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CSO statistical release, 10 May 2018, 11am

Consumer Price Index

April 2018

CPI and HICP
 CPI HICP
 % monthly change % annual change % monthly change % annual change
Dec 2017-0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.5
Jan 2018-0.7 0.2 -0.7 0.3
Feb 20180.9 0.5 0.9 0.7
Mar 20180.3 0.2 0.4 0.5
Apr 2018-0.2 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1

Prices fall by 0.4% in the year to April 2018

Figure 1: CPI/HICP - ALL ITEMS Annual Percentage Change
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Prices on average, as measured by the CPI, were 0.4% lower in April compared with April 2017.

The most notable changes in the year were decreases in Transport (-4.0%), Miscellaneous Goods & Services (-3.8%), Furnishings, Household Equipment & Routine Household Maintenance (-3.7%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-2.0%).  There were increases in Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+4.8%), Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+3.0%), Restaurants & Hotels (+2.2%) and Education (+1.6%).

Consumer Prices in April, as measured by the CPI, decreased by 0.2% in the month.  During April of last year, prices rose by 0.4% in the month.  The most significant monthly price changes were decreases in Transport (-1.8%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-0.6%).  There were increases in Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+0.7%) and Restaurants & Hotels (+0.4%).

Contributions to the overall CPI – annual change

Table 17 shows the contribution of each 2-digit COICOP1 division to the overall change in the CPI.  A detailed breakdown of the individual components of each of the 12 COICOP divisions is presented in Tables 4 to 15.

The divisions which caused the largest downward contribution to the CPI in the year were Transport (-0.59%), Miscellaneous Goods & Services (-0.47%), Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-0.22%) and Furnishings, Household Equipment & Routine Household Maintenance (-0.18%).

The divisions which caused the largest upward contribution to the CPI in the year were Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+0.65%), Restaurants & Hotels (+0.40%) and Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+0.15%).

The main factors contributing to the annual change were as follows:

  • Transport fell mainly due to a decrease in air fares, a reduction in the price of motor cars and lower prices for other services in respect of personal transport equipment which was partially offset by an increase in the price of diesel and petrol.
  • Miscellaneous Goods & Services decreased primarily due to lower motor and health insurance premiums and lower prices for appliances, articles & products for personal care.
  • Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages fell due to lower prices across a range of products such as meat, vegetables, bread & cereals and jam, honey, chocolate & confectionery.
  • Furnishings, Household Equipment & Routine Household Maintenance decreased primarily due to the reduced cost of non-durable household goods, furniture & furnishings, household textiles and glassware, tableware & household utensils.
  • Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels rose mainly due to higher rents and an increase in the price of electricity and home heating oil.
  • Restaurants & Hotels increased primarily due to higher prices for alcoholic drinks and food consumed in licensed premises, restaurants, cafes etc. and an increase in the cost of hotel accommodation.
  • Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco rose mainly due to higher prices for tobacco products which was partially offset by lower prices for wine sold in supermarkets and off licences.

Contributions to the overall CPI – monthly change

The divisions which caused the largest downward contribution to the CPI in the month were Transport (-0.28%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-0.07%).  The division which caused the largest upward contribution in the month was Restaurants & Hotels (+0.08%). 

The main factors contributing to the monthly change were as follows:

  • Transport fell mainly due to a decrease in air fares which was partially offset by an increase in the price of petrol and diesel.
  • Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages decreased due to lower prices across a range of products such as vegetables, coffee, tea and meat.
  • Restaurants & Hotels rose due to an increase in the cost of hotel accommodation and higher prices for alcoholic drinks and food consumed in licensed premises, restaurants, cafes etc.

CPI sub-indices

The sub index for Services rose by 0.5% in the year to April, while Goods decreased by 1.4%.  Services, excluding mortgage interest repayments, increased by 0.5% in the year since April 2017.

The CPI excluding tobacco decreased by 0.1% in the month of April and fell by 0.5% in the year.  The CPI excluding mortgage interest decreased by 0.2% in the month and fell by 0.4% in the year.

Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices

Prices on average, as measured by the EU Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP), decreased by 0.1% compared with April 2017.

The most notable changes in the year were decreases in Transport (-4.1%), Furnishings, Household Equipment & Routine Household Maintenance (-3.6%), Miscellaneous Goods & Services (-2.9%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-2.1%).  There were increases in Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+5.9%), Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+3.1%) and Restaurants & Hotels (+2.2%).

The HICP decreased by 0.2% in the month.  This compares to an increase of 0.4% recorded in April of last year.

The most significant monthly price changes were decreases in Transport (-2.0%) and Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (-0.6%).  There were increases in Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+0.8%) and Restaurants & Hotels (+0.5%).

1 Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose Adapted to the Needs of Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (2000).

2 See background notes for more detail.