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For more information on this release:
E-mail: income&modules@cso.ie Maureen Delamere (+353) 21 453 5081 Caroline Barrett (+353) 21 453 5485
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Equality and Discrimination

Quarter 1 2019

Percentage of persons who experienced discrimination1
% of persons aged 18+
 Q1 2019
State17.7
Principal economic status
At work17.1
Unemployed30.2
Student21.9
Home duties14.1
Retired12.4
Others24.1
LGBTI+
LGBTI+33.2
Non-LGBTI+17.2
Nationality
Irish16.3
Non-Irish26.7
1 In the two years prior to interview

18% of persons aged 18+ experienced discrimination

Fig 1 Discrimination by perceived grounds, Q1 2019
go to full release
  • Nearly 18% of people aged 18 years or over said that they felt discriminated against in the two years prior to interview. See headline table and Table 1.
  • The highest rates of discrimination were reported by people who identify as LGBTI+ (33.2%), followed by persons from non-white ethnic backgrounds (33.1%), unemployed (30.2%) and non-Irish (26.7%). See Table 1.
  • Nearly one eighth (11.8%) of people reported that they had experienced discrimination when Accessing services while almost one in ten (9.4%) reported work-related discrimination - In the workplace and/or while Looking for workSee Table 2.1.
  • Bullying or harassment (32.8%) was the most common issue identified in discrimination In the workplace, followed by Promotion and Work conditions (both at 18.9%). See Table 2.3.
  • The most common grounds identified by people who had experienced any form of discrimination were Age (34.1%), followed by Race/skin colour/ethnic group/nationality (21.9%). See Table 3.1.
  • Sexual orientation was cited as a reason for discrimination by 9.5% of males and 8.8% of females who experienced any type of discrimination. See Table 3.2.
  • Nearly one third (32.3%) of persons aged 18 or over who experienced discrimination indicated that they had a good understanding of their rights under Irish equality legislation. In contrast, almost one eighth (11.5%) stated they had no understanding of their rights. See Table 6.1.
  • More than seven out of every ten (70.4%) persons who experienced discrimination in the two years prior to interview took no action in response to their experience. Over one fifth (21.3%) took verbal action. See Table 6.3.

Users should note that the survey instrument used to carry out the Equality and Discrimination survey has changed since the survey was last carried out in Quarter 3 2014. Previously it was carried out as a module of the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). The Labour Force Survey (LFS) has now replaced the QNHS. With this change, surveys previously carried out as modules of the QNHS, are now carried out for the most part in the General Household Survey (GHS). This change has affected sample size. The achieved sample size for the Q1 2019 survey was 3,971 respondents. Further information is available in the Background Notes. It should be noted that a national sample of this size can be insufficient to report on minority groups.

It should also be noted that in the Q1 2019 Equality and Discrimination survey, an additional category of discrimination was included – discrimination experienced In contact with An Garda Síochána. This category of discrimination was not included in previous years’ surveys. See the section Discrimination levels over time for more analysis of the inclusion of this category.

Rates of discrimination

Nearly 18% (17.7%) of persons aged 18 years or over said that they experienced discrimination in the two years prior to interview.

In Quarter 1 2019, the highest rates of perceived discrimination were among the following groups (See Table 1 and Figure 2):

  • Persons identifying as LGBTI+ (33.2%) compared with non-LGBTI+ persons (17.2%)
  • Persons from non-white ethnic backgrounds (33.1%)
  • Unemployed (30.2%)
  • Non-Irish nationals (26.7%)
  • People with a disability (24.1%) compared with those without a disability (16.7%)
Table 1 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by their reported experience of discrimination in the past two years, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Experienced Discrimination
YesNo
State17.782.3
 
Region
Border, Midland and Western 20.179.9
Southern and Eastern14.285.8
 
Sex
Male16.683.4
Female18.881.2
 
Age group
18-2423.976.1
25-4420.579.5
45-6415.085.0
65+11.288.8
 
Principal Economic Status
At work17.182.9
Unemployed30.269.8
Student21.978.1
Home duties14.185.9
Retired12.487.6
Others24.175.9
 
Nationality
Irish16.383.7
Non-Irish26.773.3
 
Disability
Yes24.175.9
No16.783.3
 
Religion
Catholic14.086.0
Others128.571.5
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds17.083.0
Other ethnic backgrounds233.166.9
 
LGBTI+3
LGBTI+33.266.8
Non-LGBTI+17.282.8
 
Highest education level attained
Primary or below12.587.5
Lower secondary13.286.8
Higher secondary16.283.8
Post leaving cert20.279.8
Third level20.879.2
Not stated17.882.2
1 Includes not stated.
2 Includes Black or Black Irish (African and any other Black background), Asian or Asian Irish (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Other mixed group/background - Arab, Mixed, Other.
3 See Background Notes.  
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.
Open in Excel: ED2019Q1 TBL1 (XLS 36KB)
X-axis labelQ1 2019
At work17.1
Unemployed30.2
Student21.9
Home duties14.1
Retired12.4
LGBTI+33.2
Non-LGBTI+17.2
Irish16.3
Non-Irish26.7

Type of discrimination

There are many types of discrimination. Workplace discrimination refers to discrimination experienced In the workplace and/or while Looking for work in the two years prior to interview. Discrimination experienced in Accessing services refers to discrimination experienced in one or more of the following - In places like shops, pubs or restaurantsUsing the services of banks, insurance companies or financial institutionsEducationLooking for housing or accommodationAccessing health servicesUsing transport servicesAccessing other public services at a local or national level and In contact with An Garda Síochána.

Almost one in eight (11.8%) persons experienced discrimination when Accessing services, while nearly one in ten (9.4%) cited Workplace discrimination. See Table 2.1.

Persons who experienced Workplace discrimination were predominantly from the following groups:

  • Unemployed (24.6%)
  • Non-white ethnic backgrounds (19.8%)
  • Persons who identify as LGBTI+ (17.5%)
  • Non-Irish (14.4%)
  • Persons with a disability (12.3%)
  • Persons aged 25 to 44 years (11.0%)
  • Females (10.6%) compared to 8.2% of males

Persons most at risk of experiencing discrimination when Accessing services were from the following groups:

  • Non-white ethnic backgrounds (23.1%)
  • Persons who identify as LGBTI+ (19.6%)
  • Non-Catholics (19.2%)
  • Persons aged 18 to 24 years (19.1%)
  • Persons with a disability (18.3%)
  • Unemployed (17.4%)
  • Non-Irish (17.4%)

Experiencing both types of discrimination - Workplace discrimination and discrimination in Accessing services - was reported by just 3.5% of persons aged 18 years or over. Over one in ten (10.8%) of unemployed persons experienced both types of discrimination. Similarly, 10.1% of persons from non-white ethnic backgrounds experienced both types of discrimination, while 3.9% of persons who identify as LGBTI+ experienced both types of discrimination. See Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by type of discrimination experienced in the past two years, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Type of discrimination
Workplace1 Accessing services2 Experienced both types of discrimination
 YesNo YesNo YesNo
State9.490.6 11.888.2 3.596.5
 
Region
Border, Midland and Western 10.889.2 13.886.2 4.096.0
Southern and Eastern7.992.1 9.690.4 3.097.0
 
Sex
Male8.291.8 11.988.1 3.396.7
Female10.689.4 11.788.3 3.796.3
 
Age group
18-249.190.9 19.180.9 4.395.7
25-4411.089.0 13.586.5 4.495.6
45-649.690.4 8.591.5 3.196.9
65+3.896.2 7.992.1 0.899.2
 
Principal Economic Status
At work10.090.0 10.389.7 3.496.6
Unemployed24.675.4 17.482.6 10.889.2
Student7.492.6 17.083.0 3.097.0
Home duties5.494.6 12.887.2 3.496.6
Retired4.096.0 9.091.0 1.298.8
Others10.090.0 17.882.2 4.295.8
 
Nationality
Irish8.591.5 10.889.2 3.296.8
Non-Irish14.485.6 17.482.6 5.194.9
 
Disability
Yes12.387.7 18.381.7 5.494.6
No9.091.0 10.989.1 3.396.7
 
Religion
Catholic7.592.5 9.190.9 2.797.3
Others314.885.2 19.280.8 5.894.2
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic background9.091.0 11.388.7 3.296.8
Other ethnic background419.880.2 23.176.9 10.189.9
 
LGBTI+5
LGBTI+17.582.5 19.680.4 3.966.8
Non-LGBTI+9.290.8 11.588.5 3.582.8
 
Highest education level attained
Primary or below5.494.6 9.790.3 2.497.6
Lower secondary6.393.7 9.690.4 2.597.5
Higher secondary7.392.7 11.888.2 3.296.8
Post leaving cert12.287.8 13.686.4 5.095.0
Third level12.088.0 11.888.2 3.496.6
Not stated8.591.5 15.684.4 6.293.8
1 Includes categories: 'In the workplace' and 'Looking for work'.
2 Includes discrimination experienced in at least one of the following areas: 'In places like shops, pubs or restaurants', 'Using the services of banks, insurance companies or financial institutions', 'Education', 'Obtaining housing or accommodation', 'Accessing health services', 'Using transport services', 'Accessing public services' and 'In contact with An Garda Síochána'.
3 Includes not stated.
4 Includes Black or Black Irish (African and any other Black background), Asian or Asian Irish (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Other mixed group/background - Arab, Mixed, Other.
5 See background notes.
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.

Social setting of discrimination

In the workplace

In the workplace, 7.3% of females experienced some form of discrimination in the two years prior to interview, compared with 4.6% of males. See Table 2.2.

One in twelve (8.1%) of persons with a disability, experienced discrimination In the workplace, while 7.8% of persons unemployed at the time of interview, felt that they were discriminated against In the workplace in the previous two years. Over one in nine persons (10.9%) identifying as LGBTI+ experienced this type of discrimination, as did 17.1% of persons from non-white ethnic backgrounds. See Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 All persons aged 18 years and over by social setting of discrimination in the past two years, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Social setting of discrimination
In the workplaceLooking for workIn shops, pubs, restaurants, etc.Banks, insurance companies or financial institutionsHealth1EducationLooking for housing or accommodationUsing public transport servicesAccessing other public services2In contact with An Garda Síochána3
State6.04.83.93.52.11.53.20.61.21.7
 
Region
Border Midland and Western7.45.14.44.22.21.84.30.71.11.9
Eastern and Southern4.44.53.32.82.11.31.90.51.31.5
 
Sex
Male4.64.84.03.51.21.53.50.71.32.4
Female7.34.93.83.53.11.62.80.61.11.0
 
Age group
18-244.44.97.23.61.23.45.60.60.03.9
25-447.35.64.44.22.61.44.40.91.31.8
45-646.04.83.02.81.91.11.70.51.51.3
65+2.52.01.43.02.21.40.50.11.30.5
 
Principal economic status
At work7.24.23.03.41.81.03.00.40.81.5
Unemployed7.820.19.22.63.73.44.70.91.06.9
Student5.03.67.03.40.52.65.80.80.72.2
Home duties2.33.92.44.64.13.13.00.31.70.0
Retired2.61.92.63.42.31.00.50.52.00.5
Other4.86.78.84.64.42.74.73.04.03.2
 
Nationality
Irish national5.34.23.43.42.31.62.60.50.91.6
Non-Irish9.48.26.54.31.41.06.61.32.82.2
 
Disability
Yes8.15.87.34.84.82.73.22.13.23.5
No 5.74.73.43.31.81.43.20.40.91.5
 
Religion
Roman Catholic4.83.53.22.91.81.32.00.41.11.1
Other49.18.45.95.23.22.16.51.11.53.4
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds5.44.53.43.42.21.52.90.51.01.8
Other ethnic backgrounds517.110.614.45.60.71.28.13.54.50.8
 
LGBTI+6
LGBTI+10.98.16.15.94.52.32.61.61.03.6
Non-LGBTI+5.84.73.83.42.11.53.20.61.21.7
 
Highest level of education attained
Primary or below2.23.44.02.61.73.51.20.21.81.3
Lower secondary2.54.52.73.42.92.02.30.51.12.1
Higher secondary4.53.43.73.31.21.73.20.50.62.2
Post Leaving Cert8.85.33.94.93.21.62.50.60.41.9
Third level8.26.04.43.42.21.03.70.81.61.5
Other/Not stated4.15.34.53.42.50.35.80.52.60.2
1 Examples include getting access to a GP, access to hospital, access to specialist treatment, etc.
2 Either at a local or national level.
3 New category of discrimination included in the Q1 2019 survey. Examples include reporting a crime, traffic offences, stamping of official documents, being stopped or questioned by An Garda Síochána, etc.
4 Includes 'Not stated'.
5 Includes Black or Black Irish (African and any other Black background), Asian or Asian Irish (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Other mixed group/background - Arab, Mixed, Other.
6 See background notes.
Note: This table allows for multiple responses for perceived grounds for discrimination, therefore the columns do not sum to 100%.

More than one third of women (34.3%) cited Bullying or harassment as the perceived focus of discrimination In the workplace, as did 30.4% of males. Promotion was the second most common perceived focus of workplace discrimination experienced by males (21.6%). For females, Work conditions (19.4%) was the second most common perceived focus of workplace discrimination, followed by Promotion (17.2%). See Table 2.3 and Figure 3.

Table 2.3 Perceived focus of workplace discrimination by sex, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination in the workplace
 MaleFemaleAll persons
State100.0100.0100.0
 
Focus of workplace discrimination
Pay11.814.413.4
Promotion21.617.218.9
Work conditions18.119.418.9
Bullying or harrassment30.434.332.8
Lost job or made redundant4.30.92.2
Other13.713.813.7
PayPromotionWork conditionsBullying or harassmentLost job or made redundantOther
Males11.821.618.130.44.313.7
Females14.417.219.434.30.913.8
All persons13.418.918.932.82.213.7

Looking for work

Similar numbers of males and females experienced discrimination while Looking for work, 4.8% of males and 4.9% of females. One in five (20.1%) of unemployed persons experienced discrimination while Looking for work, as did 10.6% of persons from non-white ethnic backgrounds. One in twelve (8.1%) of persons who identify as LGBTI+ experienced discrimination while Looking for work in the two years prior to interview. See Table 2.2.

In shops, pubs, restaurants and other retail outlets

One in seven (14.4%) of persons from non-white ethnic background experienced discrimination In shops, pubs, restaurants and other retail outletsSee Table 2.2.

There was a higher incidence of discrimination experienced by younger age groups In shops, pubs, restaurants and other retail outlets, with 7.2% of persons aged 18 to 24 years stating that they experienced such discrimination in the two years prior to interview, compared with just 1.4% of persons aged 65 years and over. One in eleven (9.2%) of unemployed persons experienced discrimination in shops, pubs, restaurants and other retail outlets. Just over 7% (7.3%) of persons with a disability cited experiencing this type of discrimination in the two years previous to interview, as did 7.0% of students. See Table 2.2.

Banks, insurance companies or financial institutions

Overall, 3.5% of all persons aged 18 years or over, experienced discrimination in using the services of Banks, insurance companies or financial institutions. The level of this type of discrimination experienced by males and females was the same (3.5%). See Table 2.2.

Accessing health services

At a State level, 2.1% of persons aged 18 years or over experienced discrimination in the previous two years, when Accessing health services, including getting access to a GP, access to hospital, access to specialist treatment, etc. Discrimination experienced in Accessing health services was cited by 4.8% of persons with a disability, while 4.5% of persons who identify as LGBTI+ cited such discrimination. See Table 2.2.

Education

Overall, just 1.5% of persons aged 18 years or over experienced discrimination in Education. Discrimination in Education was lowest for persons with a higher level of educational attainment. Just 1.0% of persons with a third level qualification experienced discrimination in Education, compared with 3.5% of persons whose highest level of educational attainment was Primary or below. See Table 2.2.

Looking for housing or accommodation

One in every twelve (8.1%) of persons of other non-white ethnic background experienced such discrimination. Similarly, 6.6% of non-Irish persons experienced discrimination when seeking housing or accommodation. Persons in the lower age group, 18 to 24 years, experienced the highest levels (5.6%) of discrimination when compared with 1.7% of persons in the 45 to 64 years age group and 0.5% of persons aged 65 or over. See Table 2.2.

Using public transport services

Overall, at a State level, discrimination experienced in Using public transport services was relatively low (0.6%). For persons with a disability, 2.1% cited discrimination in Using public transport services, while 3.5% of persons of other non-white ethnic background stated that they experienced discrimination in using such services. See Table 2.2.

Accessing other public services

Just over 1% (1.2%) of persons aged 18 or over experienced discrimination in Accessing other public services, at a local or national level. Discrimination in Accessing other public services was cited by 4.5% of persons of other non-white ethnic background. Such discrimination was cited by 3.2% of persons with a disability compared with under 1% (0.9%) of persons with no disability. See Table 2.2.

In contact with An Garda Síochána

A new questions category was added to the survey questionnaire in 2019 - discrimination experienced In contact with An Garda Síochána (in the two years previous to interview), such as reporting a crime, traffic offences, stamping of official documents, being stopped or questioned by An Garda Síochána, etc.

Just 1.7% of persons cited experiencing such discrimination in the two years prior to interview. More males than females said that they felt discriminated against In contact with An Garda Síochána, 2.4% of males aged 18 years or over compared with just 1% of females. This type of discrimination was also higher for persons in the 18 to 24 years age group (3.9%) compared with 1.3% of persons in the 45 to 64 years age cohort and 0.5% of persons aged 65 or over. See Table 2.2.

Nearly 7% (6.9%) of unemployed persons cited discrimination In contact with an Garda Síochána in the previous two years. See Table 2.2.

Respondents who experienced discrimination In contact with An Garda Síochána were asked the type of interaction(s) that best described when the discrimination took place. Of persons who experienced such discrimination in the two years prior to interview, Being stopped in a vehicle was the most common interaction type (39.5%), followed by Being stopped in the street (37.5%). One in ten (10.4%) of persons who experienced discrimination from An Garda Síochána stated that they felt discriminated against when Reporting a crime and 18.2% experienced discrimination when Requesting a service at a Garda station or on the streetSee Table 2.4.

Table 2.4 Persons who experienced discrimination in contact with An Garda Síochána by the type of interaction, Q1 2019
% persons aged 18+
Type of interaction1
Reporting a crime10.4
Requesting a service at a Garda station or on the street18.2
Being stopped in the street37.5
Being stopped in a vehicle39.5
Being detained by An Garda Síochána7.5
During a visit to your home by An Garda Síochána9.8
Other216.2
1 More than one type of interaction could be chosen.
2 Includes 'Not stated'

Grounds for discrimination

Over one third (34.1%) of persons who experienced discrimination cited Age as a ground for this discrimination, while 21.9% gave Race/Skin colour/Ethnic group/Nationality as a reason for this discrimination and 18.6% cited Gender. While age, race and gender were the most common grounds identified at an overall level, there were other variations in the most common grounds identified according to each type of discrimination.

Gender (33.0%), Age (25.9%) and Race/skin colour/ethnic group/nationality (22.6%) were the most common grounds identified by people who experienced discrimination In the workplace. Over one third (35.3%) of persons who experienced discrimination when Looking for work gave Age as a ground for this discrimination. Nearly three tenths (29.1%) of persons who experienced discrimination In pubs, shops, restaurants, etc. cited Race/Skin colour/Ethnic group/Nationality as a ground for discrimination, and the same discrimination ground was identified by 35.9% of persons aged 18 years or over in Using public transport services. More than one third (34.7%) of respondents cited Disability as a ground for discrimination that they experienced in Using public transport servicesSee Table 3.1.

Over one in ten (10.5%) of persons who experienced discrimination In contact with An Garda Síochána gave Race/skin colour/ethnic group/nationality as a ground for discrimination, and nearly 7% (6.8%) felt that Membership of the Traveller community was a ground for their perceived discrimination. See Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Persons who experienced discrimination by social setting of discrimination and perceived grounds for discrimination, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 Social setting of discrimination 
 In the workplaceLooking for workPubs restaurants etc.Banks, insurance companies or financial institutionsHealth1Using public transport servicesAccessing other public services2EducationLooking for housing or accommodationContact with An Garda Síochána3Persons who experienced any type of discrimination
Perceived grounds for discrimination
Gender33.015.612.411.50.89.30.86.32.932.618.6
Civil or marital status4.03.91.05.16.80.01.10.04.70.05.0
Family status45.212.13.812.55.31.70.027.49.44.411.7
Religious belief0.22.73.63.76.52.20.04.40.40.03.0
Sexual orientation2.22.830.40.05.25.71.91.40.05.69.1
Age25.935.318.135.216.25.217.338.219.226.234.1
Disability2.81.52.87.12.034.720.36.32.21.24.9
Race/Skin colour/Ethnic group/Nationality22.619.729.115.47.935.931.610.915.410.521.9
Membership of the traveller community0.92.05.70.00.04.62.46.43.66.81.8
Other15.616.29.827.857.46.338.225.112.922.227.5
1 Examples include getting access to a GP, access to hospital, access to specialist treatment, etc.
2 Either at a local or national level.
3 New category of discrimination included in the Q1 2019 survey. Examples include reporting a crime, traffic offences, stamping of official documents, being stopped or questioned by An Garda Síochána, etc.
4 Examples include pregnancy or with children or other dependants.
Note: This table allows for multiple responses for perceived grounds for discrimination, therefore the columns do not sum to 100%.

Overall, 9.1% of persons who experienced any type of discrimination cited Sexual orientation as a perceived ground for this discrimination. This ground for discrimination was felt most by persons who experienced discrimination In shops, pubs, restaurants and other retail outlets (30.4%). See Table 3.1.

When comparing males and females for this discrimination ground, discrimination on the basis of one's Sexual orientation was cited by 9.5% of males and 8.8% of females. See Table 3.2

When comparing the experience of males and females, 29.1% of females stated cited Gender as a ground for discrimination experienced, compared with 7.8% of males. Over one fifth (27.6%) of males believed that Race/Skin colour/Ethnic group/Nationality was a perceived ground for discrimination cited by 28.4% of males, compared with 16% of females. See Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Persons who experienced discrimination by sex, type of discrimination and perceived grounds for discrimination, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 MaleFemaleAll persons
Type of discrimination1
In the workplace27.539.133.6
Looking for work28.426.127.2
In shops, pubs or restaurants23.520.622.0
Banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions20.619.019.8
Education8.98.58.7
Obtaining housing or accommodation21.015.017.9
Accessing health services7.016.512.0
Using transport services3.93.03.4
Accessing public services5.03.84.4
Contact with An Garda Síochána14.45.59.7
 
Grounds for discrimination1
Gender7.829.118.6
Civil or marital status5.64.45.0
Family status29.014.111.7
Age 34.234.134.1
Disability4.85.04.9
Race/Skin colour/Ethnic group/Nationality28.416.021.9
Sexual orientation9.58.89.1
Other332.931.732.2
1 Respondents may choose more than one type of discrimination and ground for discrimination so rows may now add to 100%.
2 Examples include pregnancy or with children or other dependants.
3 Includes categories 'Religious belief', 'Membership of the Traveller Community' and 'Other'.

Frequency of discrimination

For most types of discrimination, the most common experience was that the discrimination happened on a few occasions. As might be expected, discrimination occurred most frequently in areas where people usually have more frequent interaction. Thus the highest incidence of 'more regular' discrimination was In the workplace (25.7%). See Table 4.

Table 4 Persons who experienced discrimination1 by type of discrimination and frequency, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 Frequency of discrimination 
 Just onceOn a few occasionsMore regularlyTotal
Type of discrimination
In the workplace25.449.025.7100.0
Looking for work22.360.916.8100.0
In shops, pubs or restaurants21.757.420.9100.0
Banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions37.150.412.5100.0
Education28.360.411.3100.0
Obtaining housing or accommodation25.555.219.3100.0
Accessing health services40.743.815.5100.0
Using transport services[30.9][51.3][17.8]100.0
Accessing public services[29.7][46.4][24.0]100.0
In contact with on An Garda Síochána37.932.929.3100.0
1 Discrimination experienced in the two years previous to the survey.
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.
Figures in parentheses [ ] indicate percentages based on small numbers, and are, therefore, subject to a wide margin of error
Open in Excel: ED2019Q1 TBL4 (XLS 33KB)
Just onceOn a few occasionsMore regularly
In the workplace25.44925.7
Looking for work22.360.916.8
In shops, pubs or restaurants21.757.420.9
Banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions37.150.412.5
Education28.360.411.3
Obtaining housing or accommodation25.555.219.3
Accessing health services40.743.815.5
Using transport services30.951.317.8
Accessing public services29.746.424
In contact with on An Garda Siochana37.932.929.3

Effect of discrimination

Across each type of discrimination, the most commonly reported impact was that the discrimination had ‘some effect’ on the respondent’s life.  However, the type of discrimination experienced did influence the seriousness of the effect it had on people’s lives. Nearly three tenths (29.2%) of those who experienced discrimination In the workplace said it had a serious effect on their lives, while 31.2% of persons who experienced discrimination In looking for work stated that it had a serious effect on their lives. Nearly one third (31.3%) of persons who experienced discrimination Accessing health services stated the discrimination had a serious effect on their lives. See Table 5.

Table 5 Persons who experienced discrimination1 by type of discrimination and effect on individuals' lives, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
  Effect on individuals' lives 
  Little or no effectSome effectSerious effectVery serious effectTotal
Type of discrimination
In the workplace 16.341.429.213.1100.0
Looking for work 20.540.031.28.3100.0
In shops, pubs or restaurants 39.735.520.93.9100.0
Banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions 21.942.224.911.0100.0
Education 20.636.625.916.9100.0
Obtaining housing or accommodation 20.533.428.217.9100.0
Accessing health services 18.436.231.314.1100.0
Using transport services [28.8][51.4][10.6][9.2]100.0
Accessing public services [9.3][41.8][40.1][8.8]100.0
In contact with on An Garda Síochána 8.345.429.417.0100.0
1Discrimination experienced in the two years previous to the survey.
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.
Figures in parentheses [ ] indicate percentages based on small numbers, and are, therefore, subject to a wide margin of error
Open in Excel: ED2019Q1 TBL5 (XLS 33KB)

Knowledge of rights and action taken

Nearly one eighth (11.8%) of all persons aged 18 or over, including those who did not experienced discrimination, had no knowledge or understanding of their rights under Irish equality legislation, compared with 31.4% who have a good understanding. Nearly six in ten (56.8%) had a moderate understanding of their rights. See Table 6.1.

Of those who experienced discrimination, almost one third (32.3%) had a very good understanding of their rights. Understanding of rights under Irish equality law was greatest for persons with a higher level of educational attainment. Just over 46% (46.3%) of persons with third level education and 35.2% or persons with post Leaving Cert standard had the greatest level of understanding of their rights. Persons who identify as LGBTI+ also had a very good understanding of their rights, 42% compared with 31.7% of non-LGBTI+ persons. See Table 6.2.

Of those persons who experienced discrimination and at the same time, had a very good understanding of their rights, the majority (62.3%) of persons , took no action, while 27.1% took verbal action and spoke with for example, their manager, service provider, a support organization, Citizens’ Information, or Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), etc. See Table 6.4.

At an overall level, irrespective of one's knowledge of their rights, just 3% of persons who experienced discrimination made an official complaint (such as to the Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission (IHREC), Workplace Relations Commission (WRC), Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (GSOC), etc.) or took legal action, while 1.7% contacted An Garda Síochána. See Table 6.4.

Table 6.1 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by knowledge of their rights under Irish equality legislation, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Knowledge of rights
 No understanding Understand a little Understand a lot
State11.8 56.8 31.4
 
Discrimination
Reported experiencing discrimination8.3 50.4 41.3
Reported no experience of discrimination12.7 58.7 28.6
 
Region
Border, Midland, Western 15.6 53.7 30.7
Eastern & Southern5.8 61.6 32.7
 
Sex
Male14.2 64.1 21.7
Female9.8 50.6 39.7
 
Age group
18-2415.8 66.8 17.4
25-4413.3 53.4 33.4
45-646.9 54.8 38.3
65+12.7 62.6 24.7
 
Principal Economic Status
At work9.4 53.8 36.8
Unemployed16.9 61.8 21.3
Student11.5 67.1 21.5
Home duties21.1 50.4 28.5
Retired13.0 60.5 26.5
Others14.8 57.7 27.5
 
Nationality
Irish9.8 57.4 32.9
Non-Irish19.5 54.6 25.9
 
Disability
Yes13.9 51.4 34.7
No11.3 58.0 30.7
 
Religion
Catholic10.9 62.6 26.5
Others113.0 48.6 38.4
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds11.8 56.2 32.0
Other ethnic backgrounds211.9 63.4 24.7
 
LGBTI+3     
LGBTI+26.4 41.5 32.2
Non-LGBTI+13.1 55.6 31.4
      
Highest education level attained
Primary or below23.4 66.0 10.6
Lower secondary12.0 61.3 26.7
Higher secondary10.6 76.0 13.4
Post leaving cert8.6 57.8 33.7
Third level11.3 42.3 46.4
Not stated16.4 65.5 18.1
1 Includes not stated.
2 Includes Black or Black Irish (African and any other Black background), Asian or Asian Irish (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Other mixed group/background - Arab, Mixed, Other.
3 See background notes
Table 6.2 Persons aged 18 years and over who experienced discrimination classified by knowledge of their rights under Irish equality legislation, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 Knowledge of rights
 No understandingUnderstand a littleUnderstand a lot
State11.556.332.3
 
Region
Border, Midland, Western 15.453.131.6
Eastern & Southern5.461.133.5
 
Sex
Male13.462.723.9
Female9.750.539.8
 
Age group
18-2415.166.418.6
25-4412.654.532.9
45-646.852.940.3
65+14.757.827.5
 
Nationality
Irish9.556.933.6
Non-Irish18.154.027.9
 
Disability
Yes14.152.633.4
No10.957.032.1
 
Religion
Catholic10.561.228.3
Others112.849.337.9
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds11.455.633.0
Other ethnic backgrounds212.463.224.4
 
LGBTI+3
LGBTI+10.647.442.0
Non-LGBTI+11.556.831.7
 
Highest education level attained
Primary or below22.565.212.2
Lower secondary12.359.228.4
Higher secondary10.275.514.3
Post leaving cert9.355.635.2
Third level10.443.346.3
Not stated18.561.120.4
1 Includes not stated.
2 Includes Black or Black Irish (African and any other Black background), Asian or Asian Irish (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Other mixed group/background - Arab, Mixed, Other.
3 See background notes.
Table 6.3 Persons who experienced discrimination in the past two years by action taken, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 Action taken
 Verbal action1Written action2Official complaint3 or legal actionContacted An Garda Síochána4No action taken
State21.310.23.01.770.4
 
Region
Border, Midland and Western 23.29.52.71.869.4
Southern and Eastern18.411.23.41.571.9
 
Sex
Male14.210.63.52.775.8
Female27.69.82.50.865.6
 
Age group
18-2413.72.22.20.784.2
25-4422.113.63.41.966.9
45-6425.310.63.22.465.8
65+17.85.11.10.079.3
 
Principal Economic Status
At work22.513.23.52.467.6
Unemployed12.27.93.31.375.8
Student22.98.31.20.075.5
Home duties20.90.02.40.076.7
Retired19.65.40.00.578.7
Others23.46.75.52.961.4
 
Nationality
Irish21.811.13.61.969.4
Non-Irish19.97.01.11.273.7
 
Disability
Yes22.57.04.81.966.5
No21.110.82.61.771.2
 
Religion
Catholic20.99.42.61.072.0
Others521.911.23.52.768.1
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds20.510.23.31.570.9
Other ethnic backgrounds30.49.30.04.364.5
 
LGBTI+6
LGBTI+39.93.21.60.055.3
Non-LGBTI+20.110.63.11.871.4
 
Highest education level attained
Primary or below17.85.50.04.273.1
Lower secondary15.76.13.23.676.5
Higher secondary13.24.83.30.480.1
Post leaving cert20.811.13.53.170.2
Third level27.711.52.51.465.7
Not stated22.231.66.20.051.6
1Examples include verbally to one's manager, a service provider, a support organization, Citizens’ Information, Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), etc.
2Examples include in writing to one's manager, a service provider, a support organization, etc.
3Examples include the Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission (IHREC), Workplace Relations Commission (WRC), Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (GSOC), etc.
4'Contacted An Garda Síochána' was added as an action taken in the Q1 2019 Equality survey .
5Includes 'Not stated'.
6See Background notes.     
Note: More than one type of action taken may be given by respondents so rows may not sum to 100%.
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.
Table 6.4 Persons aged 18 years and over who experienced discrimination in the previous two years classified by action taken and knowledge of rights under Irish equality legislation, Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+ who experienced discrimination
 Action Taken
Verbal action1Written action2Official complaint3 or legal actionContacted An Garda SíochánaNo action taken
State21.310.23.01.770.4
 
Knowledge of rights
No understanding16.44.70.41.278.1
Understand a little19.09.73.22.273.4
Understand a lot27.113.03.61.162.3
1 Examples include verbally to one's manager, a service provider, a support organization, Citizens’ Information, Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), etc.
2 Examples include in writing to one's manager, a service provider, a support organization, etc.
3 Examples include the Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission (IHREC), Workplace Relations Commission (WRC), Residential Tenancies Board (RTB), Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (GSOC), etc.
Note: More than one type of action may be given by respondents so rows may not sum to 100%.
X-axis labelNo understandingUnderstand a littleUnderstand a lot
Verbal action16.419.0227.07
Written action4.669.6812.96
Official complaint or legal action0.363.23.57
Contacted An Garda Siochana1.222.151.12
No action taken78.1473.462.34

Discrimination levels over time

The survey instrument used to carry out the Equality and Discrimination survey has changed since the survey was last carried out in Quarter 3 2014. Previously it was carried out as a module of the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). The Labour Force Survey (LFS) has now replaced the QNHS. With this change, surveys previously carried out as modules of the QNHS, are now carried out for the most part in the General Household Survey (GHS). This change has affected sample size. The achieved sample size for the Quarter 1 2019 survey was 3,971 respondents.  Annex 1 below details sample sizes for the Equality and Discrimination survey in Quarter 4 2010, Quarter 3 2014 and most recently in Quarter 1 2019. See Annex 1.

Annex 1 Unweighted sample of persons aged 18 years or over by their experience of discrimination, Q4 2010, Q3 2014 and Q1 2019
Unweighted sample of persons 18+
 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 2019
State16,82114,8683,971
 
Region
Border Midland and Western4,6543,9722,100
Eastern and Southern12,16710,8961,871
 
Sex
Male6,5865,8851,848
Female10,2358,9832,123
 
Age group
18-24854583383
25-446,9145,6181,382
45-645,6765,2981,429
65+3,3773,369777
 
Principal economic status
At work7,9947,4382,225
Unemployed1,5211,126180
Student570414299
Home duties3,8312,797385
Retired2,2002,384657
Other705709225
 
Nationality
Irish national15,17013,4343,512
Non-Irish1,6511,434459
 
Disability
Yes2,0122,165568
No 14,80912,7033,403
 
Religion
Roman Catholic14,58512,3083,047
Other2,2362,560924
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds16,39114,3913,828
Other ethnic backgrounds430477143
 
Highest level of education attained
Primary or below3,1322,546444
Lower secondary2,4361,932573
Higher secondary3,6983,104929
Post Leaving Cert1,8741,878512
Third level5,3035,1451,296
Other/Not stated378263217

The table Annex 2 below provides results on discrimination levels from the last three Equality and Discrimination surveys in Quarter 4 2010, Quarter 3 2014 and Quarter 1 2019.

Experience of discrimination (within the two years prior to interview) has increased by almost six percentage points in Quarter 1 2019, compared with Quarter 3 2014, when the survey was last carried out. Care should be taken in interpreting this increase. There are a number of factors that may have contributed to this increase in discrimination experienced, including the following:

  • In the Q1 2019 Equality and Discrimination survey, an additional category of discrimination was included – discrimination experienced ‘In contact with An Garda Síochána. This category of discrimination was not included in previous years’ surveys. Annex 2 below details discrimination levels both with this category included and excluded from the analysis. See Annex 2.
  • Increase in knowledge of rights. See Annex 3.
Annex 2 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by their reported experience of discrimination in the past two years, Q4 2010, Q3 2014 and Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Experienced discrimination
 Yes No
 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 20191Q1 20192 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 20191
State11.711.817.717.0 87.588.382.3
 
Region         
Border, Midland and Western 11.711.321.019.6 88.988.379.0
Southern and Eastern11.712.014.213.8 87.088.385.8
 
Sex        
Male11.511.016.615.8 88.589.083.4
Female11.812.618.818.3 88.287.481.2
 
Age group        
18-2413.413.223.922.3 86.686.876.1
25-4413.413.120.519.5 86.686.979.5
45-6411.912.715.014.5 88.187.385.0
65+5.36.111.210.5 94.793.988.8
 
Principal Economic Status        
At work10.610.817.116.3 89.489.282.9
Unemployed22.023.530.229.8 78.076.569.8
Student13.313.521.920.2 86.786.578.1
Home duties9.99.914.114.9 90.190.185.9
Retired5.77.112.411.4 94.392.987.6
Others18.317.624.123.3 81.782.475.9
         
Nationality        
Irish10.511.116.315.5 89.588.983.7
Non-Irish20.517.026.725.7 79.583.073.3
 
Disability        
Yes14.116.424.123.8 83.883.675.9
No11.511.116.716.1 88.588.983.3
 
Religion        
Catholic10.610.914.013.3 89.489.186.0
Others217.915.628.527.4 82.184.471.5
 
Ethnicity        
White ethnic backgrounds11.111.217.016.3 88.988.883.0
Other ethnic backgrounds28.927.833.132.6 71.172.266.9
 
Highest education level attained        
Primary or below8.09.812.512.0 92.190.287.5
Lower secondary12.012.113.213.1 88.087.986.8
Higher secondary10.711.216.214.6 89.388.883.8
Post leaving cert14.713.620.220.0 85.386.479.8
Third level12.712.320.820.0 87.387.779.2
Not stated15.411.417.817.7 84.688.682.2
1Discrimination experienced 'In contact with an Garda Síochána' was included as a type of discrimination in the Q1 2019 Equality survey.
2 Discrimination excluding discrimination experienced In contact with An Garda Síochána.
3 Includes 'Not stated'.
Data may be subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values, or estimates of change.

Increase in knowledge of rights

There has also been a marked increase in awareness and knowledge of rights. See Annex 3.

Annex 3 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by knowledge of their rights under Irish equality law, Q4 2010, Q3 2014 and Q1 2019
% of persons aged 18+
 Knowledge of rights
 No understanding Understand a little Understand a lot
 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 2019 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 2019 Q4 2010Q3 2014Q1 2019
State17.618.711.8 52.455.356.8 30.026.031.4
 
Discrimination
Reported experiencing discrimination22.120.68.3 46.952.550.4 31.026.841.3
Reported no experience of discrimination17.018.512.7 53.155.658.7 29.925.928.6
 
Region
Border, Midland, Western 20.922.515.6 52.655.353.7 26.522.230.7
Eastern & Southern16.417.45.8 52.355.261.6 31.327.332.7
 
Sex
Male15.818.514.2 53.254.564.1 31.027.021.7
Female19.319.09.8 51.656.050.6 29.125.039.7
 
Age group
18-2420.724.615.8 56.752.766.8 22.622.717.4
25-4415.117.113.3 52.956.053.4 32.026.933.4
45-6415.715.46.9 50.355.754.8 34.128.938.3
65+26.125.312.7 52.154.262.6 21.820.524.7
 
Principal Economic Status
At work12.214.49.4 51.855.553.8 35.930.136.8
Unemployed20.525.716.9 55.055.561.8 24.818.821.3
Student18.520.711.5 55.549.767.1 25.929.621.5
Home duties26.624.821.1 52.558.550.4 20.816.728.5
Retired20.520.213.0 50.853.960.5 28.725.926.5
Others28.929.614.8 50.151.857.7 21.118.627.5
 
Nationality
Irish16.517.59.8 52.755.757.4 30.826.832.9
Non-Irish27.328.119.5 49.952.254.6 22.819.725.9
         
Disability
Yes28.228.913.9 51.554.251.4 20.316.934.7
No17.417.311.3 52.355.458.0 29.927.330.7
            
Religion
Catholic17.618.410.9 52.656.362.6 29.825.326.5
Others118.520.313.0 50.951.048.6 30.528.738.4
 
Ethnicity
White ethnic backgrounds17.518.311.8 52.555.456.2 30.126.232.0
Other ethnic backgrounds27.429.511.9 48.750.663.4 23.919.924.7
 
Highest education level attained
Primary or below32.832.123.4 53.054.766.0 14.213.210.6
Lower secondary21.222.712.0 54.760.261.3 24.117.126.7
Higher secondary16.217.410.6 54.758.776.0 29.123.913.4
Post leaving cert17.718.68.6 55.158.557.8 27.223.033.7
Third level9.512.211.3 48.350.542.3 42.137.246.4
Not stated24.431.316.4 51.149.365.5 24.519.418.1
1 Includes not stated.           

Background Notes

Purpose of survey

The Equality and Discrimination Survey was carried out in Quarter 1 2019.  The questionnaire referred to discrimination experienced in the two years previous to the survey taking place.

Reference period

The Equality and Discrimination Survey was carried out in the three months from January to March in 2019.

Questionnaire design

The Equality and Discrimination Survey was last carried out in Quarter 3 2014, when it was carried out as a module of the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). An equality module was also included on the QNHS in the fourth quarter of 2010 and 2004.  However, it should be noted that in 2009, the QNHS moved from seasonal to calendar quarters.  Therefore, the 2004 survey was conducted from September to November.

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017. With this change, modules previously carried out as modules of the QNHS, are now carried out as part of the General Household Survey (GHS). The GHS is a national survey that place takes place three or four times each year. The survey usually has a core of common demographic questions that are always asked (e.g. age, sex, education, etc.). Each survey also has a specific theme: for example, in the second half of 2017, the survey measured participation rates of adults in further education; in the first quarter of 2018 the GHS covered the Cross Border Shopping Survey and the ICT Household Survey, and in Quarter2 and 3 of 2018, the GHS covered the HFCS (Household Financial Consumption Survey).

Here below are the topics we have covered so far:

Year Quarter Topic
2017 Q3 & Q4 Adult Education Survey
2018 Q1

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Cross Border Shopping

  Q2 Household Financial Consumption Survey (HFCS)
  Q3 Household Financial Consumption Survey (HFCS)
  Q4 Household Financial Consumption Survey (HFCS)
2019 Q1

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Equality and Discrimination Survey

  Q2

European Health Interview Survey

You can find more information here: https://www.cso.ie/en/aboutus/takingpartinasurvey/surveysofhouseholdsindividuals/generalhouseholdsurvey/

Discrimination

The questionnaire focused on discrimination based on the ten grounds set out above, as defined in Irish equality legislation. Under Irish law, discrimination takes place when one person or a group of persons are treated less favourably than others because of their:

  • Gender
  • Civil status
  • Family status
  • Religion
  • Sexual orientation
  • Age
  • Disability
  • Race (including colour, nationality, ethnic or national origins)
  • Membership of the Traveller community
  • and/or Housing assistance in relation to the provision of residential accommodation

When the term discrimination was used in this questionnaire, it referred to this legal definition only.

The ten types of discrimination examined in the survey were ‘In the Workplace', 'Looking for Work', 'In places like shops, pubs or restaurants', 'Using services of banks, insurance companies or financial institutions', ‘Education’, 'Obtaining housing or accommodation', 'Accessing health services’, ‘Using transport services', 'Accessing public services' and ‘Any contact with’An Garda Síochána’. The latter category was a new addition to the Equality and Discrimination Survey carried out in Q1 2019, and was not asked in previous Equality modules.

Respondents were shown the following definition of discrimination before they began the questionnaire:

If you believe you were treated less favourably than someone else but it was for another reason (e.g. your qualifications, being over an income limit or because you are further back in a queue for something), this is not considered discrimination under Irish law.

Sexual identity and gender identity

In the Q1 2019 Equality and discrimination survey, new questions on sexual identity and gender identity were included. Due to the personal and sensitive nature of these questions, they were included in a self completion part of the questionnaire that was completed by the respondents only. Also included in this self completion section were questions on ethnicity, religion, nationality and marital status.

The questions asked on gender identity and sexual identity were as follows:

Questions on gender identity

Which of the following describes how you think of yourself?

  1. Male
  2. Female
  3. Other (please specify)

Does the gender you were assigned at birth correspond to your current gender identity?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Question on sexual identity/orientation

Which of the following options best describes how you think of yourself?

  1. Heterosexual / Straight (Attracted to persons of the opposite sex)
  2. Bisexual (Attracted to persons of both sexes)
  3. Gay / Lesbian (Attracted to persons of the same sex)
  4. Asexual (Not attracted to other people)
  5. Other(s) (please specify)
  6. Questioning/Unsure

These questions were developed in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders in Ireland and in line with international best practice.

Results from these questions allowed for data to be collated on LGBTI+ prevalence levels. In the tables in this statistical release, LGBTI+ denotes persons who answered 'yes' to any of options 2 to 6 in the question on sexual identity/orientation above and/or 'no' to the question on gender identity Does the gender you were assigned at birth correspond to your current gender identity? Refusal to answer is excluded.

Anti-discrimination legislation

The Equal Status Acts 2000-2015 address direct and indirect discrimination in the provision of goods and services on ten specific grounds including Sexual Orientation. The legislation is designed to promote equality and prohibit discrimination (direct, indirect and by association) and victimisation: it also allows for positive measures to ensure full equality across the ten grounds.

The Employment Equality Acts 1998–2015 outlaw discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment-related areas. These include recruitment and promotion; equal pay; working conditions; training or experience; dismissal and harassment including sexual harassment. The legislation defines discrimination as treating one person in a less favourable way than another person based on any of the following nine grounds: Age; Gender; Sexual Orientation; Civil Status; Family Status; Religious Belief; Disability; Race; colour, nationality, ethnic, or national origins; Membership of the Travelling Community.

As provided for in The Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission Act 2014, all public bodies in Ireland have a responsibility to promote equality, prevent discrimination and protect the human rights of their employees, customers, service users and everyone affected by their policies and plans. This is a legal obligation, called the Public Sector Equality and Human Rights Duty.

The tenth ground ‘Housing assistance in relation to the provision of residential accommodation’ is a new discriminatory ground, introduced on 1st January 2016, in the Equality (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2015. This means that discrimination in the provision of accommodation or related service and amenities against people in receipt of rent supplement, housing assistance payments or other social welfare payments is prohibited. Note that this new tenth ground only applies in the provision of accommodation.

Survey coverage

The Equality and Discrimination Survey was collected directly from private households. Institutional households, (e.g. nursing homes, barracks, boarding schools, hotels etc.) are not covered by the survey. A household is defined as a single person or group of people who usually reside together in the same accommodation and who share the same catering arrangements. The household members are not necessarily related by blood or marriage.

A person is defined as a "Usual Resident" of a private household if he or she:

  • Lives regularly at the dwelling in question, and
  • Shares the main living accommodation (i.e. kitchen, living room or bathroom) with the other members of the household.

Data collection

The data was collected by a team of up to one hundred Field Interviewers and ten Field coordinators (each with a team of ten interviewers). Interviewers were provided with a map of each of their interview areas as well as a listing of the address of each of the selected households. These interviewers also working on CSO surveys such as the Survey on Income and Living Conditions and the Labour Force Survey. Interviewers received a manual with information such as detailed explanations about the questionnaire, definitions of the concepts involved and examples.

It was conducted using a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). This enabled the use of extensive checks in the BLAISE interviewing software to make sure correct and coherent data was collected.

One person from each household was selected. Information was collected directly from respondents - proxy responses from other members of the household were not accepted.

Sample design

The sample for the General Household Survey (GHS) is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index (quintile). A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

The total selected sample size for the Equality and Discrimination Survey was 9,000 households.

The survey results were weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality totals.

Derivation of results

To provide national population results, the survey results were weighted to represent the entire population of 16 to 74-year olds. The survey results were weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age group, sex and region and were also calibrated to nationality totals.

Household weights were calculated for all households in the initial sample. The design weights are computed as the inverse of the selection probability of the unit. The purpose of design weights is to eliminate the bias induced by unequal selection probabilities.

These design weights were then adjusted for non-response. This eliminated the bias introduced by discrepancies caused by non-response, particularly critical when the non-responding households are different from the responding ones in respect to some survey variables as this may create substantial bias in the estimates. Design weights are adjusted for non-response by dividing the design weights of each responding unit in the final/achieved sample by the (weighted) response probability of the corresponding group or strata.

To obtain the final household weights for the results, after the previous steps were carried out, the distribution of households by deprivation, NUTS3 region, sex and age was calibrated to the population of households in Quarter 1 2019 (as derived from the LFS Survey). The CALMAR2-macro, developed by INSEE, was used for this purpose.

Note on tables

The sum of row or column percentages in the tables in this report may not add to 100.0% due to rounding.

Percentage breakdowns exclude cases where the interviewee did not respond.

Disclosure control

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Reliability of estimates presented

Data are subject to sampling and other survey errors, which are relatively greater in respect of smaller values.

Classifications used:

Principal economic status classification

The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation regarding employment and given the following response categories:

At work

Unemployed

Student

Engaged on home duties

Retired

Other

Highest level of education attained

This classification is derived from a single question and refers to educational standards that have been attained and can be compared in some measurable way and it is included in the core QNHS on an ongoing basis.

The question is phrased as follows:

What is the highest level of education or training you have attained?

Degree of urbanisation

This classification is created from an aggregation of population density estimates derived from the Census of Population. The categories included in each aggregate are explained below:

Thinly populated area refers to rural areas

Intermediate density area refers to towns and suburbs

Densely populated area refers to cities, urban centres and urban areas.

Region

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) were created by Eurostat in order to define territorial units for the production of regional statistics across the European Union. In 2003 the NUTS classification was established within a legal framework (Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003).

As the administrative territorial breakdown of EU Member States is the basis of the NUTS classification, changes made under the 2014 Local Government Act prompted a revision to the Irish NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 Regions. These changes included the amalgamation of the local authorities of Tipperary North and South, Limerick City and County Councils and Waterford City and County Councils. In addition three Regional Assemblies were established (Northern & Western, Southern, Eastern & Midland).

The main changes at NUTS 3 level are the transfer of South Tipperary from the South-East into the Mid-West NUTS 3 region and the movement of Louth from the Border to the Mid-East NUTS 3 Region. There are now three NUTS 2 Regions which correspond to the Regional Assemblies established in the 2014 Local Government Act and are groupings of the new NUTS 3 Regions. The revisions made to the NUTS boundaries have been given legal status under Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/2066. The new NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 structure and classification are displayed in the table below:

NUTS2 Code
NUTS 2 Name
NUTS3 Code
NUTS 3 Name
 County 
IE04
Northern & Western
IE041
Border
Donegal
Sligo
Leitrim
Cavan
Monaghan
IE042
West
Galway
Mayo
Roscommon
IE05
Southern
IE051
Mid-West
Clare
Tipperary
Limerick
IE052
South-East
Waterford
Kilkenny
Carlow
Wexford
IE053
South-West
Cork
Kerry
IE06
Eastern & Midland 
IE061
Dublin
Dublin
IE062
Mid-East
Wicklow
Kildare
Meath
Louth
IE063
Midlands
Longford
Westmeath
Offaly
Laois

Disability

Respondents are classified as having a disability if they indicate that they have any of the long-lasting conditions or difficulties listed in the following question:

Do you have any of the following long-lasting conditions or difficulties?

  • Blindness or a serious vision impairment
  • Deafness or a serious hearing impairment
  • A difficulty with basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting or carrying
  • An intellectual disability
  • A difficulty with learning, remembering or concentrating
  • A psychological or emotional condition
  • A difficulty with pain, breathing, or any other chronic illness or condition
  • None

 

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