In 2019, over one in three (34.4%) individuals living in rented accommodation were living in enforced deprivation, compared to 27.4% in 2018. This was the largest increase observed amongst the demographic groups. There was little change in the year-on-year deprivation rate of those living in owner-occupied accommodation, going from 10.0% in 2018 to 10.3% in 2019.
Those self-classified as living in accommodation rented at below the market rate were more likely to be living in enforced deprivation (38.4%) than those living in accommodation rented at the market rate (25.1%). Whether an accommodation is rented at the market rate or below is defined by the survey respondent and can be influenced by multiple factors such as whether the respondent is living in a rent pressure zone or is in receipt of housing assistance. See Table SIA18.
Since 2004, women have consistently been more likely than men to experience enforced deprivation. In 2019, 18.3% of females and 17.4% of males experienced enforced deprivation, compared to 15.6% and 14.7% respectively in 2018. See Table SIA12.
The lowest rates of enforced deprivation for both sexes were reported in 2007 at 12.7% for females and 10.8% for males, this compares with highs of 31.5% and 29.6% respectively in 2013.
Children under the age of 18 were most likely to be living in enforced deprivation, followed by persons aged 18-64, while those aged 65 and over were the least likely. See Table SIA13.
In 2019, 23.3% of persons aged under 18 were living in enforced deprivation, compared to 17.1% of persons aged 18-64 and 11.2% of persons aged 65 and over. All age groups saw an increase in enforced deprivation rates compared to 2018.
The lowest enforced deprivation rates for all age groups occurred in 2007, at 15.9% for persons aged under 18, 10.6% for those aged 18-64 and 8.1% for those aged 65 and over. This compares with highs of 37.5%, 30.5% and 16.1% respectively in 2013.
|X-axis label||0 - 17 years||18 - 64 years||65 years and over|
Looking at enforced deprivation rates by principal economic status, those unable to work due to permanent illness or disability were the most likely to be living in enforced deprivation in 2019 at 43.3%, followed by the unemployed at 36.0%. Persons retired from employment (9.4%) and those at work (11.4%) were the least likely to be living in enforced deprivation. See Table SIA14.
|Engaged on home duties||24.2|
|Retired from employment||9.4|
|Unable to work due to permanent illness or disability||43.3|
Generally, the rates of enforced deprivation decrease with increasing levels of education. Persons whose highest level of education achieved is a third level degree or higher consistently have the lowest levels of enforced deprivation. See Table SIA15.
In 2019, 5.3% of persons with third level degree or higher were living in enforced deprivation, compared to 23.3% of those whose highest level of education is primary or below.
|Primary or below||23.3|
|Post leaving certificate||21.1|
|Third level non-degree||12|
|Third level degree or higher||5.3|
Persons living in households with one adult and children under 18 were significantly more likely than other household types to be living in enforced deprivation (45.4%). Comparatively, those living in two adult households where one person was aged 65 or over were the least likely to be experiencing enforced deprivation (9.3%). See Table SIA16.
On the whole, households with children and those living alone were more likely to be living in enforced deprivation than other types of adult-only households.
|1 adult aged 65 years and over||14.3|
|1 adult aged less than 65 years||20.9|
|2 adults, at least 1 aged 65 years and over||9.3|
|2 adults, both aged less than 65 years||11.2|
|3 or more adults||14.1|
|1 adult, with children under 18 years||45.4|
|2 adults, with 1-3 children under 18 years||17.1|
|Other households with children under 18 years||22.1|
Since 2004, persons living in households containing 2 or more persons at work were consistently less likely to be living in enforced deprivation. In 2019, 10.5% of persons living in households with two persons at work and 7.4% of those in households with three or more persons at work were found to be living in enforced deprivation. This compares with 20.5% of those living in households with one person at work and 31.9% of those in non-working households. See Table SIA17.
|X-axis label||No person||1 person||2 persons||3 or more persons|
Seven in ten individuals (70.4%) experienced none of the 11 types of deprivation items in 2019, similar to the 2018 figure of 70.9%, and an increase on a low of 55.1% in 2013. See Table SIA25.
The proportion of the population experiencing three or more types of deprivation items increased from 9.9% in 2018 to 12.0% in 2019, this compares with a high of 20.9% in 2013.
|X-axis label||3+ items of deprivation experienced||2 items of deprivation experienced||1 item of deprivation experienced||0 (no deprivation)|
The most commonly experienced item of deprivation in 2019 was the inability to afford to replace any worn out furniture (18.1%), followed by being unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month (13.6%) and being unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight (11.7%). See Table SIA26.
|Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture||18.1|
|Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month||13.6|
|Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight||11.7|
|Without heating at some stage in the last year||8.6|
|Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes||7.7|
|Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm||4.9|
|Unable to afford a roast once a week||4.5|
|Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year||4.3|
|Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes||3.1|
|Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day||1.7|
|Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat||1.4|
While there has been a slight increase in the proportions experiencing most types of deprivation in 2019 compared to 2018, there has been a general downward trend on figures reported since 2013.
|Without heating at some stage in the last year||Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight||Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes||Unable to afford a roast once a week||Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day||Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes||Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat||Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm||Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture||Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month||Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year|
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