These statistics are categorised as Under Reservation. This categorisation indicates that the quality of these statistics do not meet the standards required of official statistics published by the CSO.
For further information please refer to the Under Reservation FAQ page.
This publication provides figures for the re-offending rates of those placed on Probation, Community Service and Post Release Supervision Orders in the years 2013 - 2016.
The term “offences” in this report refers to crime incidents known to An Garda Síochána and recorded as such in the Garda PULSE (Police Using Leading Systems Effectively) system. Because of timing issues with respect to the extraction of data, figures may be revised after this publication.
These figures were produced using a combination of Garda Síochána and Probation Service records. Since there is no direct link between the two systems, a statistical matching protocol was devised by the CSO to match Probation and Garda records. This protocol was updated in 2019 to capitalise on technological improvements that have become available in the 5 years since the report was first published.
Due to the absence of a unique identifier in the Irish Criminal Justice system the matching process involves the comparison of individual records. It is not possible to find a match for all Probation records in the Garda PULSE dataset. This may be the case because of data quality issues, because the subjects name is a common one or because the subject provided incorrect details to law enforcement officials. In the case of the 2014 cohort, 22 records were not included in the analysis because of a technical issue in the transfer of data. The 22 records related to individuals sentenced in relation to high volume crimes
CSO guidelines state a minimum of 95% of records must be matched. In the 2016 cohort 98% of records were matched. The percentage matched in the 2014 and 2015 cohorts were 99% and 96% respectively.
In the region of 80% of all matches used in the publication are matched automatically. That is, the name, address and date of the birth details for the subject in the Probation dataset corresponds exactly with those details in the Garda PULSE dataset.
Due to data quality issues and limitations on the reliability of some information provided to law enforcement authorities the remaining 20% of matches require manual examination. There are clear guidelines in place in relation to the selection or rejection of matches, but a certain level of subjectivity is inevitable in the absence of a unique identifier.
For this report there are two conditions which must be met in order for an individual to be classified as a re-offender:
For example, if a person was placed on a Probation or Community Service Order on December 31st, 2015 and committed an offence on the December 31st, 2016, they would be considered as having reoffended if court proceedings leading to a conviction were concluded on or before December 31st, 2018.
When considering re-offending, certain offence types are excluded. These offences include mainly traffic offences and some animal welfare offences. A complete list is available on request.
This report considers three types of probation: Probation Orders, Community Service Orders and Post Release Supervision Orders.
Incidents reported, or which become known to members of An Garda Síochána, are recorded when, on the balance of probability, a Garda determines that a criminal offence defined by law has taken place, and there is no credible evidence to the contrary. If it is subsequently determined that a criminal incident did not take place, the record is invalidated and is not counted in the statistics. If a person makes a report and subsequently withdraws it, then this too is invalidated unless there is evidence to suggest that, by reasonable probability, the offence has taken place.
For criminal incidents where victim confirmation is required (e.g. assault, fraud), a criminal incident is recorded only where the victim confirms the incident or where there is evidence to suggest that by reasonable probability it occurred.
A criminal incident is classified as a particular offence type at the initial recording of that incident. However, upon investigation, it may later become apparent that an alternative offence type should be used. In this event, the record is amended to reflect this. Re-classification based on court proceedings only occurs in relation to homicide offences. The classification is used in this publication is the ICCSq.
For the purposes of showing re-offending sanctions in this publication, court outcomes have been classified to provide aggregate estimates of either a custodial or non-custodial reprimand. The following outcomes have been classified for this purpose under either custodial or no-custodial sanction.
Court outcome description
Manslaughter (traffic fatality)
Dangerous driving causing death
Rape of a male or female
Rape Section 4
Unlawful carnal knowledge/Criminal law (Sexual Offences Act) 2006
Sexual offence involving mentally impaired person
Aggravated sexual assault
Child pornography offences
Child pornography – obstruction of warrant
Attempts or threats to murder, assaults, harassments and related offences
Murder – attempt
Murder – threat
Assault causing harm
Assault or obstruction of Garda/official, resisting arrest
Harassment, stalking, threats
Demanding payment of debt causing alarm
Menacing phone calls
Incitement to hatred offences
Dangerous or negligent acts
Dangerous driving causing serious bodily harm
Driving/In charge of a vehicle while over legal alcohol limit
Driving/In charge of a vehicle while under the influence of drugs
Endangerment with potential for serious harm or death
Abandoning a child, child neglect and cruelty
Unseaworthy/dangerous use of a boat or ship
False alarm/interference with aircraft or air transport facilities
Endangering traffic offences
Kidnapping and related offences
Abduction of person under 16 years of age
Human trafficking offences
Robbery, extortion and hijacking offences
Robbery of an establishment or institution
Robbery of cash of goods in transit
Robbery from the person
Blackmail or extortion
Carjacking, hijacking/unlawful seizure of aircraft/vessel
Burglary and related offences
Burglary (not aggravated)
Possession of an article (with intent to burgle, steal, demand)
Theft and related offences
Theft/Unauthorised taking of a vehicle
Interfering with vehicle (with intent to steal item or vehicle)
Theft from person
Theft from shop
Theft from vehicle
Theft/Unauthorised taking of a pedal cycle
Theft of, or interference with, mail
Handling or possession of stolen property
Theft of other property
Fraud, deception and related offences
Fraud, deception, false pretence offences
Forging an instrument to defraud
Possession of an article for use in fraud, deception or extortion
Falsification of accounts
Offences under the Companies Act
Offences under the Investment Intermediaries Act
Offences under the Stock Exchange Act
Fraud against the European Union
Importation/Sale/Supply of tobacco
Counterfeiting notes and coins
Counterfeiting of goods
Bad debts criminal (Debtors Ireland)
Corruption (involving public office holder)
Controlled drug offences
Importation of drugs
Cultivation or manufacture of drugs
Possession of drugs for sale or supply
Possession of drugs for personal use
Forged or altered prescription offences
Obstruction under the Drugs Act
Weapons and explosives offences
Causing an explosion
Making of explosives
Possession of explosives
Chemical weapons offences
Discharging a firearm
Possession of a firearm
Possession of offensive weapons (not firearms)
Fireworks offences (for sale, igniting etc.)
Damage to property and to the environment
Criminal damage (not arson)
Public order and other social code offences
Public order offences
Air rage-disruptive or drunken behaviour on aircraft
Forcible entry and occupation (not burglary)
Trespass on lands or enclosed areas
Liquor licensing offences
Registered clubs offences
Special restaurant offences
Provision of intoxicating liquor to under 18 year olds
Purchase or consumption of alcohol by under 18 year olds
Sale of intoxicating liquor to under 18 year olds
Organisation of prostitution
Prostitution, including soliciting etc.
Offences under the Betting Acts
Collecting money without permit, unauthorised collection
Offences under Gaming and Lotteries Acts
Permit/License offences for casual/street trading
Allowing a child (under 16 years) to beg
Road and traffic offences (NEC)
Driving licence-failure to have, produce etc.
Insurance-failure to have, produce, display etc.
No tax, non-display of tax, unregistered vehicle etc.
Misuse of Trade Licence
Misuse of trailers, weight and other offences
Obstruction under road traffic acts
Other road offences
Road transport – carriage of goods offences
Public service vehicle offences
Light rail offences (Luas)
Offences against Government, justice procedures and organisation of crime
Breaches of Offences Against the State Acts
Breaches of Official Secrets Act
Impersonating member of An Garda Síochána
Electoral offences including personation
Public mischief-annoying phone calls, wasting police time
Criminal Assets Bureau offences (organised crime)
Conspiracy to commit a crime
Interfering with a jury (embracery)
Public mischief, pervert course of justice, conceal offence
Escape or help to escape from custody
Breach of Domestic Violence Order (protection, safety, barring)
Breach of order under Family Law Act
Breach of bail
Failure to comply under Sex Offenders Act
Other failure to comply with court order, jury summons, warrant etc.
The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) were created by Eurostat in order to define territorial units for the production of regional statistics across the European Union. In 2003 the NUTS classification was established within a legal framework (Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003).
As the administrative territorial breakdown of EU Member States is the basis of the NUTS classification, changes made under the 2014 Local Government Act prompted a revision to the Irish NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 Regions. These changes included the amalgamation of the local authorities of Tipperary North and South, Limerick City and County Councils and Waterford City and County Councils. In addition three Regional Assemblies were established (Northern & Western, Southern, Eastern & Midland).
The main changes at NUTS 3 level are the transfer of South Tipperary from the South-East into the Mid-West NUTS 3 region and the movement of Louth from the Border to the Mid-East NUTS 3 Region. There are now three NUTS 2 Regions which correspond to the Regional Assemblies established in the 2014 Local Government Act and are groupings of the new NUTS 3 Regions. The revisions made to the NUTS boundaries have been given legal status under Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/2066. The new NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 structure and classification are displayed in the table below:
NUTS 2 Name
NUTS 3 Name
Northern & Western
Eastern & Midland
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