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For more information on this release:
E-mail: income&modules@cso.ie Caitriona O'Brien (+353) 21 4535201 Patrick Foley (+353) 21 4535012 Anne McGrath (+353) 21 4535487
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-5937
CSO statistical release, 21 January 2015, 11am

Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)

2013 results

Table A Summary of main results     
 200820092010201120122013
Income
Nominal Income - Equivalised disposable income per individual 
Median20,75820,10718,59118,14817,70217,551
Mean24,38023,32622,13821,44020,85621,106
At risk of poverty threshold      
(60% of median income)12,45512,06411,15510,88910,62110,531
Real Income1 - Equivalised disposable income per individual
Median20,68120,10719,27318,55517,70217,374
Mean24,29023,32622,95021,92020,85620,893
At risk of poverty threshold      
(60% of median income)12,40912,06411,56411,13310,62110,425
Poverty & deprivation rates%%%%%%
At risk of poverty rate14.414.114.716.016.515.2
Deprivation rate213.717.122.624.526.930.5
Consistent poverty rate4.25.56.36.97.78.2
Income equality indicators
Gini coefficient (%)30.629.331.431.131.231.3
Income quintile share ratio4.54.34.84.95.04.8
1 Deflator base year 2012      
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation  

Deprivation up, but poverty rates unchanged

Figure 1  Real and nominal equivalised disposable income

The Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) in Ireland is a household survey covering a broad range of issues in relation to income and living conditions.  It is the official source of data on household and individual income and also provides a number of key national poverty indicators, such as the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate, the consistent poverty rate and rates of enforced deprivation.  This report presents the results for 2013 and comparable data for previous years.

 

 

 

 

 

Summary of main findings

  • In 2013, the nominal median annual equivalised disposable income was €17,551 representing a decline of 0.9% on the nominal 2012 value of €17,702.  The real* median annual equivalised disposable income was €17,374, a decline of 1.9% on the previous year’s figure.  These changes are not statistically significant.
  • The Gini coefficient in 2013 was 31.3% compared with 31.2% in 2012.  The quintile share ratio was 4.8 in 2013 compared with 5.0 in 2012.  These changes are not statistically significant.
  • In 2013, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 15.2% compared with 16.5% in 2012.  The change is not statistically significant.
  • Enforced deprivation was experienced by 30.5% of the population up from 26.9% in 2012.  This change is statistically significant.
  • The consistent poverty rate was 8.2%, not a statistically significant change on the 2012 figure of 7.7%.  See table A.

* Real income figures are based on 2012 prices.

Income

Equivalised Income

The nominal median equivalised disposable income was €17,551 and the nominal ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold stood at €10,531 i.e. 60% of the median.  In 2013, 15.2% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income below this threshold.  The nominal mean equivalised disposable income was €21,106 and just over 62% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income that was less than this amount.  The real value of the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold for 2013 was €10,425 and this represents a decrease of 1.8% on the 2012 real value of €10,621.  It continues a downward trend in the real value of the threshold from a peak of €12,409 in 2008.  See table A.

An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics shows that real median equivalised disposable income dropped for most groups.  The groups that showed the largest drop in income were adults aged under 65 living alone (-13.0%) and individuals living in households where there were three or more people at work (-7.6%).  The groups that showed the largest increase in their disposable income were individuals living in households where there were two adults at least one of whom was aged 65 or over and no children under 18 (7.3%) and individuals aged over 65 (5.6%).

Individuals with a highest level of educational attainment of “third level degree or higher” continued to have the highest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2013, at €28,564.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2012 was €29,596.  Individuals who were unemployed had the lowest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2013, at €11,896.  The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2012 was €12,759.  

Real median equivalised disposable income for males was €17,683 in 2013, 3.3% higher than the corresponding figure for females (€17,122).  Females also suffered a greater percentage drop in their income (-2.5%) than males (-2.0%) compared with the previous year.

Individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region had a real median equivalised disposable income (€18,321) that was 20.1% higher than those living in the Border, Midland and Western region (€15,255).  Income for individuals living in the Border, Midland and Western region increased by 0.9% on the 2012 value, compared with a drop of 2.0% for individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region.  See table 1e.

  

Composition of income

In 2013, real average weekly equivalised gross income was €532.23, up from €518.60 in 2012, an increase of 2.6%.  See table 3b.

An analysis of the composition of gross income by year shows real average weekly equivalised direct income in 2013 at €395.07, an increase of 4.0% on the 2012 figure (€379.97).  Real average weekly equivalised social transfers decreased from €138.63 in 2012 to €137.16 in 2013, a decrease of just over 1%.  See table 3b and figure 2.   

Direct IncomeSocial transfers
2004434.8993.43
2005435.68166112956899.7676744186046
2006452.042971246006101.72447284345
2007466.01454822335113.693878172589
2008449.16439453125121.9913671875
2009410.88140.51
2010400.93153.35
2011389.75144.82
2012379.97138.63
2013395.07137.16

A breakdown of gross income by disposable income, tax and social insurance payments showed a slight increase (0.2%) in real average equivalised disposable income from €399.69 in 2012 to €400.40 in 2013.  Average weekly equivalised tax and social insurance contributions have increased every year since 2009 (€104.36) and stood at €131.82 in 2013.  See table 3b and figure 3.

Disposable incomeTax and social insurance
2004414.610472116.542212
2005426.395675111.8747
2006443.821756117.260841
2007471.654728117.092792
2008465.511212110.549448
2009447.03104.36
2010439.830342114.45168
2011420.083712114.498576
2012399.69118.91
2013400.4131.82

Equality of Income

Table B shows the share of income received by each decile from 2005 to 2013.  In 2013, the share of all income received by those in the lowest income decile was 3.2% up from 3.0% in 2012.  This is the first increase in the share of income of the lowest decile since 2009.  The share of income received by those in the top income decile also increased, from 24.0% in 2012 to 24.5% in 2013. 

The quintile share ratio is the share of income of the highest income quintile divided by the share of income of the lowest income quintile, and it stood at 4.8 in 2013.  The corresponding value for 2012 was 5.0.  See table B and figure 4.

Table B Share of Equivalised Income by Decile  
          
 200520062007200820092010201120122013
          
Deciles%%%%%%%%%
13.33.53.43.53.63.23.03.03.2
24.74.84.95.15.25.05.04.95.0
35.65.75.75.96.15.96.06.06.0
46.76.66.66.87.06.86.96.96.8
57.87.77.77.98.17.87.97.97.7
69.28.99.09.19.39.19.29.19.0
710.510.310.610.410.610.310.510.510.4
812.112.112.312.212.312.012.412.412.3
914.514.715.114.714.815.215.215.215.2
1025.625.924.724.423.224.724.024.024.5
Gini Coefficient %Quintile Share Ratio
200431.74.9
200532.35
200632.44.9
200731.74.8
200830.64.5
200929.34.3
201031.44.8
201131.14.9
201231.25
201331.34.8
At risk of povertyDeprivationConsistent poverty
200419.414.16.6
200518.514.87
200617146.6
200716.511.85.1
200814.413.74.2
200914.117.15.5
201014.722.66.3
20111624.56.9
201216.526.97.7
201315.230.58.2

Poverty

At risk of poverty

In 2013, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 15.2% compared to 16.5% in 2012.  The change is not statistically significant.  An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics showed that those most at risk of poverty in 2013 were individuals who were unemployed (36.7%) and those living in accommodation that was rented at below the market rate or rent free (35.2%).  The ‘at risk of poverty’ rate for individuals living in households where there was no person at work was almost as high at 34.5%.  See table 2.

 

Impact of social transfers on the at risk of poverty rate

 

Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)including old-age and survivors benefits onlyexcluding all social transfers
200419.432.739.8
200518.532.140.1
20061732.240.2
200716.533.140.9
200814.434.643
200914.13646.2
201014.739.150.2
20111639.850.7
201216.53950.3
201315.238.449.8

In 2013, if all social transfers were excluded from income, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate would have been 49.8%.  The corresponding figure for 2004 was 39.8%.  This increase over time demonstrates the increased dependence of individuals on social transfers to remain above the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold.  See table 5 and figure 5.

 

Deprivation

In 2013, over 30% of the population experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.  This compares with 26.9% in 2012 and a seven year low of 11.8% in 2007. 

An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics showed that those living in households with one adult and one or more children had the highest deprivation rate in 2013 at 63.2%.  Those living in accommodation that was rented at below the market rate or rent free (56.6%), those describing their principal economic status as unemployed (54.9%) and those who were not at work due to illness or disability (53.1%) also had deprivation rates of over 50% in 2013.  See tables A and 2. 

Deprivation by poverty status

The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 53.9% in 2013 compared with 46.8% in 2012.  The deprivation rate for those NOT at risk of poverty was 26.3% in 2013, compared with 23.0% in 2012.  See table 5.

Types of deprivation

At an overall level in 2013, the types of deprivation most commonly experienced were an inability to; replace worn out furniture (25.8%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (25.1%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (18.7%).  For those ‘at risk of poverty’ the types of deprivation most commonly experienced were an inability to; replace worn out furniture (42.5%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (41.7%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (33.3%).  For those not ‘at risk of poverty’ the types of deprivation most commonly experienced were an inability to; replace worn out furniture (22.8%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (22.1%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (16.0%).  See table 7.

 

Consistent Poverty

The consistent poverty rate in 2013 was 8.2% compared with 7.7% in 2012, not a statistically significant change.  See table A.

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by principal economic status shows that the consistent poverty rate was highest among individuals who were unemployed (23.9%) and lowest among those who were retired (1.7%).  The consistent poverty rate for those who were at work was 2.0%.

Further analysis of consistent poverty rates by household composition shows that individuals living in households where there was one adult and one or more children had the highest consistent poverty rate at 23.0%.  The consistent poverty rate was lowest for individuals living in households where there were two adults at least one of whom was aged 65 or over and there were no children (1.5%).

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by region shows that the rate for the Border, Midlands and Western region was 12.7% compared with 6.6% for the Southern and Eastern region.  See table 2.

 

Table 1a Median real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
          
   Median real household   
    disposable income1 % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State36,00533,11333,469 -8.0 1.1
Sex (head of household)     
 Male40,08637,06436,489 -7.5 -1.6
 Female30,15228,75529,942 -4.6 4.1
Age group (head of household)      
 18-6439,93236,81137,087 -7.8 0.7
 65+24,16923,54923,767 -2.6 0.9
Principal Economic Status (head of household)      
 At work50,54345,82746,815 -9.3 2.2
 Unemployed26,67023,92222,741 -10.3 -4.9
 Student27,00825,16523,786 -6.8 -5.5
 Home duties26,28524,53625,099 -6.7 2.3
 Retired27,11925,50125,358 -6.0 -0.6
 Not at work due to illness or disability20,12018,06620,777 -10.2 15.0
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
 Primary or below23,86821,98421,380 -7.9 -2.7
 Lower secondary31,41530,35127,822 -3.4 -8.3
 Higher secondary37,69533,04733,553 -12.3 1.5
 Post leaving cert 35,89231,92230,354 -11.1 -4.9
 Third level non degree45,93039,54241,856 -13.9 5.9
 Third level degree or above59,97356,47756,852 -5.8 0.7
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+14,83813,85513,691 -6.6 -1.2
 1 adult aged <6519,02618,35715,978 -3.5 -13.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+29,07926,86428,813 -7.6 7.3
 2 adults, both aged <6542,49438,04537,420 -10.5 -1.6
 3 or more adults51,15749,96748,027 -2.3 -3.9
 1 adult with children aged under 1822,49722,07523,197 -1.9 +5.1
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1844,72042,62844,157 -4.7 3.6
 Other households with children aged under 1853,19450,17049,019 -5.7 -2.3
Number of persons at work in the household      
 021,07919,48320,107 -7.6 3.2
 137,10133,85433,496 -8.8 -1.1
 260,85256,35156,319 -7.4 -0.1
 3+77,11679,72178,985 3.4-0.9
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied40,71137,51237,339 -7.9 -0.5
 Rented at the market rate32,36732,05632,190 -1.0 0.4
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free23,24222,99221,444 -1.1 -6.7
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas38,45134,88635,921 -9.3 3.0
 Rural areas32,16530,33729,043 -5.7 -4.3
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western30,69129,28428,257 -4.6 -3.5
 Southern and Eastern38,00835,13935,165 -7.5 0.1
          
Table 1b Mean real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
         
      All households
          
   Mean real household   
    disposable income1 % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State42,75640,50540,643 -5.3 0.3
Sex (head of household)    
Male47,12944,49643,607 -5.6 -2.0
Female36,74135,27636,837 -4.0 4.4
Age group (head of household)   
 18-6446,61043,89144,076 -5.8 0.4
 65+28,44428,05428,535 -1.4 1.7
Principal Economic Status (head of household)   
 At work55,26451,88653,308 -6.1 2.7
 Unemployed30,58028,03225,165 -8.3 -10.2
 Student28,86527,08726,209 -6.2 -3.2
 Home duties31,51130,30629,858 -3.8 -1.5
 Retired35,88833,43532,832 -6.8 -1.8
 Not at work due to illness or disability22,58421,49223,820 -4.8 10.8
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below28,12025,82625,595 -8.2 -0.9
Lower secondary34,37233,83031,482 -1.6 -6.9
Higher secondary42,01638,34237,391 -8.7 -2.5
Post leaving cert 40,42037,81234,665 -6.5 -8.3
Third level non degree50,56246,08848,541 -8.8 5.3
Third level degree or above66,16562,14363,714 -6.1 2.5
Household composition   
 1 adult aged 65+18,60217,11317,390 -8.0 1.6
 1 adult aged <6523,83222,18022,176 -6.9 0.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+35,57233,84734,086 -4.8 0.7
 2 adults, both aged <6546,84443,37444,357 -7.4 2.3
 3 or more adults57,41357,73955,502 0.6-3.9
 1 adult with children aged under 1825,49324,08425,605 -5.5 6.3
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1852,60049,87951,447 -5.2 3.1
 Other households with children aged under 1858,70055,52655,600 -5.4 0.1
Number of persons at work in the household   
 024,65923,46522,774 -4.8 -2.9
 142,35839,49639,108 -6.8 -1.0
 265,50761,04562,944 -6.8 3.1
3+82,52884,33681,813 2.2-3.0
Tenure status   
 Owner-occupied47,59844,80644,725 -5.9 -0.2
 Rented at the market rate37,36335,58436,548 -4.8 2.7
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free25,77126,04224,919 1.1-4.3
Urban/rural location   
 Urban areas45,61143,16443,784 -5.4 1.4
 Rural areas38,28036,44935,864 -4.8 -1.6
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western36,49333,82233,770 -7.3 -0.2
 Southern and Eastern45,13443,04643,196 -4.6 0.3
          
Table 1c Median nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
          
   Median nominal   
   household disposable   
   income % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State35,21633,11333,810 -6.0 2.1
Sex (head of household)      
Male39,20837,06436,861 -5.5 -0.5
Female29,49128,75530,247 -2.5 5.2
Age group (head of household)   
 18-6439,05736,81137,465 -5.8 1.8
 65+23,63923,54924,010 -0.4 2.0
Principal Economic Status (head of household)   
 At work49,43645,82747,293 -7.3 3.2
 Unemployed26,08623,92222,973 -8.3 -4.0
 Student26,41625,16524,029 -4.7 -4.5
 Home duties25,70924,53625,355 -4.6 3.3
 Retired26,52525,50125,617 -3.9 0.5
 Not at work due to illness or disability19,67918,06620,989 -8.2 16.2
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below23,34521,98421,598 -5.8 -1.8
Lower secondary30,72730,35128,106 -1.2 -7.4
Higher secondary36,86933,04733,895 -10.4 2.6
Post leaving cert 35,10631,92230,664 -9.1 -3.9
Third level non degree44,92439,54242,283 -12.0 6.9
Third level degree or above58,65956,47757,432 -3.7 1.7
Household composition   
 1 adult aged 65+14,51313,85513,831 -4.5 -0.2
 1 adult aged <6518,60918,35716,141 -1.4 -12.1
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+28,44226,86429,107 -5.5 8.3
 2 adults, both aged <6541,56338,04537,802 -8.5 -0.6
 3 or more adults50,03649,96748,517 -0.1 -2.9
 1 adult with children aged under 1822,00422,07523,434 0.36.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1843,74042,62844,608 -2.5 4.6
 Other households with children aged under 1852,02950,17049,519 -3.6 -1.3
Number of persons at work in the household   
 020,61719,48320,312 -5.5 4.3
 136,28833,85433,838 -6.7 0.0
 259,51956,35156,894 -5.3 1.0
3+75,42679,72179,791 5.70.1
Tenure status   
 Owner-occupied39,81937,51237,720 -5.8 0.6
 Rented at the market rate31,65832,05632,518 1.31.4
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free22,73322,99221,663 1.1-5.8
Urban/rural location   
 Urban areas37,60934,88636,287 -7.2 4.0
 Rural areas31,46030,33729,339 -3.6 -3.3
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western30,01929,28428,545 -2.4 -2.5
 Southern and Eastern37,17535,13935,524 -5.5 1.1
          
Table 1d Mean nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
          
   Mean nominal   
   household disposable   
   income % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State41,81940,50541,058 -3.1 1.4
Sex (head of household)     
Male46,09644,49644,052 -3.5 -1.0
Female35,93635,27637,213 -1.8 5.5
Age group (head of household)   
 18-6445,58943,89144,526 -3.7 1.4
 65+27,82128,05428,826 0.82.8
Principal Economic Status (head of household)   
 At work54,05351,88653,852 -4.0 3.8
 Unemployed29,91028,03225,422 -6.3 -9.3
 Student28,23327,08726,476 -4.1 -2.3
 Home duties30,82130,30630,163 -1.7 -0.5
 Retired35,10233,43533,167 -4.7 -0.8
 Not at work due to illness or disability22,08921,49224,063 -2.7 12.0
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below27,50425,82625,856 -6.1 0.1
Lower secondary33,61933,83031,803 0.6-6.0
Higher secondary41,09538,34237,772 -6.7 -1.5
Post leaving cert 39,53437,81235,019 -4.4 -7.4
Third level non degree49,45446,08849,036 -6.8 6.4
Third level degree or above64,71562,14364,364 -4.0 3.6
Household composition   
 1 adult aged 65+18,19417,11317,567 -5.9 2.7
 1 adult aged <6523,31022,18022,402 -4.8 1.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+34,79333,84734,434 -2.7 1.7
 2 adults, both aged <6545,81843,37444,810 -5.3 3.3
 3 or more adults56,15557,73956,068 2.8-2.9
 1 adult with children aged under 1824,93424,08425,866 -3.4 +7.4
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1851,44849,87951,972 -3.0 4.2
 Other households with children aged under 1857,41455,52656,167 -3.3 1.2
Number of persons at work in the household   
 024,11923,46523,006 -2.7 -2.0
 141,43039,49639,507 -4.7 0.0
 264,07261,04563,586 -4.7 4.2
3+80,72084,33682,648 4.5-2.0
Tenure status   
 Owner-occupied46,55544,80645,181 -3.8 0.8
 Rented at the market rate36,54435,58436,921 -2.6 3.8
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free25,20626,04225,173 3.3-3.3
Urban/rural location   
 Urban areas44,61243,16444,231 -3.2 2.5
 Rural areas37,44136,44936,230 -2.6 -0.6
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western35,69333,82234,115 -5.2 0.9
 Southern and Eastern44,14543,04643,637 -2.5 1.4
          
Table 1e Median equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
          
   Median equivalised  
   real disposable   
   income1 % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State18,55517,70217,374 -4.6 -1.9
Sex      
Male19,20918,03917,683 -6.1 -2.0
Female17,98817,56117,122 -2.4 -2.5
Age group   
 0-1717,42816,81516,364 -3.5 -2.7
 18-6419,98218,70318,280 -6.4-2.3
 65+16,26115,51616,384 -4.6 5.6
Principal Economic Status   
 At work24,52523,06222,903 -6.0 -0.7
 Unemployed13,43112,75911,896 -5.0 -6.8
 Student15,00414,60514,321 -2.7 -1.9
 Home duties15,15114,49814,192 -4.3 -2.1
 Retired18,07516,95617,175 -6.2 1.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability14,03213,15313,428 -6.3 2.1
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below15,15114,31614,301 -5.5-0.1
Lower secondary16,17815,39914,706 -4.8 -4.5
Higher secondary18,62818,02317,085 -3.2 -5.2
Post leaving cert 17,99917,25316,060 -4.1 -6.9
Third level non degree24,45721,30722,007 -12.9 3.3
Third level degree or above31,24229,59628,564 -5.3 -3.5
Household composition   
 1 adult aged 65+14,83813,85513,691 -6.6 -1.2
 1 adult aged <6519,02618,35715,978 -3.5 -13.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,51816,18317,357 -7.6 7.3
 2 adults, both aged <6525,59922,91922,543 -10.5 -1.6
 3 or more adults20,31319,69818,969 -3.0 -3.7
 1 adult with children aged under 1814,53913,22712,806 -9.0 -3.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1820,22418,80518,813 -7.0 0
 Other households with children aged under 1816,45515,02614,750 -8.7 -1.8
Number of persons at work in the household   
 013,29412,61512,395 -5.1 -1.7
 118,22416,81616,086 -7.7 -4.3
 225,61923,91524,127 -6.70.9
3+25,87826,22224,242 1.3-7.6
Tenure status   
 Owner-occupied21,15919,91619,686 -5.9 -1.2
 Rented at the market rate16,55615,65515,031 -5.4-4.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free13,14912,59312,326 -4.2 -2.1
Urban/rural location   
 Urban areas19,84418,69818,735 -5.8 0.2
 Rural areas16,92616,26615,791 -3.9 -2.9
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western16,34915,12415,255 -7.5 0.9
 Southern and Eastern19,61418,69418,321 -4.7 -2.0
          
1Deflator base year 2012
Table 1f Mean equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
          
   Mean equivalised  
   real disposable   
   income1 % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State21,92020,85620,893 -4.9 0.2
Sex      
Male22,20420,92221,108 -5.8 0.9
Female21,64120,79020,683 -3.9 -0.5
Age group   
 0-1720,33319,49919,546 -4.1 0.2
 18-6422,95021,73321,720 -5.3 -0.1
 65+20,16719,36719,713 -4.0 1.8
Principal Economic Status   
 At work27,51025,93026,413 -5.7 1.9
 Unemployed15,72814,30413,162 -9.1 -8.0
 Student16,63816,96816,992 2.00.1
 Home duties17,44316,88716,400 -3.2 -2.9
 Retired22,98521,54520,979 -6.3 -2.6
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,69514,10714,841 -10.1 5.2
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below16,56815,61015,768 -5.8 1.0
Lower secondary17,94117,25416,761 -3.8 -2.9
Higher secondary20,86119,51419,475 -6.5 -0.2
Post leaving cert 20,44318,93717,913 -7.4 -5.4
Third level non degree26,25423,57124,568 -10.2 4.2
Third level degree or above33,98932,49032,456 -4.4 -0.1
Household composition   
 1 adult aged 65+18,60217,11317,390 -8.0 1.6
 1 adult aged <6523,83222,18022,176 -6.9 0.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+21,42820,39020,533 -4.8 0.7
 2 adults, both aged <6528,23526,12926,721 -7.5 2.3
 3 or more adults22,09522,21021,402 0.5-3.6
 1 adult with children aged under 1816,35315,58814,949 -4.7 -4.1
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1823,02021,88322,027 -4.9 0.7
 Other households with children aged under 1818,58417,14816,824 -7.7 -1.9
Number of persons at work in the household   
 0 14,92814,40313,913 -3.5 -3.4
 1 21,13319,79219,617 -6.3 -0.9
 2 28,62626,72427,505 -6.6 2.9
3+27,68527,45726,202 -0.8 -4.6
Tenure status   
 Owner-occupied24,27622,88722,964 -5.7 0.3
 Rented at the market rate18,57418,34118,255 -1.3 -0.5
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free14,14114,01213,509 -0.9 -3.6
Urban/rural location   
 Urban areas23,16722,07822,357 -4.7 1.3
 Rural areas19,92218,97118,653 -4.8 -1.7
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western19,26917,93617,745 -6.9 -1.1
 Southern and Eastern22,88021,91422,034 -4.2 0.5
          
1Deflator base year 2012
Table 1g Median equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
          
   Median equivalised  
   nominal disposable   
   income % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State18,14817,70217,551 -2.5 -0.9
Sex      
Male18,78818,03917,863 -4.0 -1.0
Female17,59417,56117,297 -0.2 -1.5
Age group  
 0-1717,04616,81516,531 -1.4 -1.7
 18-6419,54418,70318,467 -4.3 -1.3
 65+15,90515,51616,551 -2.4 6.7
Principal Economic Status  
 At work23,98823,06223,137 -3.9 0.3
 Unemployed13,13712,75912,017 -2.9 -5.8
 Student14,67514,60514,467 -0.5 -0.9
 Home duties14,81914,49814,337 -2.2 -1.1
 Retired17,67916,95617,350 -4.1 2.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability13,72513,15313,565 -4.2 3.1
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below14,81914,31614,447 -3.4 0.9
Lower secondary15,82415,39914,856 -2.7 -3.5
Higher secondary18,22018,02317,259 -1.1 -4.2
Post leaving cert 17,60517,25316,224 -2.0 -6.0
Third level non degree23,92121,30722,232 -10.9 4.3
Third level degree or above30,55829,59628,855 -3.1 -2.5
Household composition  
 1 adult aged 65+14,51313,85513,831 -4.5 -0.2
 1 adult aged <6518,60918,35716,141 -1.4 -12.1
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,13416,18317,534 -5.6 8.3
 2 adults, both aged <6525,03822,91922,773 -8.5 -0.6
 3 or more adults19,86819,69819,163 -0.9 -2.7
 1 adult with children aged under 1814,22013,22712,937 -7.0 -2.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1819,78118,80519,005 -4.9 1.1
 Other households with children aged under 1816,09415,02614,900 -6.6 -0.8
Number of persons at work in the household  
 0 13,00312,61512,521 -3.0 -0.7
 1 17,82516,81616,250 -5.7 -3.4
 2 25,05823,91524,373 -4.6 1.9
3+ 25,31126,22224,489 3.6-6.6
Tenure status  
 Owner-occupied20,69519,91619,887 -3.8 -0.1
 Rented at the market rate16,19315,65515,184 -3.3 -3.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free12,86112,59312,452 -2.1 -1.1
Urban/rural location  
 Urban areas19,40918,69818,926 -3.7 1.2
 Rural areas16,55516,26615,952 -1.7 -1.9
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western15,99115,12415,411 -5.4 1.9
 Southern and Eastern19,18418,69418,508 -2.6 -1.0
          
  
Table 1h Mean equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
         
      All persons
          
    Mean equivalised  
    nominal disposable   
    income % change
          
   201120122013 2011-20122012-2013
         
    € € € %%
State 21,44020,85621,106 -2.7 1.2
Sex       
Male21,71820,92221,323 -3.7 1.9
Female21,16720,79020,894 -1.8 0.5
Age group      
 0-1719,88819,49919,745 -2.0 1.3
 18-6422,44721,73321,942 -3.2 1.0
 65+19,72519,36719,914 -1.8 2.8
Principal Economic Status      
 At work26,90725,93026,682 -3.6 2.9
 Unemployed15,38314,30413,296 -7.0 -7.0
 Student16,27316,96817,165 4.31.2
 Home duties17,06116,88716,567 -1.0 -1.9
 Retired22,48121,54521,193 -4.2 -1.6
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,35114,10714,992 -8.1 6.3
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below16,20515,61015,929 -3.7 2.0
Lower secondary17,54817,25416,932 -1.7 -1.9
Higher secondary20,40419,51419,674 -4.4 0.8
Post leaving cert 19,99518,93718,096 -5.3 -4.4
Third level non degree25,67923,57124,819 -8.2 5.3
Third level degree or above33,24432,49032,787 -2.3 0.9
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+18,19417,11317,567 -5.9 2.7
 1 adult aged <6523,31022,18022,402 -4.8 1.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+20,95920,39020,743 -2.7 1.7
 2 adults, both aged <6527,61626,12926,994 -5.4 3.3
 3 or more adults21,61122,21021,620 2.8-2.7
 1 adult with children aged under 1815,99515,58815,102 -2.5 -3.1
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1822,51621,88322,252 -2.8 1.7
 Other households with children aged under 1818,17717,14816,996 -5.7 -0.9
Number of persons at work in the household      
 014,60114,40314,055 -1.4 -2.4
 120,67019,79219,817 -4.2 0.1
 227,99926,72427,786 -4.6 4.0
3+27,07827,45726,469 1.4-3.6
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied23,74422,88723,198 -3.6 1.4
 Rented at the market rate18,16718,34118,441 1.00.5
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free13,83114,01213,647 1.3-2.6
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas22,65922,07822,585 -2.6 2.3
 Rural areas19,48618,97118,843 -2.6 -0.7
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western18,84717,93617,926 -4.8 -0.1
 Southern and Eastern22,37921,91422,259 -2.1 1.6
          
Table 2 At risk of poverty, Deprivation and Consistent poverty rates by year
        All persons
           
    At risk of poverty Deprivation Consistent poverty
    rate rate1 rate
         
    20122013 20122013 20122013
    %% %%%%
       
State16.515.2 26.930.5 7.78.2
Sex2         
 Male 16.315.1 26.429.6 7.88.0
 Female 16.715.4 27.431.4 7.68.5
Age group2         
 0-17 18.817.9 32.337.3 9.911.7
 18-64 16.415.3 27.230.5 7.88.0
 65+ 12.19.2 13.516.1 2.61.9
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)2       
 At work 5.95.0 16.419.2 1.92.0
 Unemployed 34.736.7 49.454.9 19.223.9
 Student 30.228.2 30.936.7 11.215.2
 Home duties 22.321.1 31.133.4 10.59.4
 Retired 11.510.0 11.315.8 2.41.7
 Not at work due to illness or disability 30.318.1 48.553.1 17.610.8
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)2       
 Primary or below 20.816.7 32.834.9 9.58.4
 Lower secondary 22.523.0 31.337.1 10.314.0
 Higher secondary 18.316.2 24.328.7 7.06.6
 Post leaving cert  16.417.5 32.034.6 8.89.7
 Third level non degree 12.08.8 19.924.6 5.54.4
 Third level degree or above 6.85.0 10.813.7 2.31.5
Household composition         
 1 adult aged 65+ 12.912.8 15.323.5 3.12.9
 1 adult aged <65 27.127.2 35.232.5 16.114.5
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 13.08.7 14.912.5 2.91.5
 2 adults, both aged <65 12.411.2 21.224.5 5.53.9
 3 or more adults 13.411.1 19.924.7 5.64.7
 1 adult with children aged under 18 29.131.7 49.563.2 17.423.0
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 13.911.1 25.831.2 6.46.6
 Other households with children aged under 18 21.524.7 34.936.3 10.815.0
Number of persons at work in the household        
 0 36.634.5 41.746.7 18.820.1
 1 13.213.4 30.933.8 6.46.5
 2 4.52.3 12.015.7 0.50.7
 3+ 1.10.5 10.613.7 0.00.0
Tenure status         
 Owner-occupied 12.411.3 19.923.0 4.85.2
 Rented at the market rate 18.215.3 35.440.8 9.38.8
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 33.935.2 50.756.6 19.822.9
Urban/rural location         
 Urban areas 14.712.6 27.730.2 8.06.6
 Rural areas 19.219.3 25.731.0 7.310.7
Region         
 Border, Midland and Western 21.421.4 29.435.1 9.412.7
 Southern and Eastern 14.713.0 26.028.8 7.16.6
           
1 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation. 
2 Sex, age group , Principal Economic Status and highest education level attained refers to that of the head of household
Table 3a Composition of nominal household income1 and nominal equivalised income1 by year
            
            
   Nominal household income1 Nominal equivalised income1
   2010201120122013 2010201120122013
            
Average Weekly Income2   
            
Direct Income          
 Employee income560.89571.72566.69593.76 292.83299.13299.72312.50
 Employer's social insurance contributions64.1762.4662.0566.45 33.8133.1833.0135.19
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment90.5175.7769.8278.18 48.6440.0136.4941.47
 Other direct income23.3318.7522.3420.80 11.468.9010.769.94
 Total direct income738.90728.69720.90759.19 386.74381.21379.97399.10
           
Social Transfers         
 Unemployment related payments 59.7362.1660.8657.47 31.4032.6732.0030.30
 Old-age related payments 68.8865.9964.2068.35 29.9828.4728.0629.54
 Occupational pension 53.6950.7155.7654.94 23.6922.3724.5524.14
 Family/children related allowances 61.4857.0053.3153.27 36.2333.4931.1730.96
 Housing allowances 10.7012.1410.6510.03 5.196.075.305.07
 Other social transfers 44.0438.0635.9538.22 21.4318.5817.5618.54
 Total social transfers 298.52286.06280.73282.29 147.92141.65138.63138.56
           
Gross Income 1,037.421,014.751,001.631,041.47 534.66522.87518.60537.66
           
Tax and Social Contributions         
 Tax on income and social contributions139.81146.50159.39183.28 73.3776.6884.0095.65
 Employer's social insurance contributions64.1762.4662.0566.45 33.8133.1833.0135.19
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid6.484.353.934.88 3.232.121.912.33
 Total Tax and Social Contributions210.46213.31225.37254.61 110.40111.99118.91133.17
          
Net Disposable Income 826.96801.43776.26786.86 424.26410.88399.69404.49
            
1 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household 
Table 3b Composition of real household income1 and real equivalised income1 by year 
            
            
   Real household income1 Real equivalised income1
   2010201120122013 2010201120122013
            
Average Weekly Income2   
            
Direct Income          
 Employee income581.47584.53566.69587.76 303.58305.83299.72309.34
 Employer's social insurance contributions66.5363.8662.0565.78 35.0533.9233.0134.83
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment93.8377.4769.8277.39 50.4340.9136.4941.05
 Other direct income24.1919.1722.3420.59 11.889.1010.769.84
 Total direct income766.02745.01720.90751.52 400.93389.75379.97395.07
            
Social Transfers          
 Unemployment related payments 61.9263.5560.8656.89 32.5533.4032.0029.99
 Old-age related payments 71.4167.4764.2067.66 31.0829.1128.0629.24
 Occupational pension 55.6651.8555.7654.39 24.5622.8724.5523.90
 Family/children related allowances 63.7458.2853.3152.73 37.5634.2431.1730.65
 Housing allowances 11.0912.4110.659.93 5.386.215.305.02
 Other social transfers 45.6638.9135.9537.83 22.2219.0017.5618.35
 Total social transfers 309.48292.47280.73279.44 153.35144.82138.63137.16
            
Gross Income 1,075.491,037.481,001.631,030.95 554.28534.58518.60532.23
            
Tax and Social Contributions          
 Tax on income and social contributions144.94149.78159.39181.43 76.0678.4084.0094.68
 Employer's social insurance contributions66.5363.8662.0565.78 35.0533.9233.0134.83
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid6.724.453.934.83 3.352.171.912.31
 Total Tax and Social Contributions218.18218.09225.37252.04 114.45114.50118.91131.82
            
Net Disposable Income 857.31819.38776.26778.91 439.83420.08399.69400.40
            
1 Deflator base year 2012      
2 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household
Table 4a Nominal median income measures by year 1       
           
    20062007200820092010201120122013
            
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 39,96145,03646,58141,93839,01138,70437,39538,721
  Total disposable household income 34,93138,85340,42938,25535,28035,21633,11333,810
            
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income17,61019,79420,75820,10718,59118,14817,70217,551
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
   and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers15,45616,57417,49016,32414,35214,18413,89914,286
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
   all social transfers13,70014,75015,11813,40011,06110,56710,44810,656
            
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the
Table 4b Nominal mean income measures by year 1       
           
    20062007200820092010201120122013
            
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 55,07559,82060,58156,52254,13352,94952,26554,344
  Total disposable household income 43,64647,98849,04345,95943,15141,81940,50541,058
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income21,22923,61024,38023,32622,13821,44020,85621,106
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
  and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers18,35320,11320,41818,75017,37516,78816,45616,766
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
  all social transfers16,33817,89717,98216,06714,42314,16113,65014,002
            
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 4c Nominal at risk of poverty thresholds by year        
           
    20062007200820092010201120122013
            
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
 At risk of poverty threshold         
  60% of median income 10,56611,87612,45512,06411,15510,88910,62110,531
  40% of median income 7,0447,9188,3038,0437,4367,2597,0817,020
  50% of median income 8,8059,89710,37910,0549,2969,0748,8518,776
  70% of median income 12,32713,85614,53114,07513,01412,70412,39112,286
 Illustrative values (60% level)         
  1 adult, no children 10,56611,87612,45512,06411,15510,88910,62110,531
  2 adults, 2 children 24,51327,55228,89627,98825,88025,26224,64124,432
            
Table 5 Key national indicators of poverty and social exclusion1 by year
     % of individuals
    20062007200820092010201120122013
National/NAPS Indicators          
At risk of poverty rate        
 Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)17.016.514.414.114.716.016.515.2
 Including old-age and survivors' benefits but excluding all other        
 social transfers (60% threshold)32.233.134.636.039.139.839.038.4
  excluding all social transfers (60% median income threshold)40.240.943.046.250.250.750.349.8
  Including all social transfers (40% median income threshold)3.43.63.33.34.24.95.34.2
  Including all social transfers (50% median income threshold)8.98.67.96.97.68.59.27.8
  Including all social transfers (70% median income threshold)26.726.825.724.524.724.124.222.9
           
Relative at risk of poverty gap 17.517.319.216.217.719.520.317.5
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2004 15.711.510.310.913.216.118.418.4
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2005 16.011.810.611.613.716.419.018.7
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2006 17.012.811.612.714.517.620.519.8
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2007 21.416.514.415.119.621.124.123.8
          
Deprivation rate2 14.011.813.717.122.624.526.930.5
  Those at risk of poverty 38.631.129.138.842.943.246.853.9
  Those NOT at risk of poverty 9.07.911.113.519.121.023.026.3
          
Consistent Poverty rate (60% median income threshold) 6.65.14.25.56.36.97.78.2
  Consistent poverty rate (40% median income threshold) 1.50.90.60.91.91.72.42.0
  Consistent poverty rate (50% median income threshold) 3.72.81.92.43.23.34.43.9
  Consistent poverty rate (70% median income threshold) 8.57.27.99.510.210.711.812.2
1 See background notes for more information.        
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.        
Table 6 The number of deprivation items experienced by year   
Number of deprivation items experienced1 20062007200820092010201120122013
           
% of individuals         
 0 (No deprivation) 75.075.675.071.463.959.857.055.1
 1 11.012.611.311.513.515.716.114.3
 2 4.93.84.87.48.59.19.39.7
 3+ 9.17.98.99.714.115.417.620.9
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 14.011.813.717.122.624.526.930.5
% of individuals at risk of poverty         
 0 (No deprivation) 44.149.754.143.438.137.335.630.0
 1 17.319.216.817.819.019.517.516.1
 2 11.58.312.312.913.212.915.215.6
 3+ 27.122.816.825.929.730.231.638.3
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 38.631.129.138.842.943.246.853.9
% of individuals NOT at risk of poverty         
 0 (No deprivation) 81.380.778.676.068.364.061.259.7
 1 9.811.310.310.512.615.015.914.0
 2 3.62.93.66.57.78.48.28.6
 3+ 5.45.07.57.011.412.514.817.7
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 9.07.911.113.519.121.023.026.3
           
1An individual is defined as being deprived if they experience two or more forms of enforced deprivation (deprivation rate)
Table 7 Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by poverty status and year
        % of individuals
    20062007200820092010201120122013
            
Deprivation Indicators        
 % of individuals        
  Without heating at some stage in the last year5.86.06.37.310.512.212.915.7
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight8.88.411.114.919.321.123.325.1
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes3.13.02.72.12.93.14.95.2
  Unable to afford a roast once a week4.43.93.83.45.56.77.68.1
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.42.23.02.13.02.83.94.2
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes5.55.25.64.57.67.310.410.6
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.12.32.61.12.02.23.73.9
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.83.53.74.16.86.88.510.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture13.713.113.316.320.321.724.525.8
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month10.79.69.19.414.414.816.118.7
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year3.32.92.33.45.15.86.07.2
            
 % of individuals at risk of poverty1        
  Without heating at some stage in the last year16.716.313.017.022.321.725.030.8
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight25.520.121.629.636.735.837.241.7
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes9.511.43.44.36.75.210.210.0
  Unable to afford a roast once a week13.610.97.47.711.79.314.415.9
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day6.77.26.56.67.95.88.57.4
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes17.215.212.211.016.116.319.422.6
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat4.38.74.02.65.94.67.210.2
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm10.710.47.88.315.811.914.219.4
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture33.029.526.036.632.634.337.142.5
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month28.323.120.424.630.826.528.833.3
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year9.610.54.88.28.313.312.515.4
            
 % of individuals not at risk of poverty        
  Without heating at some stage in the last year3.53.95.25.78.510.410.613.0
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight5.46.19.412.516.318.320.622.1
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes1.81.32.61.72.22.73.94.3
  Unable to afford a roast once a week2.52.53.22.74.46.26.36.7
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day1.51.22.41.32.12.23.03.6
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes3.13.24.53.46.15.68.68.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat1.61.02.30.91.31.73.02.7
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm2.42.13.03.45.25.87.38.4
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture9.89.811.112.918.119.322.022.8
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month7.16.97.26.911.512.513.616.0
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.11.41.92.64.54.44.75.7
            
1 Including all social transfers, 60% median income threshold.      
Table 8 Profile of population at risk of poverty1, experiencing deprivation2 and in consistent poverty by demographic characteristics
       and year 
          
           % of individuals
    2012 2013
       In    In
     At risk ofDeprivationconsistent  At risk ofDeprivationconsistent
    Populationpovertyrate2poverty Populationpovertyrate2poverty
             
State100.0100.0100.0100.0 100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sex         
 Male49.548.848.650.2 49.549.048.148.0
 Female50.551.251.449.8 50.551.051.952.0
Age group         
 0-1725.430.331.833.9 25.731.332.537.8
 18-6462.560.962.162.1 61.961.360.959.4
65+12.08.86.04.0 12.47.56.52.8
Principal Economic Status         
At work38.712.621.68.6 39.511.722.38.7
Unemployed8.019.016.622.5 7.120.415.324.6
Student7.514.28.911.2 7.815.29.915.2
Home duties11.215.413.115.5 10.515.011.912.4
Retired8.46.03.62.6 8.85.84.61.8
Not at work due to illness or disability2.76.96.78.5 2.74.46.54.9
Children under 16 years of age23.024.128.228.7 23.225.728.030.7
Highest education level attained          
 Primary or below 13.016.415.816.0 12.413.614.212.6
Lower secondary 13.618.515.818.0 13.720.616.623.2
Higher secondary 17.319.215.715.7 17.218.316.213.8
Post leaving cert  8.88.810.510.1 9.210.610.511.0
Third level non degree 8.76.36.46.2 8.34.86.74.4
Third level degree or above 13.75.75.54.1 14.74.86.62.6
Children under 16 years of age 23.224.128.228.7 23.325.728.030.7
Household composition         
1 adult aged 65+ 3.52.72.01.4 3.63.22.91.3
1 adult aged <65 4.66.95.58.7 4.67.84.77.8
2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 7.96.14.32.8 8.24.83.41.5
2 adults, both aged <65 12.08.08.37.5 12.28.79.55.6
3 or more adults 15.810.89.89.6 15.510.311.48.0
1 adult with children aged under 18 5.811.812.315.0 5.412.712.617.1
2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 33.530.835.030.3 33.725.335.427.9
Other households with children aged under 1816.923.022.824.7 16.827.320.130.7
Number of persons at work         
025.563.744.569.8 24.266.945.372.1
132.027.339.328.2 31.528.035.225.1
233.68.614.22.0 35.54.916.62.8
3+8.90.42.10.0 8.80.22.80.0
Tenure status         
Owner-occupied69.652.251.543.0 69.951.852.644.2
Rented at the market rate15.417.020.318.6 16.416.421.917.5
Rented at below the market rate or rent free15.030.828.238.4 13.731.825.538.3
Urban/rural location         
Urban areas59.454.262.362.9 60.549.959.948.7
Rural areas40.645.837.737.1 39.550.140.151.3
Region         
Border, Midland and Western26.934.629.132.4 26.837.330.640.9
 Southern and Eastern 73.165.470.967.6 73.262.769.459.1
Table A1 Sample size by demographic characteristics and year
        
    Number of households Number of individuals
         
    201120122013 201120122013
           
State 4,3334,5924,922 11,00511,89112,663
Sex1        
 Male 1,9482,0532,203 5,3485,7326,097
 Female 2,3852,5392,719 5,6576,1596,566
Age group1        
 0-17 200 3,0503,4043,561
 18-64 3,0573,2963,495 6,1056,5906,998
 65+ 1,2741,2961,427 1,8501,8972,104
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)2       
 At work 1,7941,9942,118 3,5013,8394,136
 Unemployed 388428466 844920965
 Student 847591 628734819
 Home duties 977899935 1,5771,4781,519
 Retired 8429201,012 1,1691,2981,427
 Not at work due to illness or disability 210235258 383436458
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)2       
 Primary or below 1,1071,0741,097 1,7611,7331,761
 Lower secondary 657665691 1,4581,5061,613
 Higher secondary 754789858 1,6891,8501,989
 Post leaving cert  506581658 8901,0171,143
 Third level non degree 489578612 8619961,052
 Third level degree or above 741821927 1,3941,5271,724
Household composition        
 1 adult aged 65+ 657639733 657639733
 1 adult aged <65 560591657 560591657
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 544567641 1,0881,1341,282
 2 adults, both aged <65 525545626 1,0491,0901,252
 3 or more adults 338389465 1,1501,3251,569
 1 adult with children aged under 18 336397339 8541,000923
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 9911,0581,089 3,7154,0034,251
 Other households with children aged under 18 382406372 1,9322,1091,996
Number of persons at work in the household        
 0  1,9691,9982,181 3,8223,9084,209
 1  1,3621,4881,510 3,7034,0444,082
 2  8879881,093 2,9983,4303,781
 3+  115118138 482509591
Tenure status        
 Owner-occupied 3,1513,2403,506 7,9068,2808,858
 Rented at the market rate 535642697 1,5361,8331,998
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 647710719 1,5631,7781,807
Urban/rural location        
 Urban areas 2,5722,6772,925 6,6066,9957,564
 Rural areas 1,7611,9151,997 4,3994,8965,099
Region        
 Border, Midland and Western 1,1751,2951,365 2,8773,1973,417
 Southern and Eastern 3,1583,2973,557 8,1288,6949,246
          
1Sex, age group , Principal Economic Status and highest education level attained refers to that of the head of household
Table A2 Average weekly equivalised income by net disposable equivalised income deciles and composition of net equivalised disposable income,
 2013      
              
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <181.99<224.38<257.47<291.39<336.43<392.41<455.03<546.31<702.60>702.60 
Average Weekly Equivalised Income  
              
Direct Income            
 Employee income 19.3835.4585.4789.77180.35247.20361.22455.77635.171,015.37312.57
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.302.608.207.8017.5827.0238.5051.1471.96125.7735.20
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment10.209.0619.1013.4125.9835.5729.3948.1451.47172.4441.48
 Other direct income 4.042.311.681.983.976.966.2010.5519.8941.839.94
 Total direct income 34.9249.42114.45112.95227.88316.75435.31565.61778.481,355.41399.20
              
Social Transfers            
 Unemployment benefits 40.8760.3741.2837.1231.2920.6719.8213.0710.4428.1230.31
 Old-age benefits 6.719.9231.7860.7138.1332.9128.9329.0822.0035.2429.54
 Occupational pension 3.082.821.899.9910.9717.8623.6837.9353.8379.3924.15
 Family/children related allowances 32.9654.4442.2839.6832.7035.6221.6718.0817.1115.1730.97
 Housing allowances 4.557.3110.3911.017.733.903.081.241.120.445.08
 Other social transfers 12.8728.0624.3525.5519.3422.9613.4712.0710.0416.7318.54
 Total social transfers 101.04162.92151.97184.06140.16133.92110.65111.46114.54175.11138.58
              
Gross Income 135.95212.34266.42297.01368.04450.67545.96677.07893.031,530.52537.78
              
Tax and Social Contributions            
 Tax on income and social contributions 3.135.5014.9614.2435.4156.4084.31126.42204.27411.8795.68
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.302.608.207.8017.5827.0238.5051.1471.96125.7735.20
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid 2.641.700.740.522.063.451.082.913.804.112.30
 Total Tax and Social Contributions 7.089.8023.9022.5555.0586.87123.89180.47280.03541.76133.17
              
Net Disposable Income 128.87202.55242.52274.45312.99363.80422.07496.60613.00988.76404.61
              
Table A3 Demographic characteristics of individuals by net disposable equivalised income deciles, 2013
        
              
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <181.99<224.38<257.47<291.39<336.43<392.41<455.03<546.31<702.60>702.60 
              
Distribution across deciles%%%%%%%%%%%
Sex            
Male 9.910.510.110.510.010.19.59.89.89.9100.0
Female 10.19.59.99.510.09.910.510.210.310.1100.0
Age group            
 0-17 10.513.011.79.09.910.59.68.39.08.4100.0
 18-64 10.39.89.08.49.69.610.210.810.911.5100.0
 65+ 7.34.611.219.812.310.99.89.98.06.1100.0
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)           
 At work 3.33.65.55.99.610.813.614.715.717.4100.0
 Unemployed 23.523.913.113.510.15.33.54.01.61.5100.0
 Student 20.312.611.99.510.48.18.96.76.35.3100.0
 Home duties 13.814.413.515.510.39.48.66.54.83.1100.0
 Retired 8.64.710.316.411.211.68.210.510.18.4100.0
 Not at work due to illness or disability 12.516.320.215.69.811.35.62.14.61.9100.0
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)1           
Primary or below 11.711.615.218.613.211.17.36.03.71.7100.0
Lower secondary 15.313.611.911.210.010.010.08.96.62.5100.0
Higher secondary 11.28.89.99.511.810.712.010.010.55.6100.0
Post leaving cert  11.212.610.511.610.513.19.210.47.23.7100.0
Third level non degree 6.06.55.57.98.810.610.914.315.913.6100.0
 Third level degree or above 3.72.52.94.25.75.410.713.518.433.0100.0
Household composition            
 1 adult aged 65+ 9.77.421.128.75.74.95.06.84.95.8100.0
 1 adult aged <65 15.720.57.64.35.35.94.19.612.514.5100.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 6.73.88.515.416.012.611.010.68.76.6100.0
 2 adults, both aged <65 9.05.68.56.55.87.69.811.615.919.6100.0
 3 or more adults 9.35.85.512.69.811.911.813.89.59.9100.0
 1 adult with children aged under 18 15.225.014.913.87.010.76.31.13.42.7100.0
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 7.28.89.47.710.611.410.810.511.712.1100.0
 Other households with children aged under 1815.314.613.18.212.37.910.48.56.43.2100.0
Number of persons at work in the household           
 0 22.721.115.414.27.46.63.73.83.02.1100.0
 1 8.510.011.913.912.511.59.27.47.97.1100.0
 2 1.71.84.93.79.312.014.315.117.519.7100.0
3+ 0.50.31.02.412.98.121.126.415.312.0100.0
Tenure status            
 Owner-occupied 7.67.28.08.79.911.010.712.412.012.6100.0
 Rented at the market rate 9.512.415.013.310.27.311.27.17.46.7100.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 22.621.614.012.810.38.25.11.63.10.8100.0
Urban/rural location            
 Urban areas 8.87.79.410.09.59.710.810.510.912.7100.0
 Rural areas 11.813.511.010.010.710.48.89.38.75.9100.0
Region            
 Border, Midland and Western 12.315.910.110.010.012.39.07.97.74.8100.0
 Southern and Eastern 9.27.910.010.010.09.210.410.810.811.9100.0
              
Table A4 Summary of deprivation indicators by net equivalised income
                 decile, 2013     
       
  Number of deprivation indicators experienced
        
Distribution across deciles0123+Total2+
DecileWeekly threshold (€)%%%%%%
201355.214.39.720.810030.5
        
1<181.9934.814.616.134.510050.6
2<224.3822.818.714.044.410058.4
3<257.4737.017.513.332.210045.5
4<291.3940.918.512.528.110040.6
5<336.4346.314.615.024.110039.1
6<392.4156.315.78.319.710028.0
7<455.0367.813.78.410.110018.5
8<546.3172.813.45.08.810013.8
9<702.6082.111.33.13.51006.6
10>702.6090.65.41.13.01004.0
        
        

Background Notes

 

Purpose of Survey

The primary focus of the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) is the collection of information on the income and living conditions of different types of households in Ireland, in order to derive indicators on poverty, deprivation and social exclusion.  It is a voluntary (for selected respondents) survey of private households.  It is carried out under EU legislation (Council Regulation No 1177/2003) and commenced in Ireland in June 2003. This release presents results based on data collected in the period January 2013 to January 2014.

Definitions of Income

Gross income

Income details are collected at both a household and individual level in SILC.  In analysis, each individual’s income is summed up to household level and in turn added to household level income components to calculate gross household income.  The components of gross household income are:

Direct Income:

Employee income

Gross employee cash or near cash income

Gross non-cash employee income

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Gross cash benefits or losses from self-employment

Other direct income:

  • Value of goods produced for own consumption
  • Pension from individual private plans
  • Income from rental of property or land
  • Regular inter-household cash transfers received
  • Interests, dividends, profit from capital investments in unincorporated business
  • Income received by people aged under 16

 Social Transfers:

Unemployment related payments

Old-age payments

Family/children related allowances:
  • Maternity/adoptive benefit
  • Child benefit
  • Single parent allowances
  • Carers’ benefit

 

Housing allowances:

 

  • Rent supplement
  • Free phone/electricity etc
  • Fuel allowances
  • Exceptional needs payments
  • Other social transfers:
  • Survivors’ benefits
  • Sickness benefits
  • Disability benefits
  • Education-related allowances
  • Social exclusion not elsewhere classified

Disposable income

Tax and social insurance contributions are also summed to household level and subtracted from the gross household income to calculate the total disposable household income.  The components of disposable household income are gross household income less:

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Regular inter-household cash transfer paid

Tax on income and social insurance contributions

Tax deducted at source from individual private pension plans

Real/Nominal income figures

Both nominal and real income figures are included in this release.  Real income figures have been adjusted for inflation by applying a deflator to the nominal income figures.  The deflator is derived from the monthly CPI and takes into account the rolling nature of the income data collected by SILC.

Equivalence scales

Equivalence scales are used to calculate the equivalised household size in a household.  Although there are numerous scales, we focus on the national scale in this release.  The national scale attributes a weight of 1 to the first adult, 0.66 to each subsequent adult (aged 14+ living in the household) and 0.33 to each child aged less than 14.  The weights for each household are then summed to calculate the equivalised household size.

Equivalised disposable household Income

Disposable household income is divided by the equivalised household size to calculate equivalised disposable income for each person, which essentially is an approximate measure of how much of the income can be attributed to each member of the household. This equivalised income is then applied to each member of the household.

Indicators

At risk of poverty rate   

This is the share of persons with an equivalised income below a given percentage (usually 60%) of the national median income.  It is also calculated at 40%, 50% and 70% for comparison.  The rate is calculated by ranking persons by equivalised income from smallest to largest and then extracting the median or middle value.  Anyone with an equivalised income of less than 60% of the median is considered at risk of poverty at a 60% level.

Deprivation rate

Households that are excluded and marginalised from consuming goods and services which are considered the norm for other people in society, due to an inability to afford them, are considered to be deprived. The identification of the marginalised or deprived is currently achieved on the basis of a set of eleven basic deprivation indicators:

  1. Two pairs of strong shoes

  2. A warm waterproof overcoat

  3. Buy new (not second-hand) clothes

  4. Eat meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day

  5. Have a roast joint or its equivalent once a week

  6. Had to go without heating during the last year through lack of money

  7. Keep the home adequately warm

  8. Buy presents for family or friends at least once a year

  9. Replace any worn out furniture

  10. Have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month

  11. Have a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight for entertainment

Individuals who experience two or more of the eleven listed items are considered to be experiencing enforced deprivation. This is the basis for calculating the deprivation rate.

Consistent poverty

The consistent poverty measure looks at those persons who are defined as being at risk of poverty and experiencing enforced deprivation (experiencing two or more types of deprivation).

An individual is defined as being in ‘consistent poverty’ if they are

  • Identified as being at risk of poverty and
  • Living in a household deprived of two or more of the eleven basic deprivation items listed above 

(Note that it is enforced deprivation that is relevant in this context.  For example, a household may not have a roast once a week.  The household is classified as deprived of this basic indicator only if the reason they didn’t have it was because they could not afford it.)

 Relative at risk of poverty gap

This is the difference between the median equivalised income of persons below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold and the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, expressed as a percentage of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.  The purpose of the indicator is to measure how far below the poverty threshold the median income of people at risk of poverty is. The closer the median income of those at risk of poverty is to the at risk of poverty threshold the smaller the percentage will be.

At risk of poverty rate before social transfers

This indicator is calculated based on two alternative measures of equivalised income. The first calculates equivalised income as the total disposable household income including old-age and survivors’ benefits but excluding all other social transfers.  The second excludes all social transfers.  Any person with an equivalised income before social transfers of less than 60% of the median after social transfers is considered at risk of poverty before social transfers (i.e. the same threshold is used for calculating the rate before and after social transfers).

At risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time

For a given year, the “at risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time” is the share of the population whose income in a given year is below the at risk of poverty threshold calculated in the standard way for a previous base year and then adjusted for inflation.  The purpose of this indicator is to get some indication of the changes in ‘absolute poverty’ over time.  In this release four separate base years were used. If the base year is 2004 for example then the at risk of poverty threshold for 2004 is adjusted in line with inflation for each year 2005-2012. The same method is followed for 2005, 2006 and 2007.  The deflator used here is the same as that used to calculate real income.

 Gini coefficient

This is the relationship between cumulative shares of the population (ranked according to the level of income from lowest to highest) and the cumulative share of total income received by them, i.e. the Lorenz Curve.  If there was perfect equality (i.e. each person receives the same income) the Gini coefficient would be 0%.  A Gini coefficient of 100% would indicate there was total inequality and the entire national income was in the hands of one person.

Calculation of the Gini Coefficient

 

Gini Equation 1

 

 

 

Wgti = Final calibrated weight per individual ‌

Eq_Inci= Equivalised disposable income ‌

 

Background Notes Image 2

 

 

Inequality of income distribution (S80/S20) quintile share ratio

This is the ratio of the average equivalised income received by the 20% of persons with the highest income (top quintile) to that received by the 20% of persons with the lowest income (lowest quintile).

 For more information contact caitriona.OBrien@cso.ie or Patrick.foley@cso.ie or call 021 4535487.

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