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During/After HAP

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The experience of people and households during HAP tenancies, and also afterwards, (if they have left the scheme), are examined in this chapter. This analysis looks at income, employment, reasons for leaving HAP and circumstances after HAP.

The total number of households in HAP tenancies rose from 420 in 2014 to 57,630 by 2019. In each of these years, just under half of all tenancies are single people with or without one child. In 2019, a single person with one child (22.8%) and a single person (22.9%) were the main family types.

Show Table: Table 2.1 Number of HAP Households (stock) by Year and Family Type

OtherCouple 3+ ChildrenCouple 2 ChildrenCouple 1 ChildCoupleSingle 3+ ChildrenSingle 2 ChildrenSingle 1 ChildSingle
20142030503020305070140
201524050058040021038068011101660
20166801470169011606101160212033504690
2017137028603430234012402170430068608240
201821903970497035801840302061601028011080
201928504590595045102280358075301315013200

There were more than 1,000 HAP households containing a single person with one child in each of Dublin City, Fingal and South Dublin County in 2019, see Table 2.2. There were also more than 1,000 HAP households with a single person in Dublin City and Cork County. Data for years 2014 to 2019 on this topic can be found in statbank table HAP01, which shows that some local authorities, (particularly those in Dublin), were not significantly involved in the scheme in the early years as this was rolled-out on a phased basis.

Show Table: Table 2.2 Table of HAP households (stock) 2019 – By Local Authority and Family Type

Median earned income of working households decreases prior to entering HAP and then increases over the first two years in HAP 

The median value for annual earned income, in those HAP households which had any earned income, fell from €13,762 two years before starting HAP to €12,544 in the year HAP was entered. Two years after starting HAP, the median value had risen to €14,760 and then fell back slightly to €14,675 three years after starting HAP.

The proportion of households with any earned income increased slightly from 46.2% two years before HAP to 50.2% in the year HAP was entered and rose again to 52.5% two years after starting HAP, before dropping slightly to 52.3% three years after starting HAP.

X-axis label% with any Earned IncomeMedian Earned Income (inflation adjusted)
Two years
before starting HAP
46.213762
One year
before starting HAP
48.213226
HAP start year50.212544
One year
after starting in HAP
51.614157
Two years
after starting in HAP
52.514760
Three years
after starting in HAP
52.314675
Show Table: Table 2.3 Proportion of HAP households with any earned income and median annual earned income in years before and after starting in HAP

Median earned income of working persons coming from Rent Supplement increases by over €4,500 from the year before starting HAP to being in HAP for two full years

In the year before entering HAP, one in five (19.7%) HAP tenants coming from Rent Supplement also had some earned income with this proportion rising to 33.9% for this cohort two years after entering HAP.

For those with earned income and who were in the Rent Supplement scheme before HAP, the median earned annual income nearly doubled from €5,401 in the year before entering HAP to €10,038 two years after entering HAP.

X-axis label% with any Earned IncomeMedian Earned Income (inflation adjusted)
One year before
starting in HAP (& in RS)
19.75401
HAP start year
(& RS end year)
26.76861
One year after
starting in HAP
31.39117
Two years after
starting in HAP
33.910038
Show Table: Table 2.4 Proportion of HAP households who come from Rent Supplement with any earned income and median annual earned income in years before and after starting in HAP

Drop in proportion working in Accommodation and Food Service sector between starting and leaving HAP scheme

Two years before starting in the HAP scheme,19.8% of HAP tenants were working in the ‘Accommodation and Food Service Activities’ sector, and this fell to 16.9% in the year they entered HAP. This proportion then dropped to 14.7% after two years in HAP, and two years after leaving HAP it had fallen again to 13.4%. See Table 2.5 and Figure 2.4. There was a similar pattern for those working in the ‘Wholesale and Retail Trade’ sector.

In contrast, a comparison of the proportion working in Construction before, during and after engagement in the HAP scheme shows a decline. Two years before starting in HAP, 3.5% of the tenants who were at work were in Construction, but this had risen to 7.8% two years after leaving HAP.

Two years before HAPOne year before HAPHAP start yearOne year after entering HAPTwo years after entering HAPYear finished in HAPOne year after finishing in HAPTwo years after finishing in HAP
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (A)1.21.1110.91.11.11.5
Industry (B, C, D & E)98.88.17.67.59.29.210.3
Construction (F)3.53.94.34.74.967.37.8
Wholesale and Retail Trade (G)22.221.520.119.318.317.716.916
Transportation and Storage (H)2.733.13.33.33.43.73.7
Accommodation and Food Service Activities (I)19.818.616.915.614.71413.713.4
Information and Communication (J)1.81.71.71.71.71.721.9
Financial and Real Estate (K & L)2.72.832.83.33.33.34.1
Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities (M)2.52.62.72.82.83.23.73.9
Administrative and Support Service Activities (N)12.913.413.713.913.113.112.112.7
Public Administration and Defence (O)2.12.32.62.93.13.63.53.2
Education (P)2.52.52.82.93.13.23.33.1
Human Health and Social Work Activities (Q)10.210.913.114.716.21515.514.7
Other NACE Activities (R, S, T & U)6.96.96.96.975.64.73.8
Show Table: Table 2.5 Distribution of working HAP tenants by NACE sector over years before, during and after HAP scheme

Percentage of households receiving working-age income support decreases through years in HAP and after exiting

The proportion of HAP tenants receiving working-age income support rose from 36.7%  two years before joining the scheme, to 42.0% in the year in which HAP was started. This proportion then fell to 27.4% two years after leaving HAP.

Illness, disability and caring related benefits were received by 13.3% of HAP tenants two years prior to entering the scheme, and this proportion rose to 24.0% two years after leaving HAP.

Children Related SupportIllness, Disability and caring SupportWorking-Age Income Support
Two years before HAP45.813.336.7
One year before HAP49.615.338.8
HAP start year54.717.942
One year after entering HAP59.320.740.7
Two years after entering HAP58.822.938
Year finished in HAP49.82232.7
One year after finishing in HAP44.522.728.8
Two years after finishing in HAP39.82427.4
Show Table: Table 2.6 Proportion of HAP households receiving DEASP Benefits before, during and after HAP scheme

HAP exits increases in line with total households

Between 2015 and 2019, the number of households leaving HAP tenancies - and not returning - has gradually increased but is still a small proportion of all HAP households. The number of households who left a HAP tenancy rose from 230 in 2015 to 6,730 by 2019. See Table 2.7 and Figure 2.6. 

Show Table: Table 2.7 Number of Households Exiting HAP – By Year and Family Type

OtherCouple 3+ ChildrenCouple 2 ChildrenCouple 1 ChildCoupleSingle 3+ ChildrenSingle 2 ChildrenSingle 1 ChildSingle
2015202020201010204080
2016110708080506070150380
201718019019017090140220360710
20183403404003301702705007201100
201943055069052026049086013001640

Table 2.8 below shows the number of exiting households - who do not return - per year by the local authority and family type for 2019. Dublin City had the most number of exits in 2019 with over half of these being for 'Single' and 'Single 1 Child' families. Equivalent data can be viewed for all years from 2014 to 2019 within statbank table HAP01

Show Table: Table 2.8 Table of HAP households exiting HAP 2019 – By Local Authority and Family Type

Increasing proportion of HAP exits due to tenants entering social housing

Two in four (49.3%) households who exited HAP in 2015 - and haven't returned - did so where the tenant had ended the tenancy, but this had fallen to just over one in four (27.3%) by 2019.

In 2015, the proportion of HAP tenants who left to enter social housing was 17.8% and this rose steadily to 35.0% by 2019. Cessation reasons are typically self-reported by the tenant and/or landlord. The data from this graph can be found in statbank table HAP09.

20152016201720182019
Social Housing17.82028.332.535
Tenant Ends Tenancy49.336.232.330.827.3
Landlord Ends Tenancy12.914.815.317.116
Miscellaneous11.110.610.18.910.9
Tenant Non-Compliance5.314.810.388.5
Deceased Tenant2.233.32.51.9
Accommodation/Landlord Non Compliance1.30.60.30.20.4

About one in six tenants who exited HAP before the end of 2018 were back on a local authority's housing list in 2019

About one in six (15.5%) of HAP tenants who left the scheme before 2019 were back on a local authority's housing waiting list in 2019. Only 1.1% of this cohort whoe exited prior to 2019 were on Rent Supplement in this year. Tenants could be in multiple, or no, groupings in this graph.

LPT (home owner)Rent SupplementHousing Waiting List
% of Exited HAP tenants2.41.115.5

Households voluntarily exiting HAP see an increase in median earned income two years after leaving the scheme 

Nearly half (49.6%) of households who voluntarily exited HAP (where it is recorded that the tenant has ended the tenancy) had a person in employment in the year of exiting HAP, but this proportion dropped slightly to 43.6% two years after leaving HAP, see Figure 2.9.

Just under half (44.1%) of households who left HAP to enter social housing had a person in employment in the year of exiting HAP and this proportion grew slightly to 46.1% two years after leaving HAP.

For the population who have exited HAP voluntarily the median earned income - for those with any earned income in the year - is €13,439 in the year they left HAP, and this rose to €18,857 two years after leaving HAP. There is a similar pattern for the cohort who have involuntarily exited HAP - albeit with lower values - with the median earned income rising from €12,072 to €17,207. An involuntary exit is where cessation reasons recorded indicate that the landlord has ended the tenancy or there has been non-compliance from the tenant or landlord or related to the property

The median annual earned income for those who exited HAP to go to Social Housing was €14,251 in the last year of HAP. The median then rose for this group to €15,096 one year after leaving HAP and then dropped to €13,858 two years after leaving HAP.

For reference, the percentage in employment for all who exit HAP is 45.1% in the year they leave. This rises to 46.0% in the next year before dropping to 43.7% two years after leaving the scheme. The median earned income for all those who exited - and are in employment - is €13,197 in the year exiting HAP and rises to €17,319 two years later.

X-axis label% with any Earned Income - Invol Exit% with any Earned Income - SH Exit% with any Earned Income - Vol ExitMedian Earned Income (inflation adjusted) - Invol ExitMedian Earned Income (inflation adjusted) - SH ExitMedian Earned Income (inflation adjusted) - Vol Exit
HAP End year42.444.149.6120721425113439
HAP End year + 144.547.944.9143351509617734
HAP End year + 241.546.143.6172071385818857
Show Table: Table 2.9 Median Earned Income & Percentage working over HAP Years - HAP Exits for all exits, those to Social Housing and Voluntary exits

Returning HAP tenants most likely to return a year after exiting

The highest proportion of people returning to HAP, who have previously left the scheme, occur in the year immediately after leaving HAP, see Figure 2.10. For example, of those who exited in 2016, 11.5% returned in 2017, 4.6% in 2018 and 3.8% in 2019.

Return 2015Return 2016Return 2017Return 2018Return 2019
20150.39.36.83.44
201603.411.54.63.8
2017004.310.24.1
20180003.98.8
201900005.2

Link to all interactive tables for this publication: Statbank

Go to next chapter: HAP Properties