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For more information on this release:
E-mail: environment@cso.ie Dympna Corry (+353) 1 4984207 Berna Lawlor (+353) 1 4984210
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 On-line ISSN 2009-7441
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Domestic Building Energy Ratings

Quarter 3 2019

Table A: Number of BERs by Quarter 2015-2019
number
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4Total
201521,44923,30723,67824,94293,376
201619,66522,79521,26123,02586,746
201720,12523,00222,34322,14587,615
201818,18523,03321,89622,32585,439
201919,82423,36824,939 68,131

13.9% increase in BER audits in July-September 2019

Figure 1: BER Audits by Period of Construction
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There were 24,939 Building Energy Rating (BER) audits reported in quarter three 2019 compared with 21,896 in July to September 2018 (see Table A and Table 1). This is an increase of 13.9% and could be due to factors such as an increase in new dwellings, updating of old BER certificates, and new renovation work.

Dwellings built in 2015-2019 were considerably more energy efficient than in earlier periods with 97% given an “A” rating compared with 36% in 2010-2014 and 1% in 2005-2009 (see Figure 1).

Dublin County had the highest combined “A” and “B” rating at 29% (see Table 4). Roscommon had the lowest proportion of combined “A” and “B” rating at 7%.

Dublin 18, with an average dwelling age of 18 years, had the highest proportion of combined “A” and “B” rating at 42% (see Table 5). The average age of dwellings in Dublin 15 that have had a BER audit done was 17 years, but the combined "A" and "B" rating was much lower at 29% than in Dublin 18. The highest proportion of combined “F” and “G” rating was 26% for Dublin 7.

Mains gas was the main space heating fuel used in 54% of the dwellings completed during 2015-2019 and with a BER audit. This was a substantial increase from 2000-2004 when 41% of dwellings with a BER audit used mains gas. There were contrasting trends for heating oil and electricity with 36% of 2000-2004 built dwellings using heating oil compared with 5% for dwellings built in 2015-2019. In contrast usage of electricity increased from 19% in 2000-2004 to 41% in 2015-2019 (see Table 9).

The average floor area of all dwellings with a BER audit was 111 square metres (see Table 11). This average size varied from 157 square metres for detached houses to 57 square metres for basement dwellings.

Table 14 examines dwellings that have had more than one BER audit carried out. In their earliest assessment only 5% of dwellings received either an “A” or “B” rating compared with 19% in their most recent assessment. In contrast, 20% of dwellings were rated “F” or "G" in their first BER assessment compared with only 5% in their latest BER assessment (see Table 14 and Figure 2).

EarliestLatest
A01
B101
B214
B3413
C1818
C21016
C31213
D11411
D2139
E195
E283
F93
G112
Earliest BER ratingsLatest BER ratings
A00
B101
B214
B3412
C1717
C2916
C31213
D11412
D2149
E1105
E283
F93
G122

Table 15 examines the representativeness of dwellings that have a BER. The data were weighted up to national level using Census of Population 2011 figures. The national level data shows that 6% of dwellings in Ireland would have received a rating of “F” compared with 5% of dwellings that have had a BER assessment (see also Figure 3). Similarly, 9% of dwellings would have received a rating of "G" compared with 7% of dwellings in the actual BER data. In contrast, 3% of dwellings would have received an "A" rating at the national level, whereas 5% of dwellings that have had a BER assessment were given an "A" rating.

National DataBER Database
A35
B111
B223
B367
C11011
C21213
C31313
D11312
D21211
E176
E265
F65
G97
National DataBER database
A23
B111
B223
B367
C11011
C21213
C31313
D11313
D21211
E177
E265
F65
G97

1Dwellings with BERs have been weighted using Census of Population 2011 data to estimate a BER profile for All Dwellings at National level (see Background Notes). 

201720182019
Jan5.6865.1715.576
Feb6.8116.4976.965
Mar7.6286.5177.283
Apr7.1367.0537.315
May8.1788.398.41
Jun7.6887.597.643
Jul7.1227.5118.434
Aug7.257.1578.325
Sept7.9717.2288.18
Oct8.0658.314
Nov8.3978.27
Dec5.6835.741
Table 1 Domestic BER Certificates (2009-2019) 1
number
Period20092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Total
January4,1024,6778,5676,5306,9697,0066,5255,2595,6865,1715,57666,068
February6,3255,6319,0276,3108,5287,5417,6606,8666,8116,4976,96578,161
March8,7696,1578,9456,5148,2088,3867,2647,5407,6286,5177,28383,211
April8,0465,4837,7774,4428,2988,7357,5917,3947,1367,0537,31579,270
May7,9275,4788,8795,8768,6468,7297,7157,9558,1788,3908,41086,183
June8,7325,7997,4654,8627,2628,2188,0017,4467,6887,5907,64380,706
July8,7715,9467,2585,5357,1009,3967,6756,5607,1227,5118,43481,308
August7,2686,4307,5355,0456,9758,1667,6487,0297,2507,1578,32578,828
September7,5217,4268,8524,9728,2799,9208,3557,6727,9717,2288,18086,376
October6,5898,4039,5656,6928,97910,7709,2217,9298,0658,314 84,527
November6,96811,6059,6158,8029,60110,8958,4109,0188,3978,270 91,581
December6,3378,0129,4736,3626,9357,7777,3116,0785,6835,741 69,709
             
Total87,35581,047102,95871,94295,780105,53993,37686,74687,61585,43968,131965,928
1 Includes all Certificates for Dwellings
Table 2 BERs by Period of Construction (2009-2019)
% of row 
Period of ConstructionEnergy Rating Total
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
1700-18990012234710910143722,097
1900-19290012234710910143747,704
1930-19490013457912910132541,598
1950-1966001356811141111131764,636
1967-19770013691115171199883,365
1978-198200148131518181064354,437
1983-19930014913161918854390,952
1994-199900151116192014643198,668
2000-200400281722211484221154,569
2005-200913102124189642110144,870
2010-20143628171042111000010,944
2015-2019972100000000039,730
               
Total513711131312116557853,570
– No dwelling received this BER for this period of construction
Table 3 BERs by Type of Dwelling (2009-2019)
% of row 
Dwelling TypeEnergy Rating Total
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
Apartment14111312710101065564,105
Ground-floor apartment31371111111213975747,500
Mid-floor apartment651012121211118433356,956
Top-floor apartment31481091012138651048,685
Basement Dwelling122657871110931254
Maisonette32712131110101153479,027
House12491214141211544836,113
Detached house4127111313121165510232,722
Semi-detached house711512151514116554231,015
End of terrace house81151113121211766864,002
Mid-terrace house513813131111107667123,191
               
Total513711131312116557853,570
– No dwelling received this BER for this dwelling type
Table 4 BERs by County (2009-2019)
% of row  
CountyEnergy Rating Average age
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FGTotal
Carlow31271215131410555711,68930
Dublin 01-24614710111112127666190,95137
Dublin County152481112111110544463,21027
Kildare121271214141310533435,83023
Kilkenny21271213131311655813,72435
Laois1139121514119666813,05130
Longford1227121312141165797,12828
Louth6239161512118534624,30231
Meath13138151612107433530,84923
Offaly112510131211118881111,25834
Westmeath11271013151411656915,61431
Wexford31251014151512755828,00429
Wicklow91271112121211655724,67132
Clare2126913151412765822,21932
Cork City32481212111211866722,95045
Cork County41411151411109544774,83032
Kerry21371112131312755827,55430
Limerick City31251214141412655714,22037
Limerick County31261114151412655723,79432
Tipperary112510121313127671127,99940
Waterford City4126121314151264459,40336
Waterford County41261213131412645713,28835
Galway City31261013161613755412,97325
Galway County21271114141311655834,22128
Leitrim00261214131110667126,45632
Mayo21259131514126561022,78932
Roscommon101511151512107561210,21333
Sligo21271012131312866913,56231
Cavan1139151612119655912,73328
Donegal11261315141311655825,96230
Monaghan3238121112131275588,12335
                
Total513711131312116557853,57032
Table 5 BERs by Dublin Postal District (2009-2019)
% of row  
Dublin Postal DistrictEnergy Rating Average age
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FGTotal
Dublin 1225791011131386587,56932
Dublin 2936781011131075564,59333
Dublin 3202688910129810137,83856
Dublin 4314791010131387779,85844
Dublin 53125810111513108868,09343
Dublin 651346781113989168,15558
Dublin 6W51268810121298994,47750
Dublin 71013799121399101610,90658
Dublin 81258891012138781113,12646
Dublin 9703781091113988810,05245
Dublin 103025131513121176763,65245
Dublin 1152612131111109655410,72731
Dublin 12212478101213101011109,44154
Dublin 13161410101010111065436,87027
Dublin 1483578910111286659,07437
Dublin 15141410141513129421120,11317
Dublin 1610148111312131264428,41427
Dublin 175161015191413842214,18525
Dublin 181061115151298732119,80918
Dublin 208379888121396542,18731
Dublin 223014101515171785326,82228
Dublin 2491261214141412643114,99022
                
Total614710111112127666190,95137
Table 6 BERs by Main Space Heating Fuel (2009-2019)
% of row  
Fuel TypeEnergy Rating Total
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
Mains Gas624111516131194332336,747
Bulk LPG2261721181386321112,011
Bottled LPG113914141212115559989
Heating Oil112712151615126555317,812
Electricity131123681214107715131,351
Coal00011412141419353,369
Smokeless Fuel00001412151317385,935
Peat0011310131217421,472
Wood Pellets & Chips2510191416117532321,432
Wood Logs4222234101310101029605
Solid Multi-Fuel00000127131413153530,187
               
Total513712131312116557841,910
– No dwelling received this BER for this main space heating fuel type
Table 7 BERs by Main Water Heating Fuel (2009-2019)
             % of row 
Fuel TypeEnergy Rating Total
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
Mains Gas624111616131194332334,945
Bulk LPG2261721181396221111,963
Bottled LPG0039141512101165581,094
Heating Oil112712151615126555315,277
Electricity12112368121497717138,035
Coal0001112513151619273,256
Smokeless Fuel0011414161519305,233
Peat0012411131317391,494
Wood Pellets & Chips3611201315117632321,416
Wood Logs3213335111310101025557
Solid Multi-Fuel00000127141414163028,640
               
Total513712131312116557841,910
– No dwelling received this BER for this main water heating fuel type
Table 8 Main Space Heating Fuel by County (2009-2019)
% of row    
CountyFuel Type 
Mains GasHeating OilElectricitySolid FuelLPGTotal
Carlow3645126211,681
Dublin 01-247362110184,290
Dublin County7611121060,979
Kildare4835133135,705
Kilkenny2951108213,665
Laois3245814113,024
Longford263201237,063
Louth573372124,029
Meath4838113130,825
Offaly11551023111,137
Westmeath14541613315,559
Wexford1701610327,873
Wicklow4338135124,554
Clare13581611322,174
Cork City729172022,799
Cork County3940144274,452
Kerry1642110527,387
Limerick City5619204014,086
Limerick County2849148123,720
Tipperary14641110127,915
Waterford City611422309,378
Waterford County2153186213,229
Galway City2040335212,871
Galway County766177334,121
Leitrim167161166,453
Mayo372148322,741
Roscommon4711210310,210
Sligo163219613,528
Cavan968118512,650
Donegal08096425,728
Monaghan9729638,084
 
Total40381652841,910
Table 9 Main Space Heating Fuel by Period of Construction (2009-2019)
% of row  
Period of ConstructionFuel TypeTotal
Mains GasHeating OilElectricitySolid FuelLPG
1700-18992938229121,612
1900-192930392010147,072
1930-1949433899141,487
1950-1966474076164,434
1967-1977395056182,723
1978-1982355248154,195
1983-19933446117290,474
1994-19993438235198,058
2000-200441361932153,702
2005-200946301824141,148
2010-20145527151210,207
2015-2019545410036,798
       
Total40381652841,910
Table 10 Main Space Heating Fuel by Type of Dwelling (2009-2019)
% of row 
Dwelling TypeFuel TypeTotal
Mains GasHeating OilElectricitySolid FuelLPG
Apartment47446123,855
Ground-floor apartment477431245,188
Mid-floor apartment401580151,657
Top-floor apartment413541246,236
Basement Dwelling26116022225
Maisonette54736128,878
House187155336,093
Detached house1569762232,542
Semi-detached house4937761230,667
End of terrace house612396163,785
Mid-terrace house61211061122,784
       
Total40381652841,910
Table 11 Average Floor Area by Period of Construction and Type of Dwelling (2009-2019)
m2
PeriodApartmentGround-floor apartmentMid-floor apartmentTop-floor apartmentBasement DwellingMaisonetteHouseDetached houseSemi-detached house End of terrace houseMid-terrace houseAll dwelling types
1700-18996854455651104148159148116106119
1900-19296350435342891191241219891101
1930-1949516245524775111120111858298
1950-19667164545755671161261148886104
1967-197768656055101651321391098585110
1978-19826367645610071138143988483110
1983-1993585955585771147149968381109
1994-19996663586860771541621028483111
2000-20047471697770891671771049692115
2005-200981727179889417119210610198112
2010-20148479717686101196215122117110143
2015-20198082848958110187194125121116130
 
All7668667157871481571079390111
Table 12 Average Primary Energy Use by Period of Construction and Type of Dwelling (2009-2019)
kWh/m2/year
PeriodApartmentGround-floor apartmentMid-floor apartmentTop-floor apartmentBasement DwellingMaisonetteHouseDetached houseSemi-detached house End of terrace houseMid-terrace houseAll dwelling types
1700-1899434418387480406477418407377414362398
1900-1929491428427494393456412418381412370404
1930-1949363349280416458428373397339357320358
1950-1966426326285383519323335352304330296322
1967-1977377309254352319301289297281280253285
1978-1982332282238291309303244250252244221247
1983-1993346296249294337276227232239243221236
1994-1999283272235273269249205206223244222220
2000-2004254235201234256205188190207212190201
2005-2009169187161190179163151160174170156167
2010-201420511295118132941009984898495
2015-201910360485817658575654555154
             
All220241189249324224232237226244241233
Table 13 Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Period of Construction and Type of Dwelling (2009-2019)
kgCO/m2/year
PeriodApartmentGround-floor apartmentMid-floor apartmentTop-floor apartmentBasement DwellingMaisonetteHouseDetached houseSemi-detached house End of terrace houseMid-terrace houseAll dwelling types
1700-189910294841078511110810591998598
1900-192911797931108510810710992988699
1930-19498580609199979510280827487
1950-196610172608211369858969746676
1967-1977906953767768737464655868
1978-1982806450637772616260565160
1983-1993836654658262565756565056
1994-1999666051606155505051565051
2000-2004585043505543464648464146
2005-2009363934393533363840373438
2010-2014462318233019232318181721
2015-201920119113311121111101011
 
All495240537048585952555555
Table 14 Dwellings with Multiple BERs (2009-2019)
                 % of total
Earliest YearLatest YearTotal
A1A2A3B1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
A1000
A20000
A30000000
B100000000000
B20000100000001
B3000012100000004
C10000023100000008
C20000233100000010
C300000133210000012
D100000123321000014
D200000122232100013
E10000011112210009
E20000011111111008
F0000011111111109
G00000111111111211
 
Total00114131816131195332100
– No dwelling received this BER combination for the earliest and latest assessments
Table 15 BERs Weighted to National Level (2009-2019)
             % of row  
Dwelling TypeEnergy Rating Total
AB1B2B3C1C2C3D1D2E1E2FG
Apartment426911111011117558164,501
Detached house3127101212121165611675,817
Semi-detached house311511141515127665434,297
Terraced house311611121212128779262,672
               
Total3126101213131276691,537,287

Background Notes

Domestic Building Energy Ratings

Introduction

A Building Energy Rating (BER) is an indication of the energy performance of a dwelling (represented in units of kWh/m2/year). Actual energy performance will depend on how the occupants operate the dwelling. A BER is based on the characteristics of major components of the dwelling including: wall, roof and floor dimensions; window and door sizes and orientations, as well as the construction type and insulation, ventilation and air tightness features; the system for heat supply (including renewable energy), distribution, and control; and the type of lighting. The BER certificate indicates the annual primary energy usage and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the provision of space heating, water heating, ventilation, lighting, and associated pumps and fans. The energy use is calculated on the basis of a notional family with a standard pattern of occupancy - hence data in this release giving average primary energy use or carbon dioxide emissions are not based on actual data. A BER only covers electricity used for heating, lighting and ventilation with associated pumps and fans. Electricity used for cooking, refrigeration, laundry and other appliance use are not included.

Since 1st January 2009, a BER certificate and advisory report is compulsory for all homes being sold or offered for rent. A BER is also required for new dwellings that apply for planning permission on or after 1st January 2007. A BER certificate is required to avail of the grants for energy-efficiency improvements to the home that are provided under the Better Energy Homes scheme.

Access to Microdata 

Further information on the BER scheme (including links to a microdata research tool) is available on the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland website at http://www.seai.ie/BER/ 

Revisions 

The figures will be updated on a quarterly basis. While the changes to previous quarters will mainly relate to the most recent quarter, previous periods are also subject to revision mainly arising from some dwellings having another BER audit undertaken.

Coverage 

There are three types of BER Certificates. A New Dwelling – Provisional BER is required for a dwelling that is not yet built but is offered for sale off the plans. A New Dwelling – Final BER is required for a newly-built dwelling before it is occupied. This certificate is based on data collected in a site survey carried out by a registered BER Assessor as well as drawings and specifications for the completed dwelling. An Existing Dwelling BER is required for any existing dwelling that is offered for sale or to let. An existing dwelling is one that has previously been sold or occupied. This is based on data collected in a site survey carried out by a registered BER Assessor. Both the New Dwelling – Final BER and the Existing Dwelling BER certificates are valid for 10 years from the date of issue. They become invalid if material changes are made to the dwelling during that period. This release is an analysis of Final and Existing BER certificates. To ensure that all tables are consistent with each other, records that contain missing data in any of the main classification variables used in this release have been excluded e.g. missing response for county. Records with only the main space heating fuel or main water heating fuel information missing have been included except in tables using those variables. 

National representativeness  

There were 853,570 unique domestic BERs (one per dwelling) completed in the period 2009 to the end of September 2019. This compares with around 1.66 million occupied private households enumerated in the 2011 Census of Population. The 2011 Census of Population included questions on county of location of the dwelling, the period when the dwelling was built, and the type of dwelling. These questions can be used to weight the BER data to national level. Table 15 presents an initial weighting of BERs up to national level of non-vacant households using the 2011 Census of Population. The weights were calculated by dividing the number of non-vacant households in the Census by the number of unique BER households. In cases where a household had more than one BER carried out in the period 2009-2019 only the most recent BER was used. Around 7% of Census households were excluded because there were no BER households in the particular stratum e.g. detached houses in Dublin 1 that were constructed in the period 1919-1945. A stratum was classified as a unique combination of County (52 categories - Dublin postal districts were distinguished), period of construction (nine categories) and dwelling type (four categories). The BER contains more disaggregated dwelling types, e.g. mid-terrace house, but these had to be aggregated to correspond to the Census classification. 

In mid-2015 the Census and BER files were allocated Eircodes. This makes it possible to match both files at household level as postcodes are unique at letter-box level. This will create an opportunity to calculate weights in a more precise manner.

Non-domestic Buildings  

Since 1st July 2008, a BER Certificate is required for all new non-residential buildings and from 1st January 2009 for all public service buildings and for existing non-residential buildings. The CSO publishes a quarterly release analysing this file.

Definitions  

The BER rating scale is divided into categories from G (largest primary energy usage) to an A1 rating (lowest primary energy usage). The kilowatt-hour is the unit of energy used in Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP). The BER is measured in kWh per square metre of floor area of the dwelling per year (kWh/m2/year). The full range of categories is described in Table B. For the purposes of this release A1, A2, and A3 have been combined together because of the small number of Certificates in these categories. 

Table B: Building Energy Rating Categories 

Category

kWh/m2/year

A1

≤ 25

A2

> 25

A3

> 50

B1

> 75

B2

> 100

B3

> 125

C1

> 150

C2

> 175

C3

> 200

D1

> 225

D2

> 260

E1

> 300

E2

> 340

F

> 380

G

> 450

 

County is where the dwelling is located. 

Type of dwelling is selected from one of the following: Detached house; Semi-detached house; End of Terrace house; Mid-terrace house; Ground-floor apartment; Mid-floor apartment; Top-floor apartment; Basement apartment; and Maisonette. Some audit reports did not specify the type of house or apartment. 

Year of construction is when the dwelling was originally built. 

The fuel used by the Main Space Heating system. The main space heating system heats the largest proportion of the dwelling. This proportion is calculated using a count of the habitable rooms. It often provides hot water as well as space heating. 

The fuel used by the Main Water Heating system. This category has similar fuel response options to the Main Space Heating system. 

The Total Internal Floor Area of the dwelling is the total area of exposed and semi-exposed floors. It excludes any unheated areas that are thermally separated from the dwelling. The total energy usage is divided by the dwelling floor area to determine the Building Energy Rating. 

Table Notes  

Table 1 presents the number of Final and Existing BERs published by month since January 2009. A household that has had BERs conducted in different years is included in each year. This table gives an overview of the number of BER assessments being performed and will inform the user of changes since the previous quarterly analysis. 

Tables 2-13 only include the latest BER published for each dwelling from January 2009 to September 2019; hence the total number of BER certificates is lower than the total in Table 1.

Table 2 shows the general impact of the age of the dwelling on the BER profile. It can be linked with changes to the Building Regulations that require new homes to be more energy efficient. 

Table 3 shows how the BER profile varies by type of dwelling. 

Tables 4-5 profile BERs by county and Dublin postal district. Table 4 is in county within province order. 

Tables 6-7 profile BERs by main space and water heating fuels respectively. Records with a missing response for main space heating fuel have been excluded from Tables 6 and 8-10. Similarly records with a missing response for main water heating fuel have been excluded from Table 7. 

Table 8 cross-classifies county by main space heating fuel. Mains gas is not generally available in some counties. Some counties use local heating fuels such as peat e.g. County Offaly. 

Tables 9-10 cross-classify main space heating fuel by period of construction and dwelling type. 

Tables 11-13 cross-classify the average floor area, average primary energy use and average carbon dioxide emissions by period of construction and the dwelling type. The latter is more precisely defined in recent years but in the earlier years more general descriptions such as House were in use. It is not possible to reclassify these to detached, semi-detached, end-of-terrace or mid-terraced house. The average primary energy use and average carbon dioxide figures are notional figures based on assumed energy use factors and occupancy.

Table 14 is an analysis of properties that had BER audits carried out in more than one year. The earliest and latest BER ratings are cross-classified to show trends in energy savings arising from insulation, retrofitting etc.

Table 15 is an analysis of BER properties after they have been weighted to Census 2011 level. It can be compared with the Total row profile in Table 2. See the entry under National representativeness for more details.

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