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CSO statistical release, 01 February 2017, 11am

Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)

2015 results

Table A Summary of main results
  201020112012201320142015
Income 
Nominal Income - Equivalised disposable income per individual
Median 18,59118,14818,27618,26218,86420,000
Mean 22,13821,44021,57821,99522,39623,301
At risk of poverty threshold
(60% of median income) 11,15510,88910,96610,95711,31812,000
Real Income1 - Equivalised disposable income per individual
Median 19,27318,55518,27618,07818,62319,772
Mean 22,95021,92021,57821,77322,10923,035
At risk of poverty threshold
(60% of median income) 11,56411,13310,96610,84611,17311,863
Poverty & deprivation rates %%%%%%
At risk of poverty rate 14.716.017.316.517.216.9
Deprivation rate2 22.624.526.930.529.025.5
Deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty42.943.248.955.151.251.5
Consistent poverty rate 6.36.98.59.18.88.7
Income equality indicators
Gini coefficient (%) 31.431.131.832.032.030.8
Income quintile share ratio 4.84.95.15.05.14.7
1 Deflator base year 2012
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation

Income increased by 6.2% in 2015

Figure 1  Real and nominal equivalised disposable income, 2006-2015
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The Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) in Ireland is a household survey covering a broad range of issues in relation to income and living conditions.  It is the official source of data on household and individual income and also provides a number of key national poverty indicators, such as the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate, the consistent poverty rate and rates of enforced deprivation.  This report presents the results for 2015 and comparable data for previous years.

Summary of main findings

  • In 2015, the nominal median annual equivalised disposable income was €20,000 representing an increase of 6.0% on the nominal 2014 value of €18,864.  The real* median annual equivalised disposable income was €19,772, an increase of 6.2% on the previous year’s figure.  These changes are statistically significant.
  • The Gini coefficient in 2015 was 30.8% compared with 32.0% in 2014.  The quintile share ratio was 4.7 in 2015 compared with 5.1 in 2014.  These changes are statistically significant.
  • In 2015, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 16.9% compared with 17.2% in 2014.  The change is not statistically significant.
  • Enforced deprivation was experienced by 25.5% of the population, down from 29.0% in 2014.  This change is statistically significant. The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 51.5% in 2015, up slightly from 51.2% in 2014. This change is not statistically significant.
  • The consistent poverty rate was 8.7%, not a statistically significant change on the 2014 figure of 8.8%.  

* Real income figures are based on 2012 prices.

Revised SILC results have been produced for reference years 2012-2014.  These revisions arose following the identification of a processing error during the production of data for 2015. This processing error related to the method used to calculate Universal Social Charge (USC) and Pay Related Social Insurance (PRSI). The error resulted in disposable income being under estimated over the period (2012-2014). However, trends observed in the revised series mirror those of the previously published data. Earlier years are not affected. Further details may be found in Section 5.6.2 of the Standard Report on Methods and Quality for the 2015 Survey on Income and Living conditions (EU-SILC). See http://www.cso.ie/en/silc/methodology/

 

Income

Equivalised Income

The nominal median equivalised disposable income was €20,000 and the nominal ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold stood at €12,000 i.e. 60% of the median. In 2015, 16.9% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income below this threshold.  The nominal mean equivalised disposable income was €23,301 and 61.7% of individuals had an equivalised disposable income that was less than this amount. The real value, i.e. at 2012 prices, of the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold for 2015 was €11,863 and this represents an increase of 6.2% on the real value for 2014 of €11,173.  See table A.

Real median equivalised disposable income increased for most socio-economic groups in 2015. An analysis by principal economic status shows that income increased for all groups except for those unable to work due to illness/disability (-1.4%). 

Individuals with a highest level of educational attainment of ‘third level degree or higher’ continued to have the highest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2015, at €32,201. The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2014 was €30,408. 

Individuals who were unemployed had the lowest real median equivalised disposable income of the categories analysed in 2015, at €12,747. The real median equivalised disposable income for this group in 2014 was €12,593.

Real median equivalised disposable income for males was €20,014 in 2015, 3.7% higher than the corresponding figure for females (€19,292). 

Individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region had a real median equivalised disposable income (€20,436) that was 14.6% higher than those living in the Border, Midland and Western region (€17,829).  Income for individuals living in the Border, Midland and Western region increased by 6.5% on the 2014 value, compared with an increase of 5.8% for individuals living in the Southern and Eastern region.  See table 1e.

Composition of income

In 2015, real average weekly equivalised gross income was €573.71, up from €550.23 in 2014, an increase of 4.3%. 

An analysis of the composition of gross income by year shows real average weekly equivalised direct income in 2015 at €441.00, an increase of 5.5% on the 2014 figure (€418.08).  Real average weekly equivalised social transfers increased slightly from €132.05 in 2014 to €132.71 in 2015, an increase of 0.5%.  

Direct IncomeSocial transfers
2006452.042971246006101.72447284345
2007466.01454822335113.693878172589
2008449.16439453125121.9913671875
2009410.88140.51
2010400.93153.35
2011389.75144.82
2012380.13138.63
2013395.84137.16
2014418.18132.05
2015441132.71

Average real weekly equivalised disposable income showed an increase of 4.2% from €423.72 in 2014 to €441.46 in 2015.  Average real weekly equivalised tax and social insurance contributions have increased every year since 2009 (€104.36). It stood at €132.26 in 2015, an increase of 4.6% from the 2014 value of €126.52.  See table 3b.

Total Tax and Social ContributionsNet Disposable Income
2006117.26443.82
2007117.09471.65
2008110.55465.51
2009104.36447.03
2010114.45439.83
2011114.5420.08
2012105.23413.52
2013115.73417.27
2014126.5423.72
2015132.26441.46

Equality of Income

The quintile share ratio is the share of income of the highest income quintile divided by the share of income of the lowest income quintile, and it stood at 4.7 in 2015. The corresponding value for 2014 was 5.1. The change is statistically significant. 

The Gini coefficient measures income equality across the entire income distribution and in 2015 its value was 30.8% compared with 32.0% in 2014. This indicates a decrease in income inequality across the total income distribution.  This change is statistically significant.    See table A and figure 4(i).

Table B Share of Equivalised Income by Decile  
          
 200720082009201020112012201320142015
          
Deciles%%%%%%%%%
13.43.53.63.23.02.93.13.03.3
24.95.15.25.05.04.84.94.85.0
35.75.96.15.96.05.95.95.95.9
46.66.87.06.86.96.86.76.86.8
57.77.98.17.87.97.97.77.88.0
69.09.19.39.19.29.19.09.09.2
710.610.410.610.310.510.510.510.510.5
812.312.212.312.012.412.512.412.412.5
915.114.714.815.215.215.415.415.315.2
1024.724.423.224.724.024.324.724.723.9
Gini coefficient (%)Quintile share ratio
200632.44.9
200731.74.8
200830.64.5
200929.34.3
201031.44.8
201131.14.9
201231.85.1
2013325
2014325.1
201530.84.7
EuroQuintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
20158.2212.717.0922.9939.03
20147.7812.6316.7622.8839.95
20137.9312.5316.722.8340
20127.7212.716.9522.9939.64
2011812.8817.0622.9239.14
20108.2312.6816.8922.3239.88
20098.813.0717.3222.8537.96
20088.6412.6716.9622.5839.15
20078.2612.3316.7322.8939.79
20068.2112.316.6322.3240.54
20057.9912.3316.9822.5940.1
At risk of povertyDeprivationConsistent povertyDeprivation rate for those at risk of poverty
200716.511.85.131.1
200814.413.74.229.1
200914.117.15.538.8
201014.722.66.342.9
20111624.56.943.2
201217.326.98.548.9
201316.530.59.155.1
201417.2298.851.2
201516.925.58.751.5

Poverty

At risk of poverty

In 2015, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was 16.9% compared to 17.2% in 2014.  The change is not statistically significant.  An analysis by socio-demographic characteristics showed that those most at risk of poverty in 2015 were those individuals who were unemployed (43.5%) and those living in households where there was no person at work (39.6%). The ‘at risk of poverty’ rate was almost as high for individuals living in accommodation that was rented at below the market rate or rent free (39.0%). The ‘at risk of poverty’ rate for households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 was 36.2%. See table 2.

Impact of social transfers on the at risk of poverty rate

 

Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)Including old-age and survivors' benefits onlyexcluding all social transfers
20061732.240.2
200716.533.140.9
200814.434.643
200914.13646.2
201014.739.150.2
20111639.850.7
201217.339.150.2
201316.538.149.4
201417.236.548.3
201516.934.946.3

In 2015, if all social transfers were excluded from income, the ‘at risk of poverty’ rate would have been 46.3%, a decrease from the 2014 rate of 48.3%.  The corresponding figure for 2004 was 39.8% and peaked in 2011 at 50.7%. This increase between 2004 and 2011 showed an increased dependence of individuals on social transfers to remain above the ‘at risk of poverty’ threshold during that period and a reduced dependence in each year since 2011. See table 5 and figure 6. 

Deprivation

In 2015, 25.5% of the population experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.  This compares with 29.0% in 2014 and a low of 11.8% in 2007. 

Most socio-demographic groups experienced a decline in 2015 deprivation rates year-on-year. Those living in households with one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest deprivation rate in 2015 at 57.9%. Those living in accommodation that was rented at below the market rate or rent free(52.5%) and those who were not at work due to illness or disability (53.2%) also had deprivation rates of over 50% in 2015.  See table A and table 2. 

Deprivation by poverty status

The deprivation rate for those at risk of poverty was 51.5% in 2015 compared with a high of 55.1% in 2013 and a low of 29.1% in 2008.  The deprivation rate for those NOT at risk of poverty was 20.3% in 2015, compared with a high of 25.6% in 2013 and a low of 7.9% in 2007.  See table 5.

Types of deprivation

At an overall level in 2015, the prevalence of ten of the eleven types of deprivation either declined or remained stable when compared to 2014. However, there was a small increase in the numbers experiencing an inability to keep the home adequately warm in 2015. The most common types of deprivation experienced were an inability to replace worn out furniture (24.4%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (18.6%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (16.8%). 

For those at risk of poverty, there was an increase in eight of the eleven types of deprivation.  There was a decrease in the numbers who had to go without heating at some stage during the year from 30.0% in 2014 to 27.9% in 2015. The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those at risk of poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (43.6%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (38.9%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (34.9%). 

For those not at risk of poverty, there was a decline in all eleven types of deprivation. The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those not at risk of poverty were again an inability to replace worn out furniture (20.5%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (14.4%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (13.1%).   See table 7a.

For those living in consistent poverty, there was increase in eight of the eleven types of deprivation. The types of deprivation most commonly experienced by those living in consistent poverty were an inability to replace worn out furniture (74.2%), afford a morning/afternoon/evening out (67.8%) and have family/friends over for a meal/drink (61.8%).  Over half of those living in consistent poverty (53.3%) reported going without heating at some stage in the last 12 months. See table 7c.

Consistent Poverty

The consistent poverty rate in 2015 was 8.7% compared with 8.8% in 2014, not a statistically significant change. See table A.

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by principal economic status shows that the consistent poverty rate was highest among individuals who were unemployed (26.2%) and lowest among those who were were at work (2.1%) and those who were retired (3.2%).

Further analysis of consistent poverty rates by household composition shows that individuals living in households where there was one adult and one or more children aged under 18 had the highest consistent poverty rate at 26.2%.  The consistent poverty rate was lowest for  individuals living in households where there were two adults, at least one of whom was aged 65 or over and there were no children (2.4%).

An analysis of consistent poverty rates by region shows that the rate for the Border, Midlands and Western region was 9.9% compared with 8.3% for the Southern and Eastern region. See table 2.

Table 1a Median real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
        All households
    Median real household   
    disposable income1 % change
          
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State34,55435,32737,322 2.25.6
Sex (head of household)    
 Male37,93939,09941,755 3.16.8
 Female30,97231,14732,187 0.63.3
Age group (head of household)      
 18-6438,84539,31341,899 1.26.6
 65+23,91824,56325,100 2.72.2
Principal Economic Status (head of household)      
 At work48,83849,44552,911 1.27.0
 Unemployed22,75223,64623,909 3.91.1
 Student24,34821,71817,993 -10.8 -17.2
 Home duties25,42225,43926,466 0.14.0
 Retired25,93725,97326,526 0.12.1
 Not at work due to illness or disability20,77720,54620,433 -1.1 -0.5
Highest education level attained (head of household)    
 Primary or below21,65822,77523,122 5.21.5
 Lower secondary28,86628,84229,317 -0.1 1.6
 Higher secondary35,48734,37737,028 -3.1 7.7
 Post leaving cert 31,25534,32836,660 9.86.8
 Third level non degree44,57644,07748,091 -1.1 9.1
 Third level degree or above59,86858,48362,012 -2.3 6.0
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+13,70313,92613,881 1.6-0.3
 1 adult aged <6516,80118,42016,643 9.6-9.6
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+29,30828,46031,669 -2.9 11.3
 2 adults, both aged <6539,81140,53541,501 1.82.4
 3 or more adults49,96050,14557,526 0.414.7
 1 adult with children aged under 1823,28722,40323,490 -3.8 4.9
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1846,63847,42649,692 1.74.8
 Other households with children aged under 1850,88952,31957,853 2.810.6
Number of persons at work in the household      
 020,24720,49220,484 1.20.0
 134,85934,77635,397 -0.2 1.8
 259,33560,37162,239 1.73.1
 3+81,94074,97180,391 -8.5 7.2
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied39,38139,72641,360 0.94.1
 Rented at the market rate32,94134,53935,267 4.92.1
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free21,66024,00925,465 10.86.1
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas37,37438,07339,411 1.93.5
 Rural areas29,85931,14733,644 4.38.0
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western29,04731,37233,875 8.08.0
 Southern and Eastern 36,68837,43338,829 2.03.7
1Deflator base year 2012   
Table 1b Mean real household disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
    Mean real household   
    disposable income1 % change
          
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State42,39543,06644,782 1.64.0
Sex (head of household)   
Male45,56746,89548,658 2.93.8
Female38,32238,13739,673 -0.54.0
Age group (head of household)    
 18-6445,89147,19949,021 2.93.9
 65+30,06428,92131,016 -3.87.2
Principal Economic Status (head of household)    
 At work55,70356,56858,740 1.63.8
 Unemployed25,65327,10928,566 5.75.4
 Student26,54924,18621,463 -8.9-11.3
 Home duties30,64130,54132,788 -0.37.4
 Retired35,14433,66832,141 -4.2-4.5
 Not at work due to illness or disability24,36125,28624,844 3.8-1.7
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below26,21526,63027,456 1.63.1
Lower secondary32,60932,78934,093 0.64.0
Higher secondary39,04440,46041,698 3.63.1
Post leaving cert 35,96038,45742,387 6.910.2
Third level non degree50,98952,96954,006 3.92.0
Third level degree or above66,93865,93966,842 -1.51.4
Household composition    
 1 adult aged 65+17,87817,66318,909 -1.27.1
 1 adult aged <6523,30724,36024,420 4.50.2
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+36,43334,11836,226 -6.46.2
 2 adults, both aged <6546,40847,18947,721 1.71.1
 3 or more adults58,21258,80761,735 1.05.0
 1 adult with children aged under 1826,03824,77425,152 -4.91.5
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1853,46455,18858,104 3.25.3
 Other households with children aged under 1857,32660,33661,977 5.32.7
Number of persons at work in the household    
 023,56523,48723,676 -0.30.8
 140,77940,36441,625 -1.03.1
 265,85766,81567,375 1.50.8
3+85,99781,19484,620 -5.64.2
Tenure status    
 Owner-occupied46,79047,39948,530 1.32.4
 Rented at the market rate38,01138,64940,680 1.75.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free25,43527,93631,087 9.811.3
Urban/rural location    
 Urban areas45,72545,72646,724 0.02.2
 Rural areas37,32638,56241,072 3.36.5
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western 35,10536,99939,153 5.45.8
 Southern and Eastern 45,10345,27846,801 0.43.4
Table 1c Median nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
    Median nominal    
   household disposable   
   income % change
          
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State34,90735,78537,752 2.55.5
Sex (head of household)      
Male38,32639,60642,236 3.36.6
Female31,28831,55132,558 0.83.2
Age group (head of household)     
 18-6439,24139,82342,382 1.56.4
 65+24,16224,88125,389 3.02.0
Principal Economic Status (head of household)    
 At work49,33650,08653,521 1.56.9
 Unemployed22,98423,95324,185 4.21.0
 Student24,59622,00018,200 -10.6 -17.3
 Home duties25,68125,76926,771 0.33.9
 Retired26,20226,31026,832 0.42.0
 Not at work due to illness or disability20,98920,81220,669 -0.8 -0.7
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below21,87923,07023,389 5.41.4
Lower secondary29,16129,21629,655 0.21.5
Higher secondary35,84934,82337,455 -2.9 7.6
Post leaving cert 31,57434,77337,083 10.16.6
Third level non degree45,03144,64948,646 -0.8 9.0
Third level degree or above60,47959,24162,727 -2.0 5.9
Household composition    
 1 adult aged 65+13,84314,10714,041 1.9-0.5
 1 adult aged <6516,97218,65916,835 9.9-9.8
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+29,60728,82932,034 -2.6 11.1
 2 adults, both aged <6540,21741,06141,980 2.12.2
 3 or more adults50,47050,79558,189 0.614.6
 1 adult with children aged under 1823,52522,69323,761 -3.5 4.7
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1847,11448,04150,265 2.04.6
 Other households with children aged under 1851,40852,99758,520 3.110.4
Number of persons at work in the household    
 020,45420,75820,720 1.5-0.2
 135,21535,22735,805 0.01.6
 259,94061,15462,957 2.02.9
3+82,77675,94381,318 -8.3 7.1
Tenure status    
 Owner-occupied39,78340,24141,837 1.24.0
 Rented at the market rate33,27734,98735,674 5.12.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free21,88124,32025,759 11.15.9
Urban/rural location    
 Urban areas37,75538,56739,865 2.23.4
 Rural areas30,16431,55134,032 4.67.9
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western29,34331,77934,266 8.37.8
 Southern and Eastern 37,06237,91839,277 2.33.6
Table 1d Mean nominal household disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All households
          
   Mean nominal   
   household disposable   
   income % change
          
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
         
    € € € %%
State42,82843,62445,298 1.93.8
Sex (head of household)    
Male46,03247,50349,219 3.23.6
Female38,71338,63140,130 -0.23.9
Age group (head of household)    
 18-6446,35947,81149,586 3.13.7
 65+30,37129,29631,374 -3.57.1
Principal Economic Status (head of household)    
 At work56,27157,30159,417 1.83.7
 Unemployed25,91527,46128,895 6.05.2
 Student26,82024,50021,710 -8.7-11.4
 Home duties30,95430,93733,166 -0.17.2
 Retired35,50334,10532,512 -3.9-4.7
 Not at work due to illness or disability24,61025,61425,130 4.1-1.9
Highest education level attained (head of household)     
Primary or below26,48226,97527,773 1.93.0
Lower secondary32,94233,21434,486 0.83.8
Higher secondary39,44240,98542,179 3.92.9
Post leaving cert 36,32738,95642,876 7.210.1
Third level non degree51,50953,65654,629 4.21.8
Third level degree or above67,62166,79467,613 -1.21.2
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+18,06017,89219,127 -0.96.9
 1 adult aged <6523,54524,67624,702 4.80.1
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+36,80534,56036,644 -6.16.0
 2 adults, both aged <6546,88247,80148,271 2.01.0
 3 or more adults58,80659,56962,447 1.34.8
 1 adult with children aged under 1826,30425,09525,442 -4.61.4
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1854,01055,90458,774 3.55.1
 Other households with children aged under 1857,91161,11862,692 5.52.6
Number of persons at work in the household    
 023,80523,79223,949 -0.10.7
 141,19540,88742,105 -0.73.0
 266,52967,68168,152 1.70.7
3+86,87482,24785,596 -5.34.1
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied47,26748,01449,090 1.62.2
 Rented at the market rate38,39939,15041,149 2.05.1
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free25,69528,29831,445 10.111.1
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas46,19246,31947,263 0.32.0
 Rural areas37,70739,06241,546 3.66.4
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western35,46337,47939,604 5.75.7
 Southern and Eastern 45,56345,86547,341 0.73.2
Table 1e Median equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
    Median equivalised   
   real disposable   
   income1 % change
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
         
    € € € %%
State18,07818,62319,772 3.06.2
Sex      
Male18,39518,72220,014 1.86.9
Female17,81318,42019,292 3.44.7
Age group      
 0-1717,15917,55618,681 2.36.4
 18-6419,03419,43020,483 2.15.4
 65+16,56216,36817,781 -1.28.6
Principal Economic Status      
 At work24,14224,21724,938 0.33.0
 Unemployed12,13612,59312,747 3.81.2
 Student14,71814,44315,100 -1.94.5
 Home duties14,35814,36614,829 0.13.2
 Retired17,43317,13018,756 -1.79.5
 Not at work due to illness or disability13,62513,32813,137 -2.2-1.4
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below14,46114,52414,619 0.40.7
Lower secondary15,02115,69816,452 4.54.8
Higher secondary17,83917,84818,917 0.16.0
Post leaving cert 16,72417,40419,045 4.19.4
Third level non degree22,86223,38525,082 2.37.3
Third level degree or above30,18330,40832,201 0.75.9
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+13,70313,92613,881 1.6-0.3
 1 adult aged <6516,80118,42016,643 9.6-9.6
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,65517,14519,078 -2.911.3
 2 adults, both aged <6523,98224,41825,001 1.82.4
 3 or more adults19,69219,41321,102 -1.48.7
 1 adult with children aged under 1812,99112,84214,154 -1.110.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1819,77220,43621,210 3.43.8
 Other households with children aged under 1815,24915,71216,171 3.02.9
Number of persons at work in the household      
 012,42412,61013,137 1.54.2
 116,74516,81717,325 0.43.0
 225,08325,75025,711 2.7-0.2
3+24,98324,17024,418 -3.31.0
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied20,35321,04822,050 3.44.8
 Rented at the market rate15,57216,10016,983 3.45.5
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free12,39812,71113,344 2.55.0
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas19,35619,22219,983 -0.74.0
 Rural areas16,48017,22219,285 4.512.0
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western15,79716,73717,829 6.06.5
 Southern and Eastern 18,96119,31120,436 1.85.8
1Deflator base year 2012
Table 1f Mean equivalised real disposable income1 by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
    Mean equivalised  
   real disposable   
   income1 % change
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State21,77322,10923,035 1.54.2
Sex      
Male22,00822,33923,440 1.54.9
Female21,54321,88422,641 1.63.5
Age group      
 0-1720,21320,84422,007 3.15.6
 18-6422,64323,16623,904 2.33.2
 65+20,84119,76321,174 -5.27.1
Principal Economic Status      
 At work27,67327,69828,315 0.12.2
 Unemployed13,42414,32714,989 6.74.6
 Student17,48216,54917,169 -5.33.7
 Home duties16,97216,88417,841 -0.55.7
 Retired22,42921,87521,840 -2.5-0.2
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,18815,05814,929 -0.9-0.9
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below16,15816,06617,024 -0.66.0
Lower secondary17,37317,86218,587 2.84.1
Higher secondary20,37820,46920,744 0.41.3
Post leaving cert 18,66919,48721,300 4.49.3
Third level non degree25,79626,95327,127 4.50.6
Third level degree or above34,16233,49834,257 -1.92.3
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+17,87817,66318,909 -1.27.1
 1 adult aged <6523,30724,36024,420 4.50.2
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+21,94820,55321,822 -6.46.2
 2 adults, both aged <6527,95728,42728,747 1.71.1
 3 or more adults22,44622,37523,663 -0.35.8
 1 adult with children aged under 1815,19114,54314,976 -4.33.0
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1822,89123,49224,661 2.65.0
 Other households with children aged under 1817,34018,43618,688 6.31.4
Number of persons at work in the household      
 0 14,36614,45915,079 0.64.3
 1 20,41720,24521,265 -0.85.0
 2 28,76629,29729,059 1.8-0.8
3+27,53826,41427,673 -4.14.8
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied24,00424,51425,242 2.13.0
 Rented at the market rate18,95719,20320,011 1.34.2
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free13,78214,41915,913 4.610.4
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas23,32323,13123,621 -0.82.1
 Rural areas19,40120,29621,844 4.67.6
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western18,42719,27820,502 4.66.3
 Southern and Eastern22,98523,11723,928 0.63.5
          
1Deflator base year 2012
Table 1g Median equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
    Median equivalised   
   nominal disposable   
   income % change
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State18,26218,86420,000 3.36.0
Sex      
Male18,58318,96520,245 2.16.7
Female17,99518,65919,514 3.74.6
Age group      
 0-1717,33417,78418,896 2.66.3
 18-6419,22819,68220,719 2.45.3
 65+16,73116,58017,986 -0.9 8.5
Principal Economic Status      
 At work24,38824,53125,226 0.62.8
 Unemployed12,26012,75612,894 4.01.1
 Student14,86814,63015,274 -1.6 4.4
 Home duties14,50514,55215,000 0.33.1
 Retired17,61117,35218,972 -1.5 9.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability13,76413,50113,288 -1.9 -1.6
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below14,60914,71214,788 0.70.5
Lower secondary15,17415,90216,642 4.84.7
Higher secondary18,02118,07919,135 0.35.8
Post leaving cert 16,89517,63019,265 4.49.3
Third level non degree23,09523,68825,371 2.67.1
Third level degree or above30,49130,80232,572 1.05.7
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+13,84314,10714,041 1.9-0.5
 1 adult aged <6516,97218,65916,835 9.9-9.8
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+17,83517,36719,298 -2.6 11.1
 2 adults, both aged <6524,22724,73525,289 2.12.2
 3 or more adults19,89319,66521,345 -1.1 8.5
 1 adult with children aged under 1813,12413,00914,317 -0.9 10.1
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1819,97420,70121,455 3.63.6
 Other households with children aged under 1815,40515,91616,357 3.32.8
Number of persons at work in the household      
 0 12,55112,77313,288 1.84.0
 1 16,91617,03517,525 0.72.9
 2 25,33926,08426,007 2.9-0.3
3+ 25,23824,48324,700 -3.0 0.9
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied20,56121,32122,304 3.74.6
 Rented at the market rate15,73116,30917,179 3.75.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free12,52512,87613,498 2.84.8
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas19,55319,47120,213 -0.4 3.8
 Rural areas16,64817,44519,507 4.811.8
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western15,95816,95418,035 6.26.4
 Southern and Eastern19,15419,56120,672 2.15.7
          
Table 1h Mean equivalised nominal disposable income by demographic characteristics and year
      All persons
    Mean equivalised  
    nominal disposable   
    income % change
   201320142015 2013-20142014-2015
    € € € %%
State 21,99522,39623,301 1.84.0
Sex       
Male22,23322,62923,710 1.84.8
Female21,76322,16822,902 1.93.3
Age group      
 0-1720,41921,11422,261 3.45.4
 18-6422,87423,46624,180 2.63.0
 65+21,05420,01921,418 -4.9 7.0
Principal Economic Status      
 At work27,95528,05728,642 0.42.1
 Unemployed13,56114,51315,162 7.04.5
 Student17,66016,76417,367 -5.1 3.6
 Home duties17,14517,10318,047 -0.2 5.5
 Retired22,65822,15922,092 -2.2 -0.3
 Not at work due to illness or disability15,34315,25315,101 -0.6 -1.0
Highest education level attained      
Primary or below16,32316,27417,220 -0.3 5.8
Lower secondary17,55018,09418,801 3.13.9
Higher secondary20,58620,73420,983 0.71.2
Post leaving cert 18,85919,74021,546 4.79.1
Third level non degree26,05927,30227,440 4.80.5
Third level degree or above34,51133,93234,652 -1.7 2.1
Household composition      
 1 adult aged 65+18,06017,89219,127 -0.9 6.9
 1 adult aged <6523,54524,67624,702 4.80.1
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+22,17220,81922,074 -6.1 6.0
 2 adults, both aged <6528,24228,79629,079 2.01.0
 3 or more adults22,67522,66523,936 0.05.6
 1 adult with children aged under 1815,34614,73215,149 -4.0 2.8
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 1823,12523,79724,945 2.94.8
 Other households with children aged under 1817,51718,67518,903 6.61.2
Number of persons at work in the household      
 014,51314,64615,253 0.94.1
 120,62520,50821,510 -0.6 4.9
 229,06029,67729,394 2.1-1.0
3+27,81926,75627,992 -3.8 4.6
Tenure status      
 Owner-occupied24,24924,83225,533 2.42.8
 Rented at the market rate19,15019,45220,242 1.64.1
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free13,92314,60616,097 4.910.2
Urban/rural location      
 Urban areas23,56123,43123,893 -0.6 2.0
 Rural areas19,59920,55922,096 4.97.5
Region      
 Border, Midland and Western18,61519,52820,738 4.96.2
 Southern and Eastern23,22023,41724,204 0.83.4
          
Table 2 At risk of poverty, Deprivation and Consistent poverty rates by year
         
           
    At risk of poverty Deprivation Consistent poverty
    rate rate1 rate
    20142015 20142015 20142015
    %% %%%%
       
State17.216.9 29.025.5 8.88.7
Sex         
 Male 17.016.9 27.924.4 8.68.3
 Female 17.416.9 30.126.7 9.09.1
Age group         
 0-17 20.319.5 36.131.4 12.711.5
 18-64 17.217.1 28.925.1 8.58.7
 65+ 10.910.7 14.315.4 2.12.7
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)        
 At work 6.05.8 19.916.4 2.62.1
 Unemployed 38.043.5 53.445.5 24.226.2
 Student 35.132.0 33.329.7 13.616.8
 Home duties 26.424.9 32.530.2 13.212.5
 Retired 11.412.7 12.514.2 2.53.2
 Not at work due to illness or disability 25.234.8 51.353.2 14.422.4
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)       
 Primary or below 21.723.1 35.035.0 10.113.1
 Lower secondary 23.523.7 36.529.7 12.912.2
 Higher secondary 20.519.4 27.825.5 9.29.1
 Post leaving cert  16.716.0 29.426.5 8.88.3
 Third level non degree 8.69.4 22.216.9 4.14.5
 Third level degree or above 6.15.6 11.89.8 1.41.6
Household composition         
 1 adult aged 65+ 14.714.7 20.315.9 2.73.8
 1 adult aged <65 26.634.8 32.131.9 14.917.7
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 11.09.6 12.114.6 1.92.4
 2 adults, both aged <65 11.011.7 22.320.5 5.05.5
 3 or more adults 15.514.1 21.418.3 4.14.7
 1 adult with children aged under 18 36.536.2 58.757.9 25.026.2
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 13.814.5 30.225.2 8.97.7
 Other households with children aged under 18 24.821.9 37.832.8 13.413.4
Number of persons at work in the household        
 0 38.239.6 40.642.3 20.523.6
 1 16.919.1 35.028.6 9.17.6
 2 2.92.7 16.814.0 0.41.0
 3+ 4.30.5 14.212.9 1.40.2
Tenure status         
 Owner-occupied 11.711.0 22.218.4 5.14.6
 Rented at the market rate 20.422.2 33.831.4 10.511.3
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 38.539.0 54.552.5 23.624.9
Urban/rural location         
 Urban areas 15.916.3 29.326.3 8.78.9
 Rural areas 19.518.2 28.624.1 9.18.3
Region         
 Border, Midland and Western 22.020.8 32.427.3 11.99.9
 Southern and Eastern 15.515.5 27.824.9 7.78.3
           
1 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation. 
Table 3a Composition of nominal household income1 and nominal equivalised income1 by year
            
   Nominal household income1 Nominal equivalised income1
   2012201320142015 2012201320142015
Average Weekly Income  
            
Direct Income          
 Employee income566.69593.76614.57649.91 299.72312.50323.84344.44
 Employer's social insurance contributions61.3266.3370.3173.42 32.6435.1337.3139.39
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment69.8278.1891.2798.42 36.4941.4748.7951.35
 Other direct income23.5722.5429.1323.16 11.2910.7813.6510.91
 Total direct income721.40760.82805.29844.91 380.13399.88423.60446.09
          
Social Transfers        
 Unemployment related payments 60.8657.4751.0447.18 32.0030.3026.7924.89
 Old-age related payments 64.2068.3571.5174.58 28.0629.5430.8232.10
 Occupational pension 55.7654.9455.3756.68 24.5524.1424.1524.67
 Family/children related allowances 53.3153.2751.3552.78 31.1730.9629.7930.67
 Housing allowances 10.6510.038.487.81 5.305.074.223.93
 Other social transfers 35.9538.2236.8137.19 17.5618.5417.9917.97
 Total social transfers 280.73282.29274.56276.22 138.63138.56133.76134.24
          
Gross Income 1,002.141,043.101,079.851,121.13 518.76538.44557.36580.33
          
Tax and Social Contributions        
 Tax on income and social contributions133.37151.12168.55174.78 70.6979.4588.4892.06
 Employer's social insurance contributions61.3266.3370.3173.42 32.6435.1337.3139.39
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid3.934.885.074.92 1.912.332.352.34
 Total Tax and Social Contributions198.62222.34243.93253.13 105.23116.91128.14133.79
        
Net Disposable Income 803.51820.77835.92868.01 413.52421.53429.21446.55
            
1 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household
Table 3b Composition of real household income1 and real equivalised income1 by year 
            
   Real household income1 Real equivalised income1
   2012201320142015 2012201320142015
Average Weekly Income  
            
Direct Income          
 Employee income566.69587.76606.70642.50 299.72309.34319.69340.51
 Employer's social insurance contributions61.3265.6669.4172.58 32.6434.7836.8338.94
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment69.8277.3990.1097.30 36.4941.0548.1750.76
 Other direct income23.5722.3128.7622.90 11.2910.6713.4810.79
 Total direct income721.40753.14794.98835.28 380.13395.84418.18441.00
            
Social Transfers          
 Unemployment related payments 60.8656.8950.3946.64 32.0029.9926.4524.61
 Old-age related payments 64.2067.6670.5973.73 28.0629.2430.4331.73
 Occupational pension 55.7654.3954.6656.03 24.5523.9023.8424.39
 Family/children related allowances 53.3152.7350.6952.18 31.1730.6529.4130.32
 Housing allowances 10.659.938.377.72 5.305.024.173.89
 Other social transfers 35.9537.8336.3436.77 17.5618.3517.7617.77
 Total social transfers 280.73279.44271.05273.07 138.63137.16132.05132.71
          
Gross Income 1,002.141,032.561,066.031,108.35 518.76533.00550.23573.71
            
Tax and Social Contributions          
 Tax on income and social contributions133.37149.59166.39172.79 70.6978.6587.3591.01
 Employer's social insurance contributions61.3265.6669.4172.58 32.6434.7836.8338.94
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid3.934.835.014.86 1.912.312.322.31
 Total Tax and Social Contributions198.62220.09240.81250.24 105.23115.73126.50132.26
           
Net Disposable Income 803.51812.48825.22858.11 413.52417.27423.72441.46
            
1 Household income is averaged over households while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household
Table 4a Nominal median income measures by year 1       
           
    20082009201020112012201320142015
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 46,58141,93839,01138,70437,51538,83240,33843,015
  Total disposable household income 40,42938,25535,28035,21633,92334,90735,78237,741
            
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income20,75820,10718,59118,14818,27618,26218,86420,000
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
   and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers17,49016,32414,35214,18414,42215,01815,38516,889
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
   all social transfers15,11813,40011,06110,56710,90411,19811,89813,588
            
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household
Table 4b Nominal mean income measures by year 1       
           
    20082009201020112012201320142015
            
National income definition         
  Total gross household income 60,58156,52254,13352,94952,29154,42956,34658,501
  Total disposable household income 49,04345,95943,15141,81941,92742,82843,61845,293
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
  Equivalised total disposable income24,38023,32622,13821,44021,57821,99522,39623,301
  Equivalised total disposable income including old-age        
  and survivors' benefits but excluding all other social transfers20,41818,75017,37516,78817,17817,65518,37719,362
  Equivalised total disposable income excluding        
  all social transfers17,98216,06714,42314,16114,27414,69615,49416,400
            
1 Gross and disposable household income is averaged over households, while equivalised income is averaged over individuals within the household.
Table 4c Nominal at risk of poverty thresholds by year        
           
    20082009201020112012201320142015
National income definition, national equivalence scale        
 At risk of poverty threshold         
  60% of median income 12,45512,06411,15510,88910,96610,95711,31812,000
  40% of median income 8,3038,0437,4367,2597,3107,3057,5468,000
  50% of median income 10,37910,0549,2969,0749,1389,1319,43210,000
  70% of median income 14,53114,07513,01412,70412,79312,78313,20514,000
 Illustrative values (60% level)         
  1 adult, no children 12,45512,06411,15510,88910,96610,95711,31812,000
  2 adults, 2 children 28,89627,98825,88025,26225,44125,42026,25827,840
            
Table 5 Key national indicators of poverty and social exclusion1 by year
     % of individuals
    20082009201020112012201320142015
National/NAPS Indicators          
At risk of poverty rate        
 Including all social transfers (60% median income threshold)14.414.114.716.017.316.517.216.9
 Including old-age and survivors' benefits but excluding all other        
 social transfers (60% threshold)34.636.039.139.839.138.136.534.9
  excluding all social transfers (60% median income threshold)43.046.250.250.750.249.448.346.3
  Including all social transfers (40% median income threshold)3.33.34.24.95.74.44.93.9
  Including all social transfers (50% median income threshold)7.96.97.68.510.18.99.89.1
  Including all social transfers (70% median income threshold)25.724.524.724.125.224.225.326.5
            
 Relative at risk of poverty gap 19.216.217.719.520.518.219.018.1
            
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2004 10.310.913.216.117.917.717.114.1
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2005 10.611.613.716.418.418.117.714.3
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2006 11.612.714.517.619.919.318.515.3
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2007 14.415.119.621.123.322.721.918.9
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2008 14.415.219.621.223.522.822.019.0
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2009 13.414.118.019.321.821.220.617.9
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2010 11.612.714.717.720.019.418.615.5
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2011 10.210.913.216.017.817.717.114.0
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2012 9.710.112.815.117.316.916.513.3
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2013 9.39.512.014.417.016.516.013.0
  At risk of poverty anchored at 2014 10.410.913.316.118.017.817.214.1
            
Deprivation rate2 13.717.122.624.526.930.529.025.5
  Those at risk of poverty 29.138.842.943.248.955.151.251.5
  Those NOT at risk of poverty 11.113.519.121.022.325.624.420.3
            
Consistent Poverty rate (60% median income threshold) 4.25.56.36.98.59.18.88.7
  Consistent poverty rate (40% median income threshold)0.60.91.91.72.72.11.91.8
  Consistent poverty rate (50% median income threshold)1.92.43.23.34.74.64.84.7
  Consistent poverty rate (70% median income threshold)7.99.510.210.712.513.212.912.8
1 See background notes for more information.        
2 Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.        
Table 6 The number of deprivation items experienced by year   
Number of deprivation items experienced1 20082009201020112012201320142015
           
% of individuals         
 0 (No deprivation) 75.071.463.959.857.055.156.359.5
 1 11.311.513.515.716.114.314.615.0
 2 4.87.48.59.19.39.78.87.7
 3+ 8.99.714.115.417.620.920.217.8
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 13.717.122.624.526.930.529.025.5
% of individuals at risk of poverty         
 0 (No deprivation) 54.143.438.137.333.628.333.431.0
 1 16.817.819.019.517.516.615.317.5
 2 12.312.913.212.915.815.414.410.4
 3+ 16.825.929.730.233.139.836.941.1
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 29.138.842.943.248.955.151.251.5
% of individuals NOT at risk of poverty         
 0 (No deprivation) 78.676.068.364.061.860.561.165.3
 1 10.310.512.615.015.913.914.514.5
 2 3.66.57.78.48.08.57.67.2
 3+ 7.57.011.412.514.317.116.713.1
 Total 100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
           
 2+ 11.113.519.121.022.325.624.420.3
           
1An individual is defined as being deprived if they experience two or more forms of enforced deprivation (deprivation rate)
Table 7a Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by poverty status and year
         % of individuals
     20082009201020112012201320142015
             
Deprivation Indicators         
 % of individuals         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year 6.37.310.512.212.915.715.713.6
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight11.114.919.321.123.325.122.218.6
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.72.12.93.14.95.25.15.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.83.45.56.77.68.17.66.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day3.02.13.02.83.94.23.52.7
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes5.64.57.67.310.410.610.610.3
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.61.12.02.23.73.93.72.7
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.74.16.86.88.510.08.89.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture13.316.320.321.724.525.825.524.4
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.19.414.414.816.118.719.316.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.33.45.15.86.07.26.45.4
             
 % of individuals at risk of poverty1         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year 13.017.022.321.726.030.930.027.9
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight21.629.636.735.838.042.238.638.9
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes3.44.36.75.210.810.010.315.4
  Unable to afford a roast once a week7.47.711.79.315.015.816.415.2
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day6.56.67.95.89.87.57.17.6
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes12.211.016.116.320.023.820.526.5
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat4.02.65.94.67.89.87.87.3
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm7.88.315.811.914.719.517.419.6
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture26.036.632.634.337.943.139.243.6
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month20.424.630.826.530.534.231.534.9
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year4.88.28.313.312.615.312.214.2
             
 % of individuals not at risk of poverty         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year 5.25.78.510.410.212.712.710.7
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight9.412.516.318.320.221.718.814.4
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.61.72.22.73.74.24.13.0
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.22.74.46.26.16.65.75.1
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.41.32.12.22.73.52.71.7
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes4.53.46.15.68.48.08.57.0
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.30.91.31.72.82.72.81.8
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.03.45.25.87.28.27.16.8
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture11.112.918.119.321.722.322.620.5
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month7.26.911.512.513.115.616.713.1
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year1.92.64.54.44.65.65.23.6
             
1 Including all social transfers, 60% median income threshold.       
Table 7b Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by deprivation status and year
         % of individuals
     20082009201020112012201320142015
             
Deprivation Indicators         
 % of individuals         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year6.37.310.512.212.915.715.713.6
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight11.114.919.321.123.325.122.218.6
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.72.12.93.14.95.25.15.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.83.45.56.77.68.17.66.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day3.02.13.02.83.94.23.52.7
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes5.64.57.67.310.410.610.610.3
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.61.12.02.23.73.93.72.7
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.74.16.86.88.510.08.89.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture13.316.320.321.724.525.825.524.4
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.19.414.414.816.118.719.316.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.33.45.15.86.07.26.45.4
             
 % of individuals experiencing deprivation         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year35.136.640.542.943.046.648.748.0
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight60.463.866.165.665.667.663.763.7
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes19.512.311.512.317.916.617.119.3
  Unable to afford a roast once a week25.519.323.824.727.524.825.624.2
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day20.512.112.911.114.613.311.610.4
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes38.022.631.326.634.532.633.236.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat18.06.48.48.713.312.512.610.1
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm25.122.729.626.530.732.029.634.3
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture69.970.368.768.169.869.469.069.2
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month53.549.755.353.355.555.259.557.7
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year16.018.922.222.420.423.021.219.8
             
 % of individuals not experiencing deprivation         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year1.81.21.82.31.92.22.21.8
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight3.34.95.66.77.76.55.33.1
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes0.00.00.40.10.10.10.20.2
  Unable to afford a roast once a week0.40.20.20.90.30.80.20.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day0.20.00.10.00.00.10.10.1
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes0.50.80.71.01.50.91.31.4
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat0.10.00.10.00.10.10.00.2
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm0.30.30.10.40.30.40.30.2
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture4.35.16.16.77.96.67.79.1
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month2.11.12.42.31.62.62.82.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year0.20.20.10.40.60.30.40.4
             
Table 7c Percentage of the population experiencing each type of deprivation by consistent poverty status
         % of individuals
     20082009201020112012201320142015
             
Deprivation Indicators         
 % of individuals         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year6.37.310.512.212.915.715.713.6
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight11.114.919.321.123.325.122.218.6
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.72.12.93.14.95.25.15.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week3.83.45.56.77.68.17.66.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day3.02.13.02.83.94.23.52.7
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes5.64.57.67.310.410.610.610.3
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.61.12.02.23.73.93.72.7
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm3.74.16.86.88.510.08.89.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture13.316.320.321.724.525.825.524.4
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month9.19.414.414.816.118.719.316.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year2.33.45.15.86.07.26.45.4
             
 % of individuals in consistent poverty         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year38.741.045.345.350.850.355.253.3
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight59.660.874.269.869.267.367.367.8
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes11.711.014.911.422.118.119.429.1
  Unable to afford a roast once a week25.119.726.721.330.327.031.828.3
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day21.017.118.513.320.113.613.814.4
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes38.921.635.434.135.440.737.047.0
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat12.76.713.710.615.617.815.314.1
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm23.721.236.927.529.234.534.037.0
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture72.775.462.764.765.372.266.674.2
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month55.161.662.054.260.358.657.261.8
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year16.320.819.430.521.927.223.326.4
             
 % of individuals not in consistent poverty         
  Without heating at some stage in the last year4.95.38.29.89.412.311.99.8
  Unable to afford a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight9.012.315.617.519.120.917.913.9
  Unable to afford two pairs of strong shoes2.31.62.12.53.33.93.72.8
  Unable to afford a roast once a week2.92.54.15.65.56.25.24.8
  Unable to afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day2.21.21.92.02.43.22.51.6
  Unable to afford new (not second-hand) clothes4.23.55.75.38.17.68.06.8
  Unable to afford a warm waterproof coat2.10.81.21.52.62.52.51.7
  Unable to afford to keep the home adequately warm2.83.14.75.26.57.66.46.3
  Unable to afford to replace any worn out furniture10.712.817.418.620.821.121.519.7
  Unable to afford to have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month7.16.411.211.812.014.615.612.5
  Unable to afford to buy presents for family or friends at least once a year1.72.44.14.04.55.24.83.4
             
Table 8 Profile of population at risk of poverty1, experiencing deprivation2 and in consistent poverty by
      demographic characteristics and year
           % of individuals
    2014 2015
       In    In
     At risk ofDeprivationconsistent  At risk ofDeprivationconsistent
    Populationpovertyrate2poverty Populationpovertyrate2poverty
             
State100.0100.0100.0100.0 100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sex         
 Male49.548.847.648.4 49.449.347.147.1
 Female50.551.252.451.6 50.650.752.952.9
Age group     
 0-1725.931.533.338.6 26.131.133.135.7
 18-6461.360.460.458.3 60.860.659.060.2
65+12.88.16.33.1 13.18.37.94.1
Principal Economic Status     
At work40.113.025.510.8 41.113.324.89.5
Unemployed6.316.013.319.9 5.314.510.016.9
Student7.615.28.611.5 7.513.98.514.2
Home duties10.316.111.815.8 10.214.911.914.5
Retired9.06.14.02.6 9.17.15.23.4
Not at work due to illness or disability2.85.66.76.2 2.88.38.410.4
Children under 16 years of age23.426.329.031.9 23.526.029.329.6
Highest education level attained      
 Primary or below 11.814.914.213.5 11.015.115.116.6
Lower secondary 13.318.216.719.5 13.018.315.218.3
Higher secondary 17.220.616.518.0 17.319.917.318.1
Post leaving cert  9.39.19.59.3 9.59.09.99.1
Third level non degree 9.94.97.64.6 10.55.86.95.4
Third level degree or above 13.84.95.62.3 13.64.55.22.5
Children under 16 years of age 23.826.329.031.9 23.826.029.329.6
Household composition     
1 adult aged 65+ 3.63.12.61.1 3.93.32.41.6
1 adult aged <65 4.57.05.07.7 4.69.55.89.4
2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 8.45.73.71.9 8.65.15.22.5
2 adults, both aged <65 12.07.28.66.4 11.37.48.66.9
3 or more adults 15.713.110.76.7 15.811.910.27.6
1 adult with children aged under 18 5.011.911.315.9 4.910.411.014.6
2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 33.828.136.535.2 34.131.336.032.3
Other households with children aged under 1816.823.921.625.2 16.821.020.925.1
Number of persons at work     
023.161.438.764.5 22.159.742.269.3
130.931.238.432.8 30.134.133.826.4
237.05.719.41.6 37.85.920.14.2
3+9.11.83.51.1 10.00.23.90.2
Tenure status     
Owner-occupied68.546.552.439.8 69.745.250.236.9
Rented at the market rate16.119.118.719.1 15.119.718.519.5
Rented at below the market rate or rent free15.334.428.941.1 15.235.131.343.5
Urban/rural location     
Urban areas63.959.164.562.9 67.064.569.068.6
Rural areas36.040.935.537.1 33.035.531.031.4
Region     
Border, Midland and Western26.633.629.335.4 26.432.127.929.5
 Southern and Eastern 73.466.470.764.6 73.667.972.170.5
1Including all social transfers, 60% median income threshold.
2Experienced two or more types of enforced deprivation.
Table A1 Sample size by demographic characteristics and year
        
    Number of households Number of individuals
    201320142015 201320142015
           
State 4,9225,4865,452 12,66314,07813,793
Sex1        
 Male 2,2032,4732,440 6,0976,9056,798
 Female 2,7193,0133,012 6,5667,1736,995
Age group1        
 0-17 016 3,5613,8333,629
 18-64 3,4953,9313,763 6,9987,9567,674
 65+ 1,4271,5541,683 2,1042,2892,490
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)1       
 At work 2,1182,4392,461 4,1364,8594,948
 Unemployed 466484373 965979756
 Student 918780 819920856
 Home duties 935983913 1,5191,6211,524
 Retired 1,0121,1401,223 1,4271,5891,737
 Not at work due to illness or disability 258299343 458534578
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)1       
 Primary or below 1,0971,1841,154 1,7611,9131,830
 Lower secondary 691817807 1,6131,8611,827
 Higher secondary 858950924 1,9892,3212,239
 Post leaving cert  658753745 1,1431,3041,340
 Third level non degree 612778802 1,0521,3731,407
 Third level degree or above 927943944 1,7241,7511,740
Household composition        
 1 adult aged 65+ 733783831 733783831
 1 adult aged <65 657765750 657765750
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+ 641731797 1,2821,4621,594
 2 adults, both aged <65 626747691 1,2521,4941,382
 3 or more adults 465504498 1,5691,7181,683
 1 adult with children aged under 18 339327284 923904788
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18 1,0891,1991,192 4,2514,6784,640
 Other households with children aged under 18 372430409 1,9962,2742,125
Number of persons at work in the household        
 0  2,1812,3282,290 4,2094,3784,109
 1  1,5101,6801,629 4,0824,4484,184
 2  1,0931,2971,331 3,7814,4864,654
 3+  138181202 591766846
Tenure status        
 Owner-occupied 3,5063,9154,021 8,8589,88910,011
 Rented at the market rate 697748646 1,9982,1071,829
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free 719823785 1,8072,0821,953
Urban/rural location        
 Urban areas 2,9253,2843,365 7,5648,6238,747
 Rural areas 1,9972,2022,087 5,0995,4555,046
Region        
 Border, Midland and Western 1,3651,5401,524 3,4173,8623,733
 Southern and Eastern 3,5573,9463,928 9,24610,21610,060
          
1Sex, age group , Principal Economic Status and highest education level attained refers to that of the head of household
Table A2 Average weekly equivalised income by net disposable equivalised income deciles and composition of net equivalised disposable income, 2015
        
              
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <195.74<245.45<281.07<325.67<383.52<436.86<508.75<609.16<764.40>764.40 
Average Weekly Equivalised Income  
Direct Income            
 Employee income 18.7650.0284.36150.69229.69296.64400.18493.57660.641,061.03344.59
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.463.988.2515.0725.0631.7047.6655.5977.06128.2139.41
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment8.8013.4512.0722.0327.6338.6542.9548.2592.19207.6651.37
 Other direct income 3.043.032.612.945.165.866.9811.5620.5447.4310.92
 Total Direct Income 32.0670.47107.29190.72287.55372.85497.76608.98850.431,444.33446.29
Social Transfers 
 Unemployment benefits 43.9243.8431.8225.122.6117.0511.019.237.4836.9724.90
 Old-age benefits 9.0324.4461.7342.1829.9429.7537.5434.8219.5732.1632.12
 Occupational pension 1.672.642.357.6616.4922.4925.2555.5043.8368.9124.68
 Family/children related allowances 38.7743.9439.5945.4834.0130.1322.3918.1517.6016.7630.68
 Housing allowances 3.178.4411.245.674.232.131.100.680.462.223.93
 Other social transfers 23.4337.8726.7820.3020.7018.409.637.576.887.9417.95
 Total Social Transfers 119.99161.15173.50146.38128.00119.95106.92125.9595.82164.96134.27
              
Gross Income 152.05231.62280.80337.11415.55492.80604.68734.93946.251,609.30580.56
Tax and Social Contributions 
 Tax on income and social contributions 1.275.038.9518.7733.9250.6384.34120.82188.52408.6992.10
 Employer's social insurance contributions 1.463.988.2515.0725.0631.7047.6655.5977.06128.2139.41
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid 2.891.470.430.771.591.921.432.483.945.622.25
 Total Tax and Social Contributions 5.6210.4817.6334.6160.5784.25133.42178.89269.52542.52133.76
   
Net Disposable Income 146.43221.14263.17302.50354.98408.56471.26556.04676.731,066.78446.79
              
Table A3 Average weekly household income by net disposable household income deciles and composition of net household disposable income, 2015
        
              
Decile 12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€) <251.40<381.30<485.20<602.60<723.50<865.70<1,049.70<1,270.40<1,597.20>1,597.20 
Average Weekly household Income  
Direct Income            
 Employee income 8.6422.9162.91137.35289.75466.17698.06980.031,424.362,404.84649.91
 Employer's social insurance contributions 0.431.534.4311.6228.3347.7572.14109.73162.71295.1073.42
 Cash benefits or losses from self-employment7.1114.0115.6237.4052.6068.76111.92140.04162.47373.4798.42
 Other direct income 6.167.207.8312.2517.1416.8918.5728.9533.2583.2823.16
 Total Direct Income 22.3445.6590.79198.61387.81599.57900.701,258.761,782.793,156.69844.91
Social Transfers            
 Unemployment benefits 31.8343.9352.4679.4960.5453.0243.7725.7823.6457.3347.18
 Old-age benefits 67.30128.30165.27161.00168.57155.11133.59129.0383.84120.38131.25
 Family/children related allowances 11.5938.6965.4483.3269.6057.7952.4553.9746.3448.4652.78
 Housing allowances 8.8615.5515.2713.2410.976.821.981.040.833.607.81
 Other social transfers 43.9137.9258.7247.5541.9947.9832.9624.1923.5013.2937.19
 Total Social Transfers 163.49264.39357.16384.61351.67320.72264.75234.00178.16243.06276.22
              
Gross Income 185.84310.05447.95583.22739.48920.291,165.451,492.761,960.953,399.751,121.13
Tax and Social Contributions            
 Tax on income and social contributions 0.691.714.6015.4237.8470.75137.72223.15364.19890.28174.78
 Employer's social insurance contributions 0.431.534.4311.6228.3347.7572.14109.73162.71295.1073.42
 Regular inter-household cash transfers paid 0.683.311.131.806.622.182.654.6210.0616.144.92
 Total Tax and Social Contributions 1.806.5410.1628.8472.80120.68212.51337.51536.951,201.52253.13
              
Net Disposable Income 184.03303.50437.79554.38666.68799.61952.941,155.251,424.002,198.22868.01
              
Table A4 Demographic characteristics of individuals by net disposable equivalised income deciles, 2015
         
               
Decile  12345678910State
Weekly threshold (€)  <195.74<245.45<281.07<325.67<383.52<436.86<508.75<609.16<764.40>764.40 
               
Distribution across deciles%%%%%%%%%%%
Sex             
Male  9.810.310.610.410.19.710.09.89.89.4100.0
Female  10.29.79.49.69.910.310.010.210.210.6100.0
Age group             
 0-17  11.111.69.311.410.39.510.88.78.78.5100.0
 18-64  10.49.58.38.610.010.69.510.511.211.4100.0
 65+  5.89.319.113.39.08.410.810.57.26.6100.0
Principal Economic Status (aged 16 years and over)            
 At work  3.04.45.17.310.411.612.213.915.716.5100.0
 Unemployed  27.222.711.811.79.37.83.61.22.42.5100.0
 Student  23.512.211.611.99.69.96.36.15.63.2100.0
 Home duties  15.713.118.813.89.68.97.35.93.23.8100.0
 Retired  7.89.115.711.58.99.410.512.48.06.7100.0
 Not at work due to illness or disability  14.827.820.39.98.39.04.63.80.70.7100.0
Highest education level attained (aged 16 years and over)            
Primary or below  12.515.520.814.710.28.56.67.02.02.2100.0
Lower secondary  13.714.513.010.812.011.88.58.04.63.2100.0
Higher secondary  12.79.79.710.111.213.59.89.68.75.1100.0
Post leaving cert   9.210.49.812.711.710.910.310.49.65.0100.0
Third level non degree  6.54.95.26.18.59.214.916.114.813.8100.0
 Third level degree or above  3.73.23.54.55.76.38.411.821.431.5100.0
Household composition             
 1 adult aged 65+  7.815.734.47.36.24.07.54.46.26.7100.0
 1 adult aged <65  17.621.26.45.44.14.64.011.010.715.1100.0
 2 adults, at least 1 aged 65+  5.77.114.714.710.49.911.712.37.06.5100.0
 2 adults, both aged <65  7.37.38.45.18.58.48.010.114.922.0100.0
 3 or more adults  10.15.56.48.312.112.610.213.512.39.0100.0
 1 adult with children aged under 18  21.618.114.019.011.46.62.33.32.01.7100.0
 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18  7.29.88.07.711.410.212.010.111.711.9100.0
 Other households with children aged under 18 15.211.010.216.67.812.510.38.45.72.4100.0
Number of persons at work in the household            
 0  25.320.318.610.96.35.14.54.62.22.3100.0
 1  9.912.212.412.911.910.88.47.46.27.9100.0
 2  1.42.83.87.89.911.814.314.117.017.0100.0
3+  0.31.41.46.115.214.814.118.517.410.9100.0
Tenure status             
 Owner-occupied  6.76.78.59.49.910.911.212.212.412.1100.0
 Rented at the market rate  10.816.511.410.813.18.011.25.46.56.2100.0
 Rented at below the market rate or rent free  24.218.715.712.17.57.83.54.32.24.1100.0
Urban/rural location             
 Urban areas  9.59.510.010.39.710.09.610.19.811.6100.0
 Rural areas  10.911.010.19.410.610.110.99.810.36.9100.0
Region             
 Border, Midland and Western  11.912.311.39.013.410.010.28.07.76.2100.0
 Southern and Eastern  9.39.29.610.38.810.09.910.710.811.4100.0
               
Table A5 Summary of deprivation indicators by net equivalised income decile, 2015
                      
  Number of deprivation indicators experienced
        
Distribution across deciles0123+Total2+
DecileWeekly threshold (€)%%%%%%
2015 59.515.07.717.8100.025.5
        
1<195.7430.817.210.141.9100.052.0
2<245.4532.817.611.138.5100.049.6
3<281.0743.417.510.828.2100.039.1
4<325.6750.515.314.020.2100.034.2
5<383.5251.219.311.018.4100.029.5
6<436.8665.914.26.213.6100.019.9
7<508.7572.216.54.96.4100.011.3
8<609.1675.913.26.14.8100.011.0
9<764.4084.011.61.62.8100.04.4
10>764.4088.27.31.23.3100.04.5
        

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The primary focus of the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) is the collection of information on the income and living conditions of different types of households in Ireland, in order to derive indicators on poverty, deprivation and social exclusion.  It is a voluntary (for selected respondents) survey of private households.  It is carried out under EU legislation (Council Regulation No 1177/2003) and commenced in Ireland in June 2003.  

Reference period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year with household interviews being conducted on a weekly basis. The income reference period for SILC is the 12 months immediately prior to date of interview. Therefore, the income referenced spans the period from January 2014 to December 2015. In 2015, the achieved sample size was 5,452 households and 13,793 individuals.

Timeliness

For 2015, the  results of the SILC survey were published thirteen months after the end of the reference period and twelve months after the end of the data collection period.  It is important to take into account a number of factors when comparing the timeliness of the Irish results with those of other countries.  These factors include; the timing and duration of the data collection fieldwork and the exact reference year of the data collected. For example, some EU member states use income data from the previous year (T-1) as a proxy for current (T) annual income.  As noted above, the income referenced in Ireland’s 2015 SILC data spans the period from January 2014 to December 2015

Rotational Sample Design

The SILC sample is a rotational sample. In 2014, both a new sample and a new sampling methodology were introduced.  However, as earlier waves of the sample introduced in 2012 and 2013 still exist in the overall sample, the new improved sample represents just over 74% of the overall sample.

There is both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal element to the SILC sample. Households interviewed for the first time are Wave 1 households.  Households who are interviewed in subsequent years are Wave 2 households (2nd year in the sample), Wave 3 households (3rd year in the sample) or Wave 4 (4th and final year in the sample). The initial sample design attempts to seed the sample with 25% for each new wave. However, due to non-response and sample attrition the waves are not evenly balanced in the sample with Wave 1 households usually tending to dominate. 

The CSO has strengthened its own rules and procedures around sample implementation.  One of the key improvements in sample implementation over the past number of years is the ruling out of the substitution of households by interviewers. 

Response Rates

The overall response rate for the SILC survey in 2015 was 60%.  The response rate is heavily influenced by the Wave 1 response rate which was 38% in 2015.  The response rates tend to be a lot higher for Wave 2-4 households and in 2015 the response rate for Wave 2-4 households was 83%.

Sample design (Waves 1-2 households in 2015) 

In 2014, a new sampling methodology was introduced to improve the robustness of the SILC Sample.  However, as earlier waves of the sample introduced in  2012 and 2013 still exist, the new improved sample represents just over 74% of the overall achieved sample. The sample methodology takes into account response rates and attrition rates to ensure the CSO achieves the required effective sample size required by Eurostat.  The following is a brief overview of the revised SILC sample methodology:

  • The SILC sample is a multi-stage cluster sample resulting in all households in Ireland having an equal probability of selection.
  • The sample is stratified by NUTS4 and quintiles derived from the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index.
  • A sample of 1,200 blocks (i.e. Household Survey Collection Unit Small Areas, Census 2011) fom the total population of blocks is selected.
  • Blocks are selected using probability proportional to size (PPS), where the size of the block is determined by the number of occupied households on Census night 2011.
  • All occupied households on Census night 2011 within each block are eligible for selection in the SILC sample.
  • Households within blocks are selected using simple random sampling without replacement (SRS) for inclusion in the survey sample.

Sample design (Wave 3-4 Households in 2015) 

A two-stage cluster sample design was used. This comprised of a first stage sample of 1,690 blocks (or small areas) selected at county level to proportionately represent eight strata reflecting population density. Each block was selected to contain, on average, 30 dwellings for SILC. The eight population density strata groups used were as follows:

  • 1 Cities
  • 2 Suburbs of cities
  • 3 Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the suburbs of cities
  • 4 Towns and their environs with populations of 5,000 or over (large urban)
  • 5 Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the environs of larger towns
  • 6 Towns and their environs with a population of 1,000 to 5,000 (other urban)
  • 7 Mixed urban/rural areas
  • 8 Rural areas

The second stage of sampling involved the random selection of households for each block.

Weighting

A design weight is assigned to each household which is calculated as the inverse proportion to the probability with which the household was sampled. For SILC, the probability of the selection of a household is based on two elements; the probability of the selection of a block and the probability of selection of a household within that block. The design weights were calculated separately for each wave.

For Wave 1 households, the design weights were calculated as outlined above and adjusted so as to be proportional to the 2015 sample as a whole.  For Wave 2-4 households, base weights were calculated by firstly adjusting the personal weights from the previous year for non-response. The Weight Share Method was then applied to calculate a base weight for the household. These design weights were then adjusted so as to be proportional to the original sample as a whole.

In accordance with Eurostat recommendation, CALMAR was used to calculate the household cross-sectional weights. Benchmark information was used to gross up the data to population estimates. The benchmark estimates were based on:

  • Age by sex: Individual population estimates are generated from population projections from census data. Age is broken down into four categories: 0-14, 15-34, 35-64 and 65 and over.
  • Region: Household population estimates in each of the eight NUTS3 regions are generated using Labour Force Survey (LFS) data.
  • Household composition: Household composition estimates are also generated from the LFS. The following categories are used:

¨       One adult, no children

¨       Two adults, no children

¨       Three or more adults, no children

¨       One adult, one or more children

¨       Two adults, one to three children

¨       Other households with children

Due to the “integrative” calibration method, the personal weight generated in CALMAR is equal to the household weight. Because there is no individual non-response within a household, the weights for personal cross-sectional respondents aged 16 and over are the same as the overall personal weight.

Precision estimates and statistical significance

Estimates were calculated in SAS using the Jackknife and the Taylor Linearisation methodology.  For the mean equivalised net disposable income, the ‘At Risk of Poverty’ rate, the ‘Deprivation’ rate and the ‘Consistent Poverty’ rate, the Jackknife Method in PROC SURVEYMEANS was used. The Taylor Linearisation Method in PROC SURVEYMEANS was used to measure the precision of the quantiles. 

SAS routines and macros were developed to calculate the precision of the more complex statistics, i.e. the Gini Coefficient and the Quintile Share Ratio (QSR), using the Jackknife Method.  The variance of the Gini and the QSR was estimated using the methodology outlined in Lohr1 Ch. 9 ( Variance Estimation in Complex Surveys).  The calculations of the precision estimates took into account the weighting,  the complex structure of the sample, (i.e. the fact that the sample was a cluster sample as opposed to a simple random sample) and other complications arising from the methods adopted.

When measuring the year on year change of a statistic, we take into account both the variance of the statistic in each year (sample) and the covariance of the statistic between samples.

1Sampling: Design and Analysis, 2nd Edition, Sharon L. Lohr (2010).

Data collection

The annual SILC survey is the main data source for SILC. Information is collected from all household members on laptop computers by trained interviewers, using Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) software. 

In addition, the CSO has two primary micro data sources.  These are the Department of Social Protection (DSP) social welfare data and Revenue Commissioners’ employee income data. The DSP’s INFOSYS system provides details of long-term social welfare schemes while details relating to short-term payments are provided in the DSP Integrated Short Term Schemes (ISTS) administrative records. The CSO continues to work with DSP and Revenue to ensure good quality data is available on a timely basis. 

Definitions of Income

Gross income

Income details are collected at both a household and individual level in SILC.  In analysis, each individual’s income is summed up to household level and in turn added to household level income components to calculate gross household income.  The components of gross household income are:

Direct Income:

Employee income

Gross employee cash or near cash income

Gross non-cash employee income

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Gross cash benefits or losses from self-employment

Other direct income:

  • Value of goods produced for own consumption
  • Pension from individual private plans
  • Income from rental of property or land
  • Regular inter-household cash transfers received
  • Interests, dividends, profit from capital investments in unincorporated business
  • Income received by people aged under 16

Social Transfers:

Unemployment related payments
Old-age payments (note that this includes all occupational pensions and other such social welfare payments to those aged 65 and over)
Family/children related allowances:

  • Maternity/adoptive benefit
  • Child benefit
  • Single parent allowances
  • Carers’ benefit

Housing allowances:

  • Rent supplement
  • Free phone/electricity etc
  • Fuel allowances
  • Exceptional needs payments

Other Social transfers:

  • Survivor's benefits
  • Sickness benefits
  • Disability benefits
  • Education related allowances
  • Social exclusion not elsewhere classified

Disposable income

Tax and social insurance contributions are also summed to household level and subtracted from the gross household income to calculate the total disposable household income.  The components of disposable household income are gross household income less:

Employer’s social insurance contributions

Regular inter-household cash transfer paid

Tax on income and social insurance contributions

Tax deducted at source from individual private pension plans 

Real/Nominal income figures

Both nominal and real income figures are included in this release.  Real income figures have been adjusted for inflation by applying a deflator to the nominal income figures.  The deflator is derived from the monthly CPI and takes into account the rolling nature of the income data collected by SILC.

Equivalence scales

Equivalence scales are used to calculate the equivalised household size in a household.  Although there are numerous scales, we focus on the national scale in this release.  The national scale attributes a weight of 1 to the first adult, 0.66 to each subsequent adult (aged 14+ living in the household) and 0.33 to each child aged less than 14.  The weights for each household are then summed to calculate the equivalised household size.

Equivalised disposable household Income

Disposable household income is divided by the equivalised household size to calculate equivalised disposable income for each person, which essentially is an approximate measure of how much of the income can be attributed to each member of the household. This equivalised income is then applied to each member of the household.

Household composition

For the purposes of deriving household composition, a child was defined as any member of the household aged 17 or under. Households were analysed as a whole, regardless of the number of family units within the household. The categories of household composition are:

  • 1 adult aged 65+
  • 1 adult aged <65
  • 2 adults at least 1 aged 65+
  • 2 adults, both aged <65
  • 3 or more adults
  • 1 adult, with children aged under 18
  • 2 adults with 1-3 children aged under 18
  • Other households with children aged under 18

Tenure status

Tenure status refers to the nature of the accommodation in which the household resides. The status is provided by the respondent during the interview and responses are classified into the following three categories:

  • Owner-occupied
  • Rented at the market rate
  • Rented at below the market rate or rent free ( includes Local Authority housing, rent-free lettings or rents agreed at below the market rate)

Urban/rural location

From 2014 onwards due to the new sampling methodology, areas are now classified as Urban or Rural based on the following population densities derived from Census of Population 2011:

Urban

  •       Population density >100,000
  •       Population density 50,000 – 99,999
  •       Population density 20,000 – 49,999
  •       Population density 10,000 – 19,999
  •       Population density 5,000 – 9,999
  •        Population density 1,000 – 4,999

Rural

  •       Population density <199 – 999
  •       Rural areas in counties

Prior to 2014, areas were classified as Urban or Rural based on the following population densities:

Urban

  •      Cities
  •      Suburbs of cities
  •      Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the suburbs of cities
  •      Towns and their environs with populations of 5,000 or over (large urban)
  •      Mixed urban/rural areas bordering on the environs of larger towns
  •      Towns and their environs with a population of 1,000 to 5,000 (other urban)

Rural

  •      Mixed urban/rural areas
  •      Rural areas. 

In the 2014 sample, wave 2-4 households retain this earlier urban-rural categorisation of households.

Regions

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat. The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994. The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. 

Indicators

At risk of poverty rate 

This is the share of persons with an equivalised income below a given percentage (usually 60%) of the national median income.  It is also calculated at 40%, 50% and 70% for comparison.  The rate is calculated by ranking persons by equivalised income from smallest to largest and then extracting the median or middle value.  Anyone with an equivalised income of less than 60% of the median is considered at risk of poverty at a 60% level.

Deprivation rate

Households that are excluded and marginalised from consuming goods and services which are considered the norm for other people in society, due to an inability to afford them, are considered to be deprived. The identification of the marginalised or deprived is currently achieved on the basis of a set of eleven basic deprivation indicators:

  1. Two pairs of strong shoes

  2. A warm waterproof overcoat

  3. Buy new (not second-hand) clothes

  4. Eat meal with meat, chicken, fish (or vegetarian equivalent) every second day

  5. Have a roast joint or its equivalent once a week

  6. Had to go without heating during the last year through lack of money

  7. Keep the home adequately warm

  8. Buy presents for family or friends at least once a year

  9. Replace any worn out furniture

  10. Have family or friends for a drink or meal once a month

  11. Have a morning, afternoon or evening out in the last fortnight for entertainment

Individuals who experience two or more of the eleven listed items are considered to be experiencing enforced deprivation. This is the basis for calculating the deprivation rate.

Consistent poverty

The consistent poverty measure looks at those persons who are defined as being at risk of poverty and experiencing enforced deprivation (experiencing two or more types of deprivation).

An individual is defined as being in ‘consistent poverty’ if they are

  • Identified as being at risk of poverty and
  • Living in a household deprived of two or more of the eleven basic deprivation items listed above 

Relative at risk of poverty gap

This is the difference between the median equivalised income of persons below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold and the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, expressed as a percentage of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.  The purpose of the indicator is to measure how far below the poverty threshold the median income of people at risk of poverty is. The closer the median income of those at risk of poverty is to the at risk of poverty threshold the smaller the percentage will be.

At risk of poverty rate before social transfers

This indicator is calculated based on two alternative measures of equivalised income. The first calculates equivalised income as the total disposable household income including old-age and survivors’ benefits but excluding all other social transfers.  The second excludes all social transfers.  Any person with an equivalised income before social transfers of less than 60% of the median after social transfers is considered at risk of poverty before social transfers (i.e. the same threshold is used for calculating the rate before and after social transfers).

At risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time

For a given year, the “at risk of poverty rate anchored at a moment in time” is the share of the population whose income in a given year is below the at risk of poverty threshold calculated in the standard way for a previous base year and then adjusted for inflation.  The purpose of this indicator is to get some indication of the changes in ‘absolute poverty’ over time.  The deflator is derived from the monthly CPI and takes into account the rolling nature of the income data collected by SILC.

Gini coefficient

This is the relationship between cumulative shares of the population (ranked according to the level of income from lowest to highest) and the cumulative share of total income received by them, i.e. the Lorenz Curve.  If there was perfect equality (i.e. each person receives the same income) the Gini coefficient would be 0%.  A Gini coefficient of 100% would indicate there was total inequality and the entire national income was in the hands of one person.

Calculation of the Gini Coefficient

 

Gini Equation 1

 

 

 

Wgti = Final calibrated weight per individual ‌

Eq_Inci= Equivalised disposable income ‌

 

Background Notes Image 2

Inequality of income distribution (S80/S20) quintile share ratio

This is the ratio of the average equivalised income received by the 20% of persons with the highest income (top quintile) to that received by the 20% of persons with the lowest income (lowest quintile).

Acknowledgement

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the SILC survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

 For more information contact Hilda.McCarthy@cso.ie or Patrick.foley@cso.ie or call 021 4535487.

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