3148.6127.6
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles301.0305.8301.2302.3304.6310.3285.7
HTransportation and storage 97.2105.8105.6104.6107.3103.793.9
IAccommodation and food service activities176.7178.2180.5174.4179.2173.9126.6
JInformation and communication117.5118.7120.4127.7127.5128.5137.9
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities110.3111.1112.5113.5116.3119.7131.7
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities138.4138.3136.9136.3142.0147.1138.3
NAdministrative and support service activities102.8110.0108.7109.9112.9111.390.0
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security104.2110.9111.3115.3116.4115.7118.5
PEducation168.2178.3181.5186.4188.2191.5196.7
QHuman health and social work activities286.6289.4287.7290.9292.1292.5288.0
R-UOther NACE activities 116.2118.7119.5118.7119.0117.496.8
Unemployed139.8121.6125.7119.9115.6121.9113.9
Not in labour force1,451.31,465.11,482.01,483.21,473.71,476.21,631.7
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)5.95.05.24.94.74.94.9
Participation rate %62.362.462.162.262.662.758.9
See Background Notes for further detail. The not stated group presented in Table 2 has not been separately seasonally adjusted.
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate and coherence with monthly unemployment estimates
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 4 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and occupation (SOC2010)
'000
Broad occupational groupQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials125.0121.5119.4119.2125.6121.5119.0
2.Professionals198.5214.6224.4221.4226.7234.5241.5
3.Associate professional and technical159.6156.0147.7161.7159.2159.4159.8
4.Administrative and secretarial51.148.851.950.250.455.258.6
5.Skilled trades278.9292.2288.3278.5285.7285.6258.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services35.739.839.844.444.338.937.8
7.Sales and customer service69.169.369.772.673.371.064.2
8.Process, plant and machine operatives148.2151.9157.4160.4158.8161.2145.0
9.Elementary139.9134.9137.5147.0144.5139.0118.8
Other/Not stated9.48.5[5.9]****
Total males1,215.51,237.51,242.01,260.11,273.11,270.61,206.1
 
Females       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials69.061.763.067.163.767.562.5
2.Professionals259.1260.9256.9261.9268.9274.9275.6
3.Associate professional and technical107.8112.6109.9112.6115.6113.1122.7
4.Administrative and secretarial172.0179.7179.3183.0191.9184.0189.0
5.Skilled trades29.829.328.928.431.829.528.5
6.Caring, leisure and other services148.6152.0152.3154.3156.1158.1138.4
7.Sales and customer service112.5119.4114.8116.3119.7115.0100.1
8.Process, plant and machine operatives26.129.029.628.526.525.122.9
9.Elementary107.1116.0119.1111.2109.4112.974.0
 Other/Not stated[7.5]***[4.4]**
Total females1,039.51,064.41,058.11,066.81,088.01,082.81,016.3
 
All persons       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials194.0183.1182.4186.3189.3189.1181.5
2.Professionals457.6475.6481.3483.3495.7509.4517.1
3.Associate professional and technical267.4268.5257.6274.3274.8272.6282.5
4.Administrative and secretarial223.1228.5231.2233.3242.3239.3247.6
5.Skilled trades308.7321.5317.2306.9317.5315.1286.8
6.Caring, leisure and other services184.4191.8192.1198.8200.3197.0176.3
7.Sales and customer service181.5188.7184.6189.0193.0186.0164.3
8.Process, plant and machine operatives174.3180.9187.0188.9185.4186.2167.9
9.Elementary247.0250.9256.6258.2253.9252.0192.8
 Other/Not stated16.912.310.07.98.9[6.8][5.8]
Total persons2,255.02,301.92,300.02,326.92,361.22,353.52,222.5
Note: From Q1 2011 occupational estimates are now captured and coded on the basis of the newer UK SOC2010 classification.
The CSO has re-coded previous quarters to 2007 inclusive on the basis of the text string captured under the old UK SOC90 classification. As with the introduction of any new classification comparability of estimates over time can be impacted - users should bear this in mind when comparing results from quarters prior to Q1 2011 to those from Q1 2011 onwards.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 5 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and employment status
'000
Employment statusQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
 Self employed (with paid employees)77.576.473.174.176.071.065.1
 Self employed (with no paid employees)172.7172.4169.3169.3174.6177.5164.2
 Total self employed250.3248.8242.3243.4250.6248.5229.2
 Employee959.3983.0993.81,011.71,017.31,015.7969.8
 Assisting relative5.9[5.8]5.9[5.0][5.2]6.4[7.1]
 Total males1,215.51,237.51,242.01,260.11,273.11,270.61,206.1
 
Females       
 Self employed (with paid employees)25.721.123.822.522.925.523.9
 Self employed (with no paid employees)54.254.051.752.857.757.655.4
 Total self employed79.975.175.575.480.683.179.2
 Employee953.8983.9975.6985.91,000.8993.5928.8
 Assisting relative[5.8][5.4]6.9[5.5]6.66.28.3
 Total females1,039.51,064.41,058.11,066.81,088.01,082.81,016.3
 
All persons       
 Self employed (with paid employees)103.297.596.996.698.996.588.9
 Self employed (with no paid employees)227.0226.5220.9222.1232.3235.0219.5
 Total self employed330.2323.9317.8318.7331.2331.6308.5
 Employee1,913.11,966.81,969.41,997.62,018.12,009.21,898.5
 Assisting relative11.711.112.810.511.912.715.5
sTotal persons2,255.02,301.92,300.02,326.92,361.22,353.52,222.5
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and duration of unemployment (ILO)
'000
Duration of unemployment (ILO)Q2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
 Less than 1 year46.436.745.144.635.443.448.6
 1 year and over29.326.626.223.722.917.814.8
 Not stated[4.5]******
 Total males80.265.973.072.462.263.764.8
 
Females       
 Less than 1 year43.533.642.042.731.436.042.8
 1 year and over19.614.314.611.215.814.110.9
 Not stated*******
 Total females64.148.457.855.648.450.754.0
 
All persons       
 Less than 1 year89.870.387.187.366.879.491.4
 1 year and over48.940.940.834.938.731.925.7
 Not stated[5.6]**[5.8][5.1]**
 Total persons144.3114.4130.8128.0110.6114.4118.7
 
Long-term unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)2.01.71.71.41.61.31.1
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by ILO economic status, sex, age group and quarter
'000
 Employed Unemployed In labour force
   Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20 Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20 Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20
Males           
 15-1933.827.424.7 9.511.3[7.4] 43.338.732.2
 20-2492.296.582.4 14.916.4[10.8] 107.1112.993.2
 Total 15-24 (Youths)126.0123.9107.1 24.427.718.3 150.4151.6125.4
 25-34253.9263.6244.4 19.614.118.3 273.5277.7262.7
 35-44329.2334.6327.0 14.712.310.0 343.9346.9337.0
 45-54272.0280.6281.3 11.210.39.5 283.2291.0290.8
 55-59106.3109.8107.0 [5.3][4.8][5.9] 111.6114.6112.9
 60-6474.076.479.7 [4.2]** 78.279.481.9
 65+54.253.059.6 *** 55.153.760.1
 Total males1,215.51,242.01,206.1 80.273.064.8 1,295.71,314.91,270.9
 
Females           
 15-1926.829.919.7 8.78.1[7.5] 35.537.927.2
 20-2489.794.479.0 10.910.315.3 100.6104.794.3
 Total 15-24 (Youths)116.5124.398.7 19.618.422.8 136.1142.6121.5
 25-34244.7235.1218.0 13.811.7[10.5] 258.5246.9228.4
 35-44291.8295.8285.7 14.513.7[7.9] 306.4309.5293.6
 45-54223.9233.8237.4 10.27.68.6 234.1241.3246.0
 55-5984.387.092.7 *** 88.190.194.9
 60-6453.757.857.8 *** 55.760.759.3
 65+24.524.326.0 *** 24.824.726.5
 Total females1,039.51,058.11,016.3 64.157.854.0 1,103.61,115.81,070.3
 
All persons           
 15-1960.657.244.4 18.219.414.9 78.876.659.4
 20-24181.9191.0161.4 25.926.726.1 207.7217.6187.5
 Total 15-24 (Youths)242.5248.2205.8 44.046.141.1 286.5294.3246.9
 25-34498.5498.7462.4 33.425.828.8 532.0524.6491.2
 35-44621.0630.4612.8 29.226.117.9 650.2656.5630.7
 45-54495.9514.4518.7 21.317.918.2 517.3532.3536.9
 55-59190.6196.8199.7 9.07.9[8.1] 199.6204.7207.8
 60-64127.7134.2137.5 [6.2][5.8]* 133.9140.1141.2
 65+78.877.385.6 *** 79.978.486.5
 Total persons2,255.02,300.02,222.5 144.3130.8118.7 2,399.32,430.82,341.2
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by key economic rates, sex, age group and quarter
%
 Employment rate (15-64) Unemployment rate (15-74) Participation rate
   Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20 Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20 Q2 18Q2 19Q2 20
Males           
 15-1921.016.915.0 21.929.323.2 26.823.819.5
 20-2462.663.752.8 13.914.511.6 72.774.559.8
 Total 15-24 (Youths)40.839.533.4 16.218.314.6 48.848.339.1
 25-3482.986.480.2 7.25.17.0 89.391.086.2
 35-4487.588.286.0 4.33.63.0 91.491.488.7
 45-5484.485.283.9 3.93.53.3 87.988.486.8
 55-5976.777.874.3 4.74.25.2 80.581.278.4
 60-6460.460.762.3 5.43.72.7 63.963.064.0
 65+::: 1.91.70.9 17.516.417.7
 Total males73.874.671.1 6.25.65.1 68.668.465.1
 
Females           
 15-1917.318.912.4 24.421.327.5 22.924.117.1
 20-2463.264.452.2 10.99.816.2 70.971.462.4
 Total 15-24 (Youths)39.240.831.8 14.412.918.8 45.846.939.1
 25-3476.374.770.0 5.34.84.6 80.678.473.4
 35-4474.574.471.4 4.74.42.7 78.277.973.4
 45-5468.870.369.9 4.33.13.5 71.972.672.5
 55-5959.760.162.4 4.33.52.3 62.362.363.9
 60-6443.345.244.2 3.64.72.5 44.947.545.3
 65+::: 1.01.62.3 6.96.76.9
 Total females63.463.760.4 5.85.25.1 56.456.052.9
 
All persons           
 15-1919.217.913.7 23.125.325.2 24.924.018.3
 20-2462.964.152.5 12.412.313.9 71.873.061.0
 Total 15-24 (Youths)40.140.232.6 15.415.716.6 47.347.639.1
 25-3479.580.475.0 6.34.95.9 84.884.679.7
 35-4480.881.178.5 4.54.02.8 84.684.580.8
 45-5476.577.876.9 4.13.43.4 79.880.579.6
 55-5968.168.868.2 4.53.93.9 71.371.671.0
 60-6451.852.953.1 4.64.22.6 54.355.254.5
 65+::: 1.61.71.4 11.911.312.0
 Total persons68.569.165.7 6.05.45.1 62.362.158.9
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and ILO Economic Status
RegionQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Northern and Western       
 In employment ('000)376.9396.6394.0396.5406.1401.0373.0
 Unemployed ('000)26.319.721.021.516.617.120.9
 In labour force ('000)403.2416.3415.1418.0422.7418.1393.9
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)6.64.85.15.24.04.15.4
 Participation rate (%)59.360.560.260.460.959.956.4
Border       
 In employment ('000)173.9182.9180.6176.7183.9177.4159.9
 Unemployed ('000)11.97.46.810.1[7.3]10.3[8.7]
 In labour force ('000)185.8190.3187.4186.8191.2187.7168.6
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)6.53.93.65.43.95.55.2
 Participation rate (%)58.859.658.558.159.358.152.2
West       
 In employment ('000)203.0213.6213.4219.8222.1223.5213.2
 Unemployed ('000)14.412.314.311.49.3[6.9]12.1
 In labour force ('000)217.4225.9227.7231.2231.5230.4225.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)6.75.56.35.04.03.05.5
 Participation rate (%)59.861.461.662.462.261.559.9
 
Southern       
 In employment ('000)731.9732.5723.1737.6750.0758.6714.5
 Unemployed ('000)46.139.649.243.638.539.737.4
 In labour force ('000)778.0772.1772.2781.2788.6798.4751.9
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)6.05.26.45.64.95.05.0
 Participation rate (%)60.859.759.660.160.560.957.2
Mid-West       
 In employment ('000)214.2215.8216.5217.8215.8218.4208.6
 Unemployed ('000)13.212.514.010.911.111.411.7
 In labour force ('000)227.4228.3230.5228.7226.9229.7220.2
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)5.85.56.14.84.95.05.3
 Participation rate (%)59.259.159.659.058.258.756.2
South-East       
 In employment ('000)190.5187.5186.2190.1195.9195.9182.8
 Unemployed ('000)14.813.416.414.914.314.111.7
 In labour force ('000)205.3201.0202.6205.0210.2209.9194.5
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)7.26.78.17.36.86.76.1
 Participation rate (%)60.558.558.859.160.660.255.7
South-West       
 In employment ('000)327.1329.2320.4329.7338.3344.4323.1
 Unemployed ('000)18.213.718.717.813.114.314.0
 In labour force ('000)345.3342.9339.1347.5351.4358.7337.1
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)5.34.05.55.13.74.04.2
 Participation rate (%)62.060.960.261.461.962.958.7
Eastern and Midland       
 In employment ('000)1,146.31,172.81,182.91,192.81,205.01,193.81,135.0
 Unemployed ('000)71.955.160.663.055.457.560.5
 In labour force ('000)1,218.21,227.91,243.51,255.71,260.51,251.41,195.4
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)5.94.54.95.04.44.65.1
 Participation rate (%)64.564.164.564.964.864.261.0
Dublin       
 In employment ('000)695.1704.9716.7717.8725.1718.0683.1
 Unemployed ('000)38.532.132.733.533.834.838.2
 In labour force ('000)733.6736.9749.5751.3758.8752.8721.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)5.34.44.44.54.54.65.3
 Participation rate (%)66.265.566.266.266.465.762.5
Mid-East       
 In employment ('000)327.8341.3338.6343.6345.6340.5323.5
 Unemployed ('000)20.214.618.922.215.415.314.6
 In labour force ('000)348.0355.9357.6365.8361.0355.9338.1
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)5.84.15.36.14.34.34.3
 Participation rate (%)63.563.963.965.063.862.659.3
Midland       
 In employment ('000)123.4126.7127.5131.4134.3135.3128.3
 Unemployed ('000)13.28.48.9[7.2][6.3][7.4][7.6]
 In labour force ('000)136.6135.1136.4138.7140.7142.7136.0
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.76.26.65.34.55.25.7
 Participation rate (%)58.857.557.958.759.560.457.7
 
State       
 In employment ('000)2,255.02,301.92,300.02,326.92,361.22,353.52,222.5
 Unemployed ('000)144.3114.4130.8128.0110.6114.4118.7
 In labour force ('000)2,399.32,416.32,430.82,454.92,471.72,467.92,341.2
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)6.04.85.45.24.54.75.1
 Participation rate (%)62.362.062.162.562.762.358.9
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Note: The composition of the NUTS regions changed in 2016 and took effect for the LFS survey from Q1 2018. Data from Q1 2012 to Q4 2017 has also been revised to reflect these changes. Please see background notes of the Q1 2018 LFS release for additional information.
Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by Principal Economic Status (PES)
'000
Principal Economic StatusQ2 18Q1 19Q2 19Q3 19Q4 19Q1 20Q2 20
Males       
 At work1,161.31,180.01,193.41,207.91,207.91,201.71,125.1
 Unemployed106.399.495.497.689.492.5147.3
 Student208.4217.8207.0195.8219.2221.1216.8
 Home duties20.722.819.919.420.320.722.7
 Retired283.8290.1296.7298.8298.1295.6297.9
 Others109.4103.5109.1108.2101.7111.3141.8
 Total males1,889.91,913.51,921.51,927.61,936.51,942.81,951.7
 
Females       
 At work975.6995.8985.3996.11,010.71,001.2936.6
 Unemployed73.563.769.872.763.473.2127.8
 Student210.9229.1213.4211.7224.6230.8222.9
 Home duties316.0309.6329.6312.6312.8285.9268.2
 Retired279.2288.5287.3295.1296.4305.7316.2
 Others103.196.4105.8109.798.3118.7150.4
 Total females1,958.41,983.01,991.11,998.02,006.32,015.52,022.1
 
All persons       
 At work2,136.92,175.82,178.72,204.02,218.62,202.82,061.7
 Unemployed179.8163.0165.2170.3152.8165.7275.1
 Student419.3446.8420.4407.5443.8451.9439.7
 Home duties336.7332.4349.5331.9333.1306.6290.9
 Retired563.1578.5583.9594.0594.5601.3614.1
 Others212.5199.9214.9217.9200.0230.0292.2
 Total persons3,848.33,896.53,912.63,925.63,942.83,958.43,973.8
Note: The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a respondent's own subjective assessment - see Background Notes.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 11 Labour Force Survey results classified by ILO Economic Status for persons in EU member states
%
  Employment rate % (15-64 years) Unemployment rate % (15-74 years) Participation rate % (15 years and over)
  Q1 18Q1 19Q1 20Annual change Q1 18Q1 19Q1 20Annual change Q1 18Q1 19Q1 20Annual change
     Q1 20    Q1 20    Q1 20
EU2766.867.7:: 7.97.2:: 57.057.1::
Eurozone66.467.3:: 8.98.1:: 57.057.1::
 
Belgium63.964.565.10.6 6.25.65.1-0.5 53.954.054.00.0
Bulgaria66.568.368.1-0.2 5.75.04.6-0.4 54.655.555.0-0.5
Czech Republic74.275.074.8-0.2 2.42.02.00.0 60.360.559.9-0.6
Denmark73.274.174.70.6 5.55.55.2-0.3 61.461.962.10.2
Germany75.476.3:: 3.63.4:: 61.061.5::
Estonia73.674.175.00.9 6.84.75.00.3 63.562.963.70.8
Ireland67.969.369.80.5 5.74.84.7-0.1 61.662.062.30.3
Greece53.355.055.90.9 21.219.216.2-3.0 51.651.850.6-1.2
Spain61.162.562.60.1 16.814.714.4-0.3 57.757.657.5-0.1
France64.765.165.70.6 9.69.18.1-1.0 55.755.455.0-0.4
Croatia 59.061.261.40.2 10.47.67.0-0.6 51.051.050.4-0.6
Italy57.658.258.40.2 11.611.19.4-1.7 49.749.849.0-0.8
Cyprus66.269.170.00.9 10.88.87.3-1.5 62.063.262.5-0.7
Latvia70.971.471.90.5 8.26.97.40.5 61.161.061.70.7
Lithuania70.672.573.00.5 7.26.57.20.7 60.862.063.01.0
Luxembourg67.267.666.7-0.9 5.55.46.30.9 59.960.260.0-0.2
Hungary68.769.969.7-0.2 3.93.63.70.1 56.457.056.7-0.3
Malta70.372.674.62.0 3.83.63.3-0.3 58.760.962.41.5
Netherlands76.277.778.40.7 4.43.73.3-0.4 63.964.664.70.1
Austria72.072.772.3-0.4 5.34.94.7-0.2 60.861.060.3-0.7
Poland66.667.268.41.2 4.23.93.1-0.8 56.055.956.00.1
Portugal 68.969.969.8-0.1 8.06.86.80.0 58.959.158.6-0.5
Romania63.164.265.41.2 4.74.14.30.2 53.853.954.50.6
Slovenia69.771.371.50.2 6.04.84.6-0.2 58.358.157.8-0.3
Slovakia67.168.668.0-0.6 7.15.86.00.2 59.659.859.1-0.7
Finland70.171.472.00.6 8.87.17.10.0 58.758.558.70.2
Sweden76.276.275.4-0.8 6.77.37.60.3 65.265.765.6-0.1
Source: Eurostat
Note:Trends in some member states may be affected by changes in methodology
 pp refers to percentage point change
 Eurozone consists of EU14 states (with the exceptions of Denmark and Sweden), Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia.
: Not available
Table A1 Estimated number of persons aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and ILO Economic Status
'000
Nationality   ILO Economic Status Total
   In employmentUnemployedIn labour forceNot in labour force 
Q2 20         
Irish nationals 1,858.193.61,951.71,444.3 3,396.0
Non-Irish nationals364.425.1389.5188.3 577.8
of which:      
 United Kingdom56.4*59.550.4 109.9
 EU14_2020 excl. IRL 163.7*66.514.1 80.6
 EU15 to EU27_2020 1141.1[10.9]152.067.7 219.7
 Other103.2*111.556.1 167.6
Total persons2,222.5118.72,341.21,632.6 3,973.8
 
Q2 19         
Irish nationals 1,920.0105.62,025.61,332.7 3,358.3
Non-Irish nationals380.025.1405.2149.1 554.2
of which:      
 United Kingdom60.1*64.543.0 107.4
 EU14_2020 excl. IRL 160.9*64.312.3 76.6
 EU15 to EU27_2020 1161.4[9.0]170.347.8 218.2
 Other97.7[8.4]106.145.9 152.0
Total persons2,300.0130.82,430.81,481.8 3,912.6
 
Year on year changes       
Irish nationals -61.9-12.1-73.9111.6 37.6
Non-Irish nationals-15.70.0-15.639.2 23.6
of which:      
 United Kingdom-3.7*-5.07.4 2.4
 EU14_2020 excl. IRL 12.8*2.21.7 4.0
 EU15 to EU27_2020 1-20.3[2.0]-18.419.9 1.5
 Other5.5*5.410.2 15.6
Total persons-77.6-12.0-89.6150.8 61.2
1 In light of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union with effect from 1 February 2020, the EU classification has been updated.
EU14_2020 excl. IRL before Quarter 1 2020 was formally classified as EU15 excl. IRL & UK.
EU15-EU27_2020  before Quarter 1 2020 was formally classified as EU15 to EU28 States.
Note: Persons whose nationality is not stated are included with Irish nationals
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table A2 Number of employees in the Public Sector by sub-sector and in the Private Sector
 '000
 Q2 17Q2 18Q2 19Q1 201Q2 20
Civil Service40.341.743.544.4:
Defence9.49.39.19.0:
Garda Siochána13.514.114.414.6:
Education114.6115.4115.0114.3:
Regional bodies33.433.834.535.1:
Health128.5132.4135.8138.0:
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies339.7346.7352.4355.5:
 
Semi-State bodies 54.054.255.657.0:
 
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies393.7400.9408.0412.5:
 
Total Private Sector1,361.01,425.51,477.31,512.5:
1 Preliminary.
: Employment data from the Earnings, Hours Worked and Employment Cost Survey (EHECS) data not available at time of release. Updated series will be issued with the next Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017. The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter. Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997. The LFS is undertaken on a calendar quarter basis which was first adopted in the QNHS in the first quarter of 2009.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December

Data Collection

The LFS is conducted using mixed mode data collection with the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). As with the QNHS, information is collected from each sample household over five successive quarters or Waves. However, in the LFS, the first interview is conducted by a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The four follow-up interviews are conducted using CATI from a dedicated call centre, where householders have agreed to conduct a telephone interview, and are conducted using face-to-face interviews where householders have not agreed to conduct a telephone interview.

Users should note that, as referenced in our Press Statement of 20 March 2020, the CSO had to suspend direct face-to-face interviews for the LFS (and other household surveys) due to the social distancing measures introduced in Ireland because of COVID-19. Consequently, all interviews for the LFS since then have been carried out using CATI.

Sample Design

A new sample based on the 2016 Census of Population was introduced on a phased basis (over five quarters) from Q2 2019 and will be fully operational in Q2 2020. As with the expiring sample below, the new sample is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Hasse and Pratschke) Deprivation Index and consists of 32,500 households per quarter.

The previous sample was based on the 2011 Census of Population and was introduced incrementally from Q1 2016 and expired in Q1 2019. The sample was stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. A two-stage sample design was used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks were selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households were selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensured each household in the sample frame had an equal probability of selection.

To account for the additional attrition resulting from the introduction of mixed mode data collection, the LFS sample up to Q1 2019 was increased incrementally from Q3 2017. An additional 1,300 households were included in Wave 1 for each quarter up to Q3 2018 and this has resulted in a total sample of 32,500 from Q3 2018 onwards. The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

The number of valid responding households for the LFS in Q2 2020 was 12,596.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the QNHS/LFS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. It is important to note that there is no overlap in sample between the QNHS and the LFS.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region (the regions have changed from Q1 2018 – see below) and are also calibrated to nationality control totals. The LFS results also contain a non-response adjustment to make the results from the achieved sample representative of the target sample and the population. The population estimates for April of each year are published in a separate release.

New samples, both based on the 2011 Census of Population, were introduced incrementally for the QNHS in Q4 2012 and in Q3 2016. The former was stratified using administrative county and population density while the latter was stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. The quarterly sample in each case was 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varied over time depending on the level of response.

Households with all persons aged 75 and over and classified as inactive

Households that contain only respondents who are aged 75 or over who are each classified as Inactive (Not in the Labour Force) are not re-interviewed. This is to reduce unnecessary burden and instead answers are copied forward from the last available interview.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates were calculated using the defacto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). Since Q2 2006 a new concept of usual residence has been used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the state.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the LFS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed.

Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates

The rates given in this release are based on the ILO classification. The Participation Rate is the number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 or over. The Employment Rate is the number of employed aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 to 64.

To ensure coherence with Unemployment Rates produced by Eurostat, the CSO changed the method of calculation of the Unemployment Rate as of Q2 2015. Prior to this, the Unemployment Rate was calculated as the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 and over. The change introduced limits the labour force to persons aged 15-74 and this excludes a small number of persons aged 75 and over in employment from the total labour force used in the calculation. The overall impact of this change was minimal.

Duration of Unemployment

The duration of unemployment is the length of time since a person last had a job or began looking for work, whichever is more recent. The long-term unemployment rate is the number of persons unemployed for one year or more expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 to 74 years.

Part-time Underemployment

The calculation of part-time underemployment is based on ILO and Eurostat recommendations and uses the following criteria to derive underemployment:

1. Working part-time
2. Willing to work additional hours
3. Available to work additional hours

This indicator is only available from Quarter 3 2008 onwards as estimates prior to that quarter were based on one single question which included the need for the person to be looking for additional work. From Quarter 3 2008 the indicator is derived from a series of separate questions which allow this requirement to be excluded.       

Potential Additional Labour Force

The Potential Additional Labour Force (PALF) is the sum of the two groups ‘persons seeking work but not immediately available’ and ‘persons available for work but not seeking’. Persons in the PALF are not part of the standard labour force, which encompasses only employed and unemployed people but however they have a stronger attachment to the labour market than other persons not in the labour force. The new indicators have been defined by the European statistical office (Eurostat) following extensive international discussion regarding appropriate indicators to supplement the unemployment rate.

Further background information regarding the methodology and approach adopted by Eurostat in building these new indicators can be found at the link below. European wide and individual country results are also available here:

Principal Economic Status Classification

Results are also available using the Principal Economic Status (PES) classification which is also used in the Labour Force Survey and the Census of Population. The PES classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation with regard to employment and given the following response categories:

• At work
• Unemployed
• Student
• Engaged on home duties
• Retired
• Other

NACE Industrial Classification

The LFS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature généraledes activités économiques dans les Communauté européenne) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006. Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Tables 2 and 3 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS/LFS outputs. The NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use from Q4 1997 to Q4 2008.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series, NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 1998 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been published.

Occupation Classification

As a result of changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the LFS (formerly the QNHS) the CSO has been obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly. One particular example which highlighted this change was the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of ‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available here.

NUTS2 and NUTS3 Regions

The regional classifications in this release is based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat. Until Q4 2017, the NUTS3 regions corresponded to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994 while the NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, were groupings of those historic NUTS3 regions.

However, the NUTS3 boundaries were amended on 21st of November 2016 under Regulation (EC) No. 2066/2016 and have come into force from Q1 2018. These new groupings are reflected in the LFS results from Q1 2012 onwards. The changes resulting from the amendment are that County Louth has moved from the Border to the Mid-East and what was formerly South Tipperary has moved from the South-East to the Mid-West, resulting in the new NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions:

Northern & Western NUTS2 Region Southern NUTS2 Region Eastern & Midland NUTS2 Region
Border Cavan Mid-West Clare Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Limerick    Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Tipperary   Fingal
  Monaghan       South Dublin
  Sligo        
    South-East Carlow Mid-East Kildare
West Galway   Kilkenny   Meath
  Mayo   Waterford    Wicklow
  Roscommon   Wexford   Louth
           
        Midland Laois
    South-West Cork    Longford
      Kerry   Offaly
          Westmeath

 

Seasonal Adjustment Methodology

To correct for typical seasonal patterns, the series presented in Table 3 have been seasonally adjusted. The seasonal adjustment of data from the QNHS between Q2 2011 and Q2 2017 was completed by applying the X-12-ARIMA model, developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. This seasonal adjustment methodology has been reviewed following the introduction of the new LFS in Q3 2017. As a result of this review, from Q3 2017 onwards, the seasonal adjustment of the LFS is conducted using the X-13ARIMA-SEATS software also developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. The adjustments are carried out by applying the X-13-ARIMA model to the unadjusted data. This methodology estimates seasonal factors while also taking into consideration factors that impact on the quality of the seasonal adjustment, such as:

  • Calendar effects e.g. the timing of Easter
  • Outliers, temporary changes, and level shifts in the series

For additional information on the use of X-13ARIMA-SEATS see:

http://www.census.gov/srd/www/x13as/

Seasonal adjustment is conducted using the direct approach, where each individual series is independently adjusted. As a result of this direct seasonal adjustment approach it should be noted that the sum of any component series may not be equal to seasonally adjusted series to which these components belong, e.g. the seasonally adjusted number of males in employment and the seasonally adjusted number of females in employment will not necessarily add up to the total employment on a seasonally adjusted basis.

The X-13-ARIMA method has the X-11 moving averages process at its core, but builds on this by providing options for pre-treating the series using a regARIMA approach for prior adjustment and series extension. In essence, this methodology will estimate seasonal factors while taking account of calendar effects (e.g. timing of Easter), outliers, temporary changes and level shifts.

The seasonal adjustment is designed and implemented in full accordance with the ESS Guidelines (2015).

Users should note that the existing seasonally adjusted series may be subject to revision when data for an additional quarter is added.

Non-response adjustment

Non-response occurs when households that are sampled, and that are eligible for the survey, do not provide the requested information. This can lead to biased survey estimates if specific groups within the population are over- or under-represented and if these groups behave differently with respect to the survey variables (i.e. labour market outcomes). To correct for this, the CSO has introduced a non-response adjustment into the weighting procedure for the LFS.

The adjustment involves estimating response rates or propensities to respond as functions of characteristics available for responding and non-responding households, as well as characteristics of the areas where the households are located. Basically, the design weights have to be inflated by the inverse of the response propensities in order to compensate for the loss of units in the sample.

Linking the LFS sample with the Census of Population at household level provides a set of auxiliary variables which are available for both responding and non-responding LFS households. These include a mix of personal characteristics as well as characteristics of the dwelling and location (e.g. gender, age, marital status, education, personal employment status, dwelling type, area etc.). This allows the CSO to compare responding and non-responding households with respect to the characteristics available from the Census. This auxiliary information allows the use of “response propensities” to model non-response and adjust the grossing factors to compensate for non-response.

The response propensities are calculated using a logistic regression model where the dependent variable (Y) is an indicator variable corresponding to response (if the household responded then Y=1 and if the household did not respond then Y=0) and the independent variables are the set of auxiliary variables available from the Census. The estimated response propensities are then used to form adjustment cells or strata which are made up of respondents and non-respondents with similar estimated response propensities. Respondents within each cell/stratum are then weighted by the inverse of the observed response rate in that cell. This non-response adjusted weight is then used to inflate the original survey design weight to account for non-response. This approach is referred to as response propensity classification.

Back-casting methodology

The introduction of the LFS in Q3 2017 constituted a break in series for the labour market estimates published by the CSO. In an effort to mitigate the effect of the introduction of the LFS on the coherence of the historic data series, a back-casting exercise was carried out to link the QNHS and the LFS. The result of this is that the published QNHS series from Q1 1998 to Q2 2017 has been revised.

As part of the roll-out of the LFS, a parallel run of the two surveys was carried out. This allowed the estimation of the effect of the introduction of the new survey on the various labour market estimates. Quarter 1 of 2017 was used as the reference period to calculate scaling factors which were used to link the results from the two surveys. Labour market estimates were calculated from both surveys for a range of cohorts (age, sex, ILO status etc.) and the ratio of the two estimates provided a scaling factor which was applied to the historic QNHS series to create a back-cast series. 

In Q3 2017, separate scaling factors were calculated for ILO status by age and sex together with the fifteen economic sector categories (Table 2 of this release) by sex:

  • ILO status (Employed, Unemployed, Inactive) by sex (Male and Female) and by age (15-24 years and 25+ years)
  • NACE Rev. 2 groups (table 2 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

In Q1 2018, additional scaling factors were calculated for the eight NUTS3 regions by Labour Force ILO status, occupation categories (Table 4 of this release) and highest level of education completed (supplementary table 8 of this release) by sex:

  • NUTS3 Regions (pre-Q1 2018 groupings) by Labour Force ILO status (Employed and Unemployed)
  • Occupation groups (Table 4 of this release)
  • Highest level of education completed (supplementary Table 8 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

Therefore, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for these indicators. However, as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards.  Consequently, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.         

 Please refer to the following information notes for further details:

Information Notice - Labour Force Survey Quarter 3 2017.

Information Notice - Labour Force Survey Quarter 1 2018

Monthly Unemployment

Monthly unemployment estimates were first introduced by the CSO in June 2015 for reference month May. The most recently published estimates were for July 2020 and these are available in a separate release from the Central Statistics Office.

Please see the following link:  here

In an effort to reduce the scale and size of revisions to the monthly unemployment series, the CSO changed the methodology used to calculate the monthly unemployment estimates from reference month October 2019 onwards. The key change is that the latest available LFS quarterly benchmarks are now being used to calculate monthly unemployment estimates. This means that the number of revisions to the monthly series will now be reduced from 16 to 12. The CSO is satisfied that the new methodology still aligns with that of Eurostat.

Please see the following link to the detailed information note on this change which was published in conjunction with the monthly unemployment estimates for reference month October 2019.

Information Note - Monthly Unemployment October 2019

In line with Eurostat practice, the seasonally adjusted quarterly unemployment volumes and rates included in Table 3 of this LFS release are calculated as the average of the relevant three months of the quarter from the new monthly unemployment series. This approach ensures consistency between the seasonally adjusted monthly series and the seasonally adjusted quarterly series.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ] .

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Calculation of Rates and Estimates of Change

Rates and estimates of change presented in this release are calculated from whole unrounded numbers. Due to rounding, these may differ from the rates and estimates of change calculated from the rounded volumes presented in the tables.

Interpretation of volume and rate changes

The overall change in the number of people employed, unemployed, in the labour force and not in the labour force is a function both of changes in the population as well as changes in the proportion of people with that status. Therefore, in interpreting changes in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc, both changes in population and changes in the relevant rates should be considered.

In recent years there has been a natural decline in the number of people in younger age groups arising from the falling number of births through the 1980’s until 1994 when a low of 48,255 births was recorded (compared with 74,278 in 2009). For example, there were 326,030 people born in Ireland between 1982 and 1986 and, all other things being equal, these people would have been in the 20-24 age group in 2006. However between 1986 and 1990 there were nearly 50,000 fewer births which would create a natural decrease in the 20-24 age group of close to 50,000 between 2006 and 2010.

In addition to natural changes in population, net migration has been a significant feature of population change in Ireland in recent years and net migration has also been most heavily concentrated in younger age groups. Evidence shows that migration is also most heavily concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups. As a result of both natural decrease and net outward migration, the population of persons in the younger age groups has fallen and this should be borne in mind when considering the changes in the number of people in these age groups who are employed, unemployed and in the labour force.

Additional Data Series

Additional data series previously included in the QNHS release can still be accessed through the CSO website and are available http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter32017/

Labour market data can also be accessed from Statbank, the CSO’s main data dissemination service which can be accessed through the CSO website and are available here.

Implications of Census 2016 Final Results

The LFS results are weighted using population estimates which are updated every quarter. Every 5 years the Census of Population results are used to revise these population estimates, and QNHS/LFS results are revised as a consequence.

The population concept of usual residence is used for the LFS, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the State plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

The final Census count was published on April 6 2017. The total for this usually resident population concept which was enumerated on Census Night, April 24 2016, was 4,739,597 persons, while the existing estimate for the usually resident population for April 2016 is 4,673,700 as detailed in the 2016 Population and Migration Estimates release. There was a difference, therefore, of just over 65,900 or 1.4% between the two figures.

The CSO has revised the population estimates for 2011 to 2016 based on this final Census count. Estimates of persons employed and unemployed have been revised in line with the higher population totals.

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

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