This chapter examines employment outcomes for students from the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 post-primary (upper secondary) academic years in the period 2012 – 2017. Employment is technically referred to as substantial employment as defined by the CSO (see Methodology), requiring a minimum of 12 weeks paid employment in a calendar year. This includes students who were in 'substantial employment only' and 'education & training and substantial employment', see Outcomes Overview.
While the discussion focuses on outcomes, in this case in terms of substantial employment, for the students from the 2012/2013 academic year, it also discusses 2011/2012 employment sector and earnings, due to a higher proportion of LCE Completers taking up substantial employment after six years. An earlier CSO publication on Higher Education Outcomes - Graduates of 2010 - 2014 (PDF 1,850KB) suggests that the earnings gap between LCE completers, particularly those who have attended higher education, and Early Leavers widens over time.
Substantial employment for LCE Completers for the 2012/2013 academic year stood at 73.5% of 50,810 students after five years, compared with 18.0% in the first year after post-primary education. Early Leavers (2,810 students) register a rate of 41.2% in substantial employment after five years, with 9.4% in employment in year one.
|Female School Completers||Female Early Leavers||Male School Completers||Male Early Leavers|
After five years, both sexes, on average, are likely to be in employment with 74.5% of 24,980 female LCE Completers and 72.4% of 25,830 male LCE Completers substantially employed, a gap of 2.1 percentage points. Male Early Leavers are more likely to be in employment after five years with 44.9% of 1,580 substantially employed compared to 36.5% of 1,240 female Early Leavers.
The section examines employment outcomes in terms of employers’ NACE sector with a focus on the sixth-year outcomes for the academic year 2011/2012. NACE sectors refer to the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities and is a classification system used to describe industry sectors in the European Union. Employers in the P35 database are assigned a NACE code based on their main activity and students' substantial employment is described in terms of employers' NACE sector (see Methodology).
After six years, 74.0% LCE Completers (37,490 persons) from the 2011/2012 academic year were in substantial employment. Of these, 20.5% were in employed in Wholesale, Retail and Trade (NACE Sector G), the highest proportion among any of the broad NACE sectors, followed by 12.4% in Accommodation & Food Service Activities (NACE Sector I). Health & Social Work (NACE Sector Q) accounted for 9.8% of those employed and Industry (NACE Sectors B-E) accounted for 8.9%. It should also be noted that 28.5% of 2011/2012 LCE Completers are in 'education & training and substantial employment' six years after post-primary education and that earlier analysis on Higher Education Outcomes shows that graduates generally move NACE sectors after completion of education.
In all, 40.2% of Early Leavers (or 1,170 persons) were in substantial employment after six years, of which 22.7% were employed in Wholesale, Retail and Trade (NACE Sector G), and 16.4% were in Accommodation & Food Service Activities (NACE Sector I). The next largest categories of employment for Early Leavers were 10.2% in Administrative & Support Service Activities (NACE Sector N) and Industry (NACE Sectors B-E) and Construction (F) both accounted for 8.6% each.
|Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing (A)||3.06122448979592||2.67591674925669||2.1969696969697||2.00828817341409||1.73232746577256||1.52040544145105|
|Wholesale, Retail & Trade (G)||35.1473922902494||33.0525272547076||32.1969696969697||28.8492189990437||24.5878737077396||20.5121365697519|
|Transportation & Storage (H)||1.24716553287982||1.58572844400396||1.59090909090909||1.65763468281798||1.81614976250349||1.89383835689517|
|Accommodation & Food Service Activities (I)||27.3242630385488||26.1149653121903||24.2045454545455||21.0073318457125||16.6806370494552||12.4299813283542|
|Information & Communication (J)||1.24716553287982||1.58572844400396||1.85606060606061||2.86898310487727||3.4925956971221||4.2411309682582|
|Finance & Real Estate (K,L)||4.42176870748299||5.20317145688801||4.81060606060606||4.94102645839974||5.39256775635652||6.00160042678047|
|Professional, Scientific, Technical Activities (M)||2.38095238095238||2.2794846382557||2.72727272727273||4.27159706726172||5.72785694328025||7.54867964790611|
|Administrative & Support Service Activities (N)||4.19501133786848||4.65807730426164||5.71969696969697||6.98119222186803||7.51606594020676||7.94878634302481|
|Public Administration & Defence (O)||1.70068027210884||1.58572844400396||1.70454545454545||1.84890022314313||2.15143894942721||2.88076820485463|
|Health & Social Work (Q)||2.38095238095238||3.66699702675917||5.07575757575758||6.24800765062161||8.63369656328583||9.8159509202454|
|Other NACE Activities (R-U)||5.4421768707483||4.85629335976214||5.18939393939394||5.1322919987249||5.11316010058676||4.93464923979728|
|Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing (A)||3.84615384615385||4.54545454545455||2.8169014084507||3.15789473684211||2.56410256410256||2.36220472440945|
|Wholesale, Retail & Trade (G)||23.0769230769231||27.2727272727273||26.7605633802817||25.2631578947368||23.9316239316239||22.8346456692913|
|Transportation & Storage (H)||0||2.27272727272727||1.40845070422535||1.05263157894737||1.70940170940171||2.36220472440945|
|Accommodation & Food Service Activities (I)||23.0769230769231||15.9090909090909||19.7183098591549||18.9473684210526||17.9487179487179||16.5354330708661|
|Information & Communication (J)||0||2.27272727272727||2.8169014084507||2.10526315789474||1.70940170940171||2.36220472440945|
|Finance & Real Estate (K,L)||3.84615384615385||2.27272727272727||2.8169014084507||4.21052631578947||3.41880341880342||4.7244094488189|
|Professional, Scientific, Technical Activities (M)||3.84615384615385||2.27272727272727||2.8169014084507||2.10526315789474||3.41880341880342||3.93700787401575|
|Administrative & Support Service Activities (N)||3.84615384615385||6.81818181818182||8.45070422535211||8.42105263157895||10.2564102564103||10.2362204724409|
|Public Administration & Defence (O)||0||0||1.40845070422535||1.05263157894737||1.70940170940171||2.36220472440945|
|Health & Social Work (Q)||3.84615384615385||6.81818181818182||7.04225352112676||10.5263157894737||10.2564102564103||7.8740157480315|
|Other NACE Activities (R-U)||11.5384615384615||9.09090909090909||7.04225352112676||5.26315789473684||5.98290598290598||5.51181102362205|
This section examines the weekly earnings of students in the years after post-primary education and how earnings differ across various parameters. Only income through the PAYE system is included in this analysis - income from self-employment activities registered through the self-assessment system is excluded. Median values for earnings are presented in each case and all values are rounded to the nearest €5. All earnings relate to gross pay and are adjusted for inflation using the 'Consumer Price Index' (base = December 2016).
In outcome year one for the 2011/2012 academic year, median weekly earnings for LCE Completers in substantial employment was €175 per week while Early Leavers earned €230 per week. In outcome year four, both completers and leavers earned €275 per week but in outcome year six, LCE Completers earned €410 per week and Early Leavers earned €345 per week (a difference of €65 per week). An earlier CSO publication on Higher Education Outcomes 2010 - 2014 suggests that this gap widens over time.
|LCE Completers||Early Leavers|
|LCE Completers Female||LCE Completers Male||Early Leavers Female||Early Leavers Male|
For the 2011/2012 academic year, the 19,020 male and 18,740 female LCE Completers in substantial employment had median weekly earnings of €420 and €395 per week respectively, after six years. This represents a 6.3 percentage point gender pay gap in median weekly earnings.
Among male Early Leavers (770), median weekly earnings from substantial employment were €370 per week after six years, compared to €310 per week for female Early Leavers (510).