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Appendix: Definitons and Notes


Principal Economic Status (Table 1.6)

The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what their usual situation is regarding employment. Respondents are given the following response categories:

  • At work
  • Unemployed
  • Student
  • Engaged on home duties
  • Retired
  • Other


Migration (Tables 1.10 and 1.11)

Emigration refers to persons resident in Ireland leaving to live abroad for over one year.

Immigration refers to persons coming to Ireland from another country for the purposes of taking up residence for over one year.

The CSO will be revising the migration estimates for the years 2012 to 2016 following a thorough analysis of the final detailed Census 2016 results when they become available in 2017.

More information is available here:


International Labour Organization (Table 1.13)

The International Labour Organization (ILO) classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

  • In employment: Persons in employment are all persons:
    • who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the
      family farm or business; and
    • all persons who had a job but were not at work in the week before the survey because of illness, holidays, etc.
  • Unemployed: Persons classified as unemployed are persons who, in the week before the survey:
    • were without work;
    • were available for work within the next two weeks; and
    • had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work.

The labour force comprises persons in employment plus persons unemployed. Persons not in the labour force are all other persons in the population who are not part of the labour force.

Further information on the Irish labour market can be found here:


Direct investment (Tables 2.1 and 2.2)

Direct investment is a category of international investment that, based on an equity ownership of at least 10%, reflects a lasting interest by a resident in one economy (the direct investor) in an enterprise resident in another economy (the direct investment enterprise). In line with the quarterly Balance of Payments (BOP) flow and International Investment Position (IIP) stock data, direct investments of Irish resident investors in foreign enterprises are recorded under the category direct investment abroad. Similar investments made by foreign investors in enterprises located in Ireland are recorded under direct investment in Ireland.

Further details on this topic can be found here:


Resident Holdings of Foreign Portfolio Securities (Tables 2.3 and 2.4)

The Resident Holdings of Foreign Portfolio Securities is an annual series of stock statistics which measures the value of Irish residents’ holdings of foreign securities as at 31 December each year. This series shows portfolio investment stock statistics for equities and long-term (i.e. bonds and notes) and short-term (i.e. money market instruments) debt securities.

The category Other sectors in Table 10 captures all remaining sectors other than the Central Bank, deposit taking corporations and general government. Thus Other sectors covers all other corporations and (implicitly) households.

Further details on this topic can be found here:


Irish Owned Foreign Affiliates (Tables 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8)

Irish owned foreign affiliates statistics cover the activities of Irish multinationals abroad.

Further details on this topic can be found here:


Standard International Trade Classification (Tables 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7)

Exports and imports are classified according to the United Nations’ Standard Trade Classification (SITC). The SITC has been developed by the United Nations for the advancement of the international comparability of statistics on external trade. 

Further information on trade statistics can be found here:

The text  “n.e.s.”  is found in the SITC classification at level 2. This is present in tables 3.5 and 3.7. It is an abbreviation for “not elsewhere stated”.


Contact details

For more information on this publication:

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Helen Cahill (+353)1 4984253

Helen McGrath (+353)21 4535108

Rosaleen White (+353)21 4535014



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(+353) 21 453 5000



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