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For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Martina O'Callaghan (+353) 21 453 5491 Brian Ring (+353) 21 453 5747
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information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-5112
CSO statistical release, 26 August 2014, 11am

Quarterly National Household Survey

Quarter 2 2014

IndicatorQuarter 2 2014Annual change
Employed1,901,600 +31,600
Unemployed254,500-46,200
In labour force2,156,100 -14,500
Not in labour force1,437,700 +22,100

Employment increases by 1.7% in year to Q2 2014

There was an annual increase in employment of 1.7% or 31,600 in the year to the second quarter of 2014, bringing total employment to 1,901,600.  This compares with an annual increase in employment of 2.3% in the previous quarter and an increase of 1.8% in the year to Q2 2013.

Summary points for Q2 2014

  • The increase in total employment of 31,600 in the year to Q2 2014 was represented by an increase in full-time employment of 33,500 (+2.4%) and a decrease in part-time employment of 1,900 (-0.4%). See table 1 and figure 1.
  • On a seasonally adjusted basis, employment increased by 4,300 (+0.2%) over the previous quarter. This follows on from a seasonally adjusted increase in employment of 1,200 (+0.1%) in Q1 2014, an increase of 9,800 (+0.5%) in Q4 2013, an increase of 18,200 (+1.0%) in Q3 2013 and an increase of 14,400 (+0.8%) in Q2 2013. See table 3.
  • The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate decreased from 12.0% to 11.5% over the quarter while the number of persons unemployed fell by 12,700. See table 3.
  •  Unemployment decreased by 46,200 (-15.4%) in the year to Q2 2014 bringing the total number of persons unemployed to 254,500. This is the eighth quarter in succession where unemployment has declined on an annual basis. See table 1.
  • The long-term unemployment rate decreased from 8.1% to 6.8% over the year to Q2 2014.  Long-term unemployment accounted for 57.6% of total unemployment in Q2 2014 compared with 58.2% a year earlier and 61.8% in the second quarter of 2012. See table 6.
  • The total number of persons in the labour force in the second quarter of 2014 was 2,156,100, representing a decrease of 14,500 (-0.7%) over the year.  This compares with an annual labour force increase of 11,500 (+0.5%) in Q2 2013.  The number of persons not in the labour force in Q2 2014 was 1,437,700, an increase of 22,100 (+1.6%) over the year. See table 1.

 Note: Please see background notes for discussion on the interpretation in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc.

After each Census of Population the sample of households for the QNHS is updated to ensure the sample remains representative.The new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was introduced incrementally from Q4 2012 to Q4 2013. This change in sample can lead to some level of variability in estimates, particularly at more detailed levels and some caution is warranted in the interpretation of trends involving the period of its introduction.

 

 Employment

  • The annual increase of 31,600 (+1.7%) in employment was represented by an increase of 24,900 (+2.5%) in male employment and an increase of 6,700 (+0.8%) in female employment over the year. See tables 1, 7 and figure 1.
  • Employment increased in ten of the fourteen economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated) and fell in four. The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Administrative and support service activities (+10.7% or 6,200), the Accommodation and food service activities (+6.2% or 8,000) and the Agriculture, forestry and fishing (+6.2% or 6,400) sectors. See table 2 and figure 2 below.
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 2013Q2 2014
1103400109800
2238400235700
3102700106300
4271500269500
58600090500
6129600137700
78040081900
89890097200
9108000114100
105800064200
119510096600
12150300151200
13244600246100
1410180099000
KEY  
1- Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2- Industry
3- Construction
4- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
5- Transportation and storage
6- Accommodation and food storage activities
7- Information and communication
8- Financial, insurance and real estate activities
9- Professional, scientific and technical activities
10- Administrative and support service activities
11- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
12- Education
13- Human health and social work activities
14- Other NACE activities

 

  • In the case of the Agriculture, forestry and fishing sector it can be noted that estimates of employment in this sector have shown to be sensitive to sample changes over time. Given the introduction of the sample based on the 2011 Census of Population as outlined in the note above, particular caution is warranted in the interpretation of the trend in this sector at this time. See table 2 and figure 2 above.
  • The greatest rates of decline were recorded in the Other NACE activities (-2.7% or -2,800), Financial, insurance and real estate activities (-1.7% or –1,700) and Industry (-1.1% or -2,700) sectors. See table 2 and figure 2 above.
  • The overall employment rate among persons aged 15-64 was 61.3% in Q2 2014 compared to 60.2% in Q2 2013. See table 8.
  • The number of employees in Q2 2014 was 1,572,000, up 21,200 (+1.4%) over the year. The number of self-employed persons increased by 11,900 or +3.9% to 315,700. See table 5.

 

 

Public Sector Employment

  • Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector employment estimates over time. Table A2 in the annex shows these estimates of public sector employment.
  • The number of employees in the public sector declined by 3,900 (-1.0%) in the year to Q2 2014, bringing the total number of employees in the public sector to 374,300. The total reduction in employment in the public sector over the three years from Q2 2011 to Q2 2014 was 33,000 (-8.1%). See table A2.
  • The number of employees in the private sector showed an increase of 25,400 (+2.2%) over the year to Q2 2014, compared with an increase of 21,100 (+1.9%) in the year to Q2 2013. The total number of employees in the private sector increased by 47,100 (+4.2%) over the three years from Q2 2011 to Q2 2014. See table A2.

 

 

Unemployment

  • Male unemployment decreased by 28,200 (-14.9%) to 161,300 over the year to Q2 2014 while female unemployment decreased by 18,000 (-16.2%) to 93,200 over the same period. See tables 1 and 7.
  • The overall unadjusted unemployment rate decreased from 13.9% to 11.8% over the year to Q2 2014. See tables 1 and 8.
  • In the year to Q2 2014, the number of persons classified as long-term unemployed decreased by 28,500 (-16.3%), bringing total long-term unemployment to 146,500. Short-term unemployment decreased by 18,200 (-14.9%) over the year to 103,600. See table 6 and figure 3 below.

 

Short-termLong-term
Q2 11 Male80900130400
Q2 14 Male56400101800
Q2 11 Female5400047700
Q2 14 Female4720044800
  • The unemployment rate for 15-24 year olds (youth unemployment rate) decreased from 29.6% to 26.9% over the year to Q2 2014. See table 8.
  • The previously published standardised unemployment rate (SUR) for May 2014 was 11.7%. This was based on the short-term trend in the Live Register since the previous QNHS seasonally adjusted unemployment rate benchmark from Q1 2014. This rate is now revised to 11.5% in line with the QNHS estimate for Q2 2014. Provisional estimates for more recent months are included in table A3 in the annex and are subject to update once Live Register information becomes available for August 2014. See table A3.

 

 

Labour force

  • As with employment, the number of persons in the labour force is also influenced by changes in the size of the working age population (demographic effect).  Up to the start of 2008 this demographic effect had been adding 65,000 or more to the labour force on an annual basis, primarily driven by net inward migration.  This demographic effect peaked at almost 88,000 in the second quarter of 2007. See tables 1 and 7.
  • With the decline in inward migration the positive demographic effect started to fall in the second half of 2007 and continued to decline throughout 2008 and 2009 before becoming negative in Q4 2009. In Q2 2014 this negative demographic effect contributed 9,300 to the overall decline in the labour force. This negative demographic effect is exclusively concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups.
  • In addition to the demographic effect the change in the size of the labour force is influenced by changes in participation. Overall, there was a negative participation effect of 5,200 on the size of the labour force over the year. This is also reflected in a decrease in the overall participation rate from 60.5% to 60.0% over the year to Q2 2014. See tables 1 and 8.
  • Of those persons not in the labour force, the number classified as being in the potential additional labour force was 51,800, representing a decrease of 8,200 (-13.7%) in the year to the second quarter of 2014. See table 1.

 

 

International Comparisons

  • The employment rate in Ireland increased by 1.5 percentage points to 60.8% over the year to Q1 2014. The employment rate in the EU-28 in Q1 2014 was 64.1%. See table 11.
  • The unadjusted unemployment rate among the EU-28 countries in the first quarter of 2014 was 10.9% while the comparable rate in Ireland was 12.1%.  The highest unemployment rates among the EU-28 countries in Q1 2014 were recorded in Greece and Spain (27.9% and 25.9% respectively) while the lowest rate of 5.4% was recorded in Austria. See table 11.
  • The latest figures available at the time of finalising this release indicate that the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for the EU-28 for May 2014 was 10.3% compared to the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate of 11.5% for Ireland for Q2 2014.

 

 

Table 1 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and ILO Economic Status
          '000
ILO Economic StatusQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
In labour force 1,193.41,178.41,195.21,207.31,197.11,187.81,192.0
In employment 977.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.31,030.6
full-time 839.8845.9862.2882.5891.3879.1885.2
part-time 137.2145.6143.5145.8146.9145.2145.4
of which:part-time, not underemployed68.378.378.584.183.281.586.8
  part-time, underemployed68.967.365.061.763.763.758.6
Unemployed 216.4186.9189.6179.0158.9163.5161.3
seeking full-time work/future job-starter198.2171.7174.2164.1144.7150.6146.7
seeking part-time work 6.55.17.47.16.85.06.6
seeking work as self-employed11.810.18.07.87.47.98.0
Not in labour force 567.9584.2564.7557.9569.4577.3569.7
Potential additional labour force 31.332.935.832.327.427.628.6
Others 536.6551.3528.9525.6542.0549.8541.1
Total males aged 15 or over 1,761.31,762.71,759.91,765.21,766.51,765.11,761.7
Unemployment rate % 18.115.915.914.813.313.813.5
Participation rate % 67.866.967.968.467.867.367.7
           
Females       
In labour force 965.7959.1975.4974.8966.0958.6964.1
In employment 859.2854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0870.9
full-time 556.4545.2555.6566.1561.7558.5566.1
part-time 302.8308.8308.6304.9310.0305.5304.8
of which:part-time, not underemployed215.0220.2224.3227.4230.3227.5233.7
  part-time, underemployed87.888.584.377.679.678.071.1
Unemployed 106.6105.1111.2103.894.394.693.2
seeking full-time work/future job-starter82.079.682.878.871.969.871.9
seeking part-time work 22.223.726.923.621.023.720.2
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 864.0872.7850.9852.8864.9872.9868.1
Potential additional labour force 26.625.524.224.321.918.423.2
Others 837.4847.3826.7828.5843.0854.5844.9
Total females aged 15 or over 1,829.71,831.91,826.31,827.71,830.91,831.41,832.2
Unemployment rate % 11.011.011.410.69.89.99.7
Participation rate % 52.852.453.453.352.852.352.6
           
All persons       
In labour force 2,159.12,137.52,170.72,182.12,163.12,146.32,156.1
In employment 1,836.21,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.21,901.6
full-time 1,396.21,391.11,417.81,448.61,453.01,437.51,451.3
part-time 440.0454.4452.1450.7456.8450.7450.3
of which:part-time, not underemployed283.4298.5302.8311.4313.5309.0320.6
  part-time, underemployed156.6155.9149.4139.3143.3141.7129.7
Unemployed 323.0292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1254.5
seeking full-time work/future job-starter280.1251.2257.0242.9216.6220.5218.6
seeking part-time work 28.728.834.230.827.828.726.8
seeking work as self-employed14.112.09.59.28.88.99.1
Not in labour force 1,431.91,457.01,415.61,410.71,434.31,450.21,437.7
Potential additional labour force 57.958.460.056.649.346.051.8
Others 1,374.01,398.61,355.61,354.11,385.01,404.21,386.0
Total persons aged 15 or over 3,591.03,594.53,586.33,592.83,597.43,596.53,593.9
Unemployment rate % 15.013.713.913.011.712.011.8
Participation rate % 60.159.560.560.760.159.760.0
           
Employment rate % (persons aged 15-64)       
Male  62.463.564.665.966.565.766.3
Female  55.255.155.956.356.455.956.4
Total persons  58.859.360.261.161.460.861.3
Table 2 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
          '000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)Q2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing76.985.591.997.4102.096.896.4
           
B-FTotal Industry258.2258.2266.8270.6271.0265.3268.4
B-EIndustry164.2167.6170.5172.5175.4170.6170.8
FConstruction94.090.796.398.195.694.797.6
           
G-UTotal Services640.9646.6646.2658.7664.4661.6665.2
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles137.8143.1141.5138.0138.3138.9136.2
HTransportation and storage 71.973.370.072.473.272.972.8
IAccommodation and food service activities56.257.260.764.266.565.465.9
JInformation and communication57.154.256.959.260.157.559.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities45.448.645.747.245.345.347.0
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities62.362.063.365.767.769.269.5
NAdministrative and support service activities32.930.429.032.633.732.233.7
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security52.450.947.748.448.849.549.1
PEducation37.237.837.738.541.140.340.3
QHuman health and social work activities48.448.851.648.849.348.449.4
R-UOther NACE activities 39.340.242.243.740.542.041.9
Not stated*******
Total males977.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.31,030.6
        
Females       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing10.210.711.613.314.813.713.5
           
B-FTotal Industry73.176.174.376.776.273.973.5
B-EIndustry67.470.467.969.568.266.364.9
FConstruction5.75.76.47.28.07.68.6
           
G-UTotal Services775.1766.9778.1780.4780.2776.1782.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles130.4131.0130.0135.3132.1129.3133.3
HTransportation and storage 19.015.516.015.816.516.617.7
IAccommodation and food service activities63.863.168.973.569.268.471.7
JInformation and communication24.223.123.422.922.523.222.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities53.951.053.254.451.752.550.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities40.341.844.845.547.546.444.6
NAdministrative and support service activities30.029.129.032.130.830.330.5
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security47.244.347.547.746.246.947.5
PEducation109.1109.7112.7102.2105.9110.0111.0
QHuman health and social work activities196.0198.7193.0194.8200.4195.9196.7
R-UOther NACE activities 61.259.659.656.257.556.657.1
Not stated*******
Total females859.2854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0870.9
           
All persons       
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing87.196.2103.4110.6116.8110.5109.8
           
B-FTotal Industry331.3334.3341.1347.3347.2339.3342.0
B-EIndustry231.7238.0238.4242.0243.6237.0235.7
FConstruction99.696.3102.7105.4103.6102.3106.3
           
G-UTotal Services1,416.01,413.51,424.21,439.21,444.61,437.71,448.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles268.2274.1271.5273.3270.4268.2269.5
HTransportation and storage 90.988.886.088.289.689.590.5
IAccommodation and food service activities120.0120.3129.6137.7135.7133.8137.7
JInformation and communication81.277.480.482.082.580.781.9
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities99.399.798.9101.597.197.897.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities102.6103.9108.0111.3115.2115.7114.1
NAdministrative and support service activities63.059.558.064.764.562.564.2
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security99.695.295.196.195.096.496.6
PEducation146.3147.5150.3140.8146.9150.3151.2
QHuman health and social work activities244.4247.5244.6243.6249.6244.3246.1
R-UOther NACE activities 100.699.8101.899.998.098.699.0
Not stated*******
Total persons1,836.21,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.21,901.6
Table 3 Seasonally adjusted series of persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex, ILO Economic Status and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
          '000
ILO Economic Status/NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
In labour force1,192.91,186.61,194.71,196.61,200.11,196.01,191.4
In employment977.9998.81,008.01,022.71,033.31,032.01,033.8
 of which:Full-time 840.9851.6864.7878.4885.7886.0888.7
  Part-time 137.5148.0144.0144.1145.9147.2146.2
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing76.686.991.697.1100.998.296.4
B-EIndustry165.1168.7171.6172.7173.0171.7171.9
FConstruction94.391.696.797.195.495.798.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles137.4142.6141.3138.2138.9138.2136.2
HTransportation and storage 73.072.471.872.072.673.573.2
IAccommodation and food service activities56.658.161.062.966.566.566.2
JInformation and communication56.555.156.359.059.758.758.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities45.349.445.746.945.045.947.0
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities61.762.462.365.968.269.069.1
NAdministrative and support service activities33.230.829.331.633.932.734.1
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security52.551.847.048.348.748.949.9
PEducation37.337.237.839.840.339.740.4
QHuman health and social work activities47.550.150.748.349.549.648.6
R-UOther NACE activities 39.440.042.242.741.741.941.8
Unemployed212.7188.8185.4175.4165.0164.7157.5
Not in labour force571.5574.2568.1567.0566.7567.8572.7
Unemployment rate %17.815.915.514.713.813.813.2
Participation rate %67.667.467.867.967.967.867.5
        
Females       
In labour force959.8965.8970.1970.5968.9964.7959.6
In employment857.5859.6863.3868.4869.2869.8870.6
 of which:Full-time 554.4550.8554.8561.5561.2564.1566.1
  Part-time 303.0308.2308.5307.4308.0305.1304.8
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing10.111.011.613.014.714.113.6
B-EIndustry67.769.769.369.167.866.665.4
FConstruction5.75.86.57.27.67.98.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles131.8131.3131.6133.5131.9129.8134.9
HTransportation and storage 18.615.615.716.016.516.717.3
IAccommodation and food service activities63.764.668.771.070.370.271.3
JInformation and communication23.723.523.022.922.523.622.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities54.051.453.354.151.552.850.4
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities39.641.744.246.647.246.344.3
NAdministrative and support service activities30.330.129.330.730.931.230.9
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security47.144.547.447.546.347.147.4
PEducation106.7108.2110.0106.5105.7108.5108.2
QHuman health and social work activities196.0199.7192.9195.0199.2196.7196.7
R-UOther NACE activities 61.460.059.755.258.057.157.2
Unemployed104.3106.7108.599.999.695.690.7
Not in labour force870.6865.4856.8857.8861.2866.2873.3
Unemployment rate %10.911.011.210.310.39.99.4
Participation rate %52.452.753.153.153.052.752.3
           
All persons       
In labour force2,155.42,152.32,167.32,164.92,168.72,161.22,152.6
In employment1,836.41,858.41,872.81,891.01,900.81,902.01,906.3
 of which:Full-time 1,395.91,403.31,420.21,438.61,446.81,450.61,455.7
  Part-time 440.9454.5453.0451.6455.1450.7451.0
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing86.797.9103.0109.8116.1112.2109.6
B-EIndustry232.9237.7241.1242.3240.9239.0236.0
FConstruction100.597.1103.4104.4103.0103.2106.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles269.0274.5272.6271.8270.4268.8270.4
HTransportation and storage 91.288.586.288.089.989.390.6
IAccommodation and food service activities120.4122.5129.9133.6137.0136.4137.9
JInformation and communication80.278.679.481.882.382.181.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities99.4100.599.2100.597.198.597.6
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities101.1103.7107.1112.1115.3115.6113.7
NAdministrative and support service activities63.160.958.162.764.964.064.4
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security99.595.695.195.695.296.796.6
PEducation144.1145.5147.9146.1146.1148.3148.6
QHuman health and social work activities244.1249.8244.2242.6248.6246.6245.7
R-UOther NACE activities 100.499.8101.299.499.298.798.2
Unemployed316.7295.6293.5275.2265.1260.4247.7
Not in labour force1,442.11,439.71,425.11,424.91,427.41,433.91,446.5
Unemployment rate %14.713.713.612.712.212.011.5
Participation rate %59.959.960.360.360.360.159.8
See Background Notes for further detail. The not stated group presented in Table 2 has not been separately seasonally adjusted.
Table 4 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and occupation (SOC2010)
          '000
Broad occupational groupQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials104.8103.8105.299.5101.6104.4104.6
2.Professionals147.1146.4148.2151.7154.4149.8151.5
3.Associate professional and technical132.3129.6130.1131.3134.8133.8132.3
4.Administrative and secretarial41.542.542.843.340.939.540.1
5.Skilled trades240.4246.2252.1265.7277.1270.3268.9
6.Caring, leisure and other services22.722.723.724.023.825.227.2
7.Sales and customer service52.356.753.453.054.653.654.8
8.Process, plant and machine operatives116.8121.5119.6123.6122.0119.5119.8
9.Elementary115.3119.6127.9132.4124.7123.1125.7
Other/Not stated[3.9]*[2.6][3.6][4.3]5.05.6
Total males977.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.31,030.6
        
Females       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials47.946.046.748.649.350.449.7
2.Professionals203.0207.9207.7203.0199.6201.2200.9
3.Associate professional and technical81.184.386.684.485.386.986.3
4.Administrative and secretarial164.1159.3166.5168.8169.8169.3173.8
5.Skilled trades26.623.024.226.027.425.927.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services124.8120.4120.7119.2123.7117.7118.8
7.Sales and customer service104.1105.3106.7106.5105.8100.7101.8
8.Process, plant and machine operatives21.725.122.524.521.021.320.0
9.Elementary82.880.679.987.687.888.089.1
 Other/Not stated[3.0]*[2.8]***[3.4]
Total females859.2854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0870.9
           
All persons       
1.Managers, directors and senior officials152.6149.8151.9148.1150.9154.8154.3
2.Professionals350.1354.3355.9354.7354.0351.0352.3
3.Associate professional and technical213.4213.9216.8215.7220.1220.7218.6
4.Administrative and secretarial205.6201.8209.4212.0210.7208.8213.9
5.Skilled trades267.1269.2276.3291.8304.5296.2296.1
6.Caring, leisure and other services147.5143.0144.4143.3147.5142.9146.0
7.Sales and customer service156.3162.0160.1159.5160.4154.4156.6
8.Process, plant and machine operatives138.6146.5142.1148.1143.0140.9139.9
9.Elementary198.1200.2207.8220.0212.5211.1214.8
 Other/Not stated6.84.85.46.26.17.59.0
Total persons1,836.21,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.21,901.6
Note: From Q1 2011 occupational estimates are now captured and coded on the basis of the newer UK SOC2010 classification. The CSO has re-coded previous quarters to 2007 inclusive on the basis of the text string captured under the old UK SOC90 classification. As with the introduction of any new classification comparability of estimates over time can be impacted - users should bear this in mind when comparing results from quarters prior to Q1 2011 to those from Q1 2011 onwards.
Table 5 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and employment status
          '000
Employment statusQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
 Self employed (with paid employees)68.266.665.563.666.667.269.2
 Self employed (with no paid employees)165.9173.2176.2184.6193.4186.7184.7
 Total self employed234.1239.8241.7248.2260.0253.9253.8
 Employee736.1744.0756.8773.1772.7763.3769.7
 Assisting relative6.87.87.27.05.57.17.1
 Total males977.0991.61,005.71,028.31,038.21,024.31,030.6
        
Females       
 Self employed (with paid employees)19.921.621.321.121.820.119.9
 Self employed (with no paid employees)38.342.140.840.642.744.442.0
 Total self employed58.263.762.161.764.564.561.9
 Employee795.1783.3794.0800.6798.7792.2802.4
 Assisting relative5.87.18.18.78.47.36.7
 Total females859.2854.0864.3871.0871.6864.0870.9
           
All persons       
 Self employed (with paid employees)88.188.286.884.788.487.289.0
 Self employed (with no paid employees)204.2215.3217.0225.2236.1231.1226.7
 Total self employed292.3303.4303.8309.9324.5318.4315.7
 Employee1,531.31,527.31,550.81,573.61,571.41,555.51,572.0
 Assisting relative12.614.915.315.713.914.313.8
 Total persons1,836.21,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.21,901.6
Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and duration of unemployment (ILO)
          '000
Duration of unemployment (ILO)Q2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
 Less than 1 year67.859.063.960.048.653.356.4
 1 year and over146.4126.2123.3115.9108.7107.6101.8
 Not stated******[3.2]
 Total males216.4186.9189.6179.0158.9163.5161.3
        
Females       
 Less than 1 year52.149.857.953.646.645.047.2
 1 year and over53.254.451.849.246.848.544.8
 Not stated*******
 Total females106.6105.1111.2103.894.394.693.2
           
All persons       
 Less than 1 year119.8108.8121.8113.795.298.3103.6
 1 year and over199.6180.5175.0165.1155.5156.2146.5
 Not stated[3.5]*[3.9][4.1]*[3.6]4.4
 Total persons323.0292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1254.5
           
Long-term unemployment rate %9.28.48.17.67.27.36.8
Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by ILO economic status, sex, age group and quarter
             '000
 Employed Unemployed In labour force
   Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14 Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14 Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14
Males           
 15-1912.413.513.2 13.010.48.4 25.424.021.6
 20-2459.963.062.0 33.126.520.9 93.189.583.0
 Total 15-24 (Youths)72.376.575.2 46.136.929.4 118.4113.5104.6
 25-34254.1246.1244.3 65.254.346.1 319.2300.4290.4
 35-44269.5279.4288.6 49.544.337.6 319.1323.6326.1
 45-54216.0228.3236.2 34.833.628.6 250.7261.8264.9
 55-5977.382.987.1 13.512.311.8 90.895.199.0
 60-6453.355.657.3 6.87.27.2 60.062.864.5
 65+34.537.041.8 *** 35.137.942.4
 Total males977.01,005.71,030.6 216.4189.6161.3 1,193.41,195.21,192.0
            
Females           
 15-1912.913.311.7 10.79.87.5 23.623.119.3
 20-2469.264.055.6 19.218.015.7 88.482.071.3
 Total 15-24 (Youths)82.177.367.3 29.927.823.2 112.0105.190.5
 25-34259.5255.6246.6 31.831.226.5 291.3286.8273.1
 35-44222.7229.5243.4 23.724.019.4 246.4253.5262.7
 45-54180.4183.9188.8 15.418.415.9 195.8202.3204.7
 55-5965.767.468.6 [3.6]6.15.4 69.373.574.0
 60-6435.535.640.2 [2.2][3.2][2.4] 37.738.842.6
 65+13.315.016.1 *** 13.415.416.5
 Total females859.2864.3870.9 106.6111.293.2 965.7975.4964.1
              
All persons           
 15-1925.326.924.9 23.720.215.9 48.947.140.9
 20-24129.1127.0117.6 52.344.536.6 181.4171.5154.3
 Total 15-24 (Youths)154.4153.9142.5 76.064.752.6 230.4218.6195.1
 25-34513.6501.7490.9 96.985.672.7 610.5587.2563.5
 35-44492.3508.9531.9 73.268.356.9 565.5577.2588.9
 45-54396.4412.2425.0 50.152.044.5 446.5464.2469.6
 55-59143.0150.2155.7 17.118.417.2 160.1168.6173.0
 60-6488.891.297.5 9.010.49.7 97.8101.6107.2
 65+47.851.958.0 *** 48.553.358.9
 Total persons1,836.21,869.91,901.6 323.0300.7254.5 2,159.12,170.72,156.1
Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by key economic rates, sex, age group and quarter
             %
 Employment rate (15-64) Unemployment rate Participation rate
   Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14 Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14 Q2 12Q2 13Q2 14
Males           
 15-198.89.69.2 51.143.539.0 17.917.015.0
 20-2443.247.849.8 35.629.625.2 67.267.966.5
 Total 15-24 (Youths)25.828.028.0 38.932.628.1 42.341.538.9
 25-3471.672.174.7 20.418.115.9 90.088.088.7
 35-4477.079.481.5 15.513.711.5 91.291.992.1
 45-5474.177.178.5 13.912.810.8 86.188.488.0
 55-5962.566.468.7 14.812.911.9 73.476.278.0
 60-6448.450.050.9 11.311.511.2 54.656.457.4
 65+::: 1.72.51.4 14.014.515.6
 Total males62.464.666.3 18.115.913.5 67.867.967.7
            
Females           
 15-199.610.08.7 45.342.439.0 17.517.414.3
 20-2449.750.346.4 21.721.922.0 63.564.559.6
 Total 15-24 (Youths)30.029.726.4 26.726.425.7 40.940.435.5
 25-3468.569.769.3 10.910.99.7 76.978.376.8
 35-4463.664.767.5 9.69.57.4 70.471.572.9
 45-5461.161.562.2 7.89.17.8 66.367.667.4
 55-5952.853.353.4 5.28.47.3 55.758.257.6
 60-6432.331.735.3 5.88.25.7 34.334.537.4
 65+::: 0.82.71.9 4.55.05.2
 Total females55.255.956.4 11.011.49.7 52.853.452.6
              
All persons           
 15-199.29.88.9 48.342.939.0 17.717.214.6
 20-2446.549.048.1 28.826.023.8 65.366.263.1
 Total 15-24 (Youths)27.928.827.2 33.029.626.9 41.641.037.3
 25-3470.070.971.9 15.914.612.9 83.283.082.5
 35-4470.372.074.4 12.911.89.7 80.881.782.4
 45-5467.669.370.3 11.211.29.5 76.178.077.7
 55-5957.759.861.0 10.710.910.0 64.567.167.7
 60-6440.440.843.0 9.210.29.0 44.445.447.3
 65+::: 1.52.51.5 8.89.410.0
 Total persons58.860.261.3 15.013.911.8 60.160.560.0
Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and ILO Economic Status
           
RegionQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Border, Midland and Western       
 In employment ('000)459.3467.8476.5478.6482.9476.4476.8
 Unemployed ('000)93.181.682.180.171.768.573.1
 In labour force ('000)552.4549.4558.6558.7554.6544.9549.9
 Unemployment rate (%)16.814.914.714.312.912.613.3
 Participation rate (%)57.757.458.658.858.657.557.9
Border       
 In employment ('000)174.6176.8183.1181.8185.8183.8185.0
 Unemployed ('000)34.832.433.232.529.027.627.7
 In labour force ('000)209.4209.3216.3214.3214.8211.4212.8
 Unemployment rate (%)16.615.515.315.213.513.113.0
 Participation rate (%)53.153.355.154.855.254.655.0
Midland       
 In employment ('000)105.2106.9109.7111.2111.1110.2113.5
 Unemployed ('000)23.522.020.018.717.618.418.4
 In labour force ('000)128.7128.9129.7129.9128.8128.6131.8
 Unemployment rate (%)18.317.115.414.413.714.313.9
 Participation rate (%)58.958.659.159.359.058.459.6
West       
 In employment ('000)179.5184.0183.7185.6185.9182.4178.3
 Unemployed ('000)34.827.229.029.025.022.427.0
 In labour force ('000)214.3211.2212.7214.6210.9204.8205.3
 Unemployment rate (%)16.212.913.613.511.910.913.1
 Participation rate (%)62.361.362.163.162.260.160.2
           
Southern and Eastern       
 In employment ('000)1,376.91,377.81,393.41,420.71,427.01,411.91,424.8
 Unemployed ('000)229.9210.4218.6202.7181.5189.6181.5
 In labour force ('000)1,606.81,588.21,612.01,623.41,608.51,601.51,606.2
 Unemployment rate (%)14.313.213.612.511.311.811.3
 Participation rate (%)61.060.261.261.460.760.560.7
Dublin       
 In employment ('000)547.4547.1555.1570.1572.1572.9576.4
 Unemployed ('000)76.970.075.467.163.266.264.1
 In labour force ('000)624.3617.0630.5637.2635.3639.1640.5
 Unemployment rate (%)12.311.312.010.510.010.410.0
 Participation rate (%)61.760.962.562.762.262.663.0
Mid-East       
 In employment ('000)222.7220.6219.0216.7225.9225.1228.5
 Unemployed ('000)35.836.736.935.932.229.627.7
 In labour force ('000)258.5257.3255.8252.6258.1254.7256.2
 Unemployment rate (%)13.814.314.414.212.511.610.8
 Participation rate (%)63.463.263.062.263.362.462.5
Mid-West       
 In employment ('000)150.1146.5150.9153.1151.3144.5148.0
 Unemployed ('000)28.927.026.224.518.222.222.5
 In labour force ('000)178.9173.5177.1177.6169.5166.7170.5
 Unemployment rate (%)16.115.614.813.810.713.313.2
 Participation rate (%)59.958.659.860.057.256.657.8
South-East       
 In employment ('000)186.0186.5187.7193.8197.1195.8198.5
 Unemployed ('000)43.642.042.138.536.236.433.0
 In labour force ('000)229.5228.6229.9232.2233.3232.3231.5
 Unemployment rate (%)19.018.418.316.615.515.714.3
 Participation rate (%)58.858.358.459.059.159.058.9
South-West       
 In employment ('000)270.7277.1280.7287.1280.6273.5273.3
 Unemployed ('000)44.834.738.036.731.835.234.2
 In labour force ('000)315.6311.8318.7323.8312.4308.7307.5
 Unemployment rate (%)14.211.111.911.310.211.411.1
 Participation rate (%)60.059.060.361.158.758.158.0
           
State       
 In employment ('000)1,836.21,845.61,869.91,899.31,909.81,888.21,901.6
 Unemployed ('000)323.0292.0300.7282.9253.2258.1254.5
 In labour force ('000)2,159.12,137.52,170.72,182.12,163.12,146.32,156.1
 Unemployment rate (%)15.013.713.913.011.712.011.8
 Participation rate (%)60.159.560.560.760.159.760.0
Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by Principal Economic Status (PES)
          '000
Principal Economic StatusQ2 12Q1 13Q2 13Q3 13Q4 13Q1 14Q2 14
Males       
 At work949.6962.2974.4993.41,008.6997.41,001.1
 Unemployed265.2237.7227.7221.4202.9206.8197.6
 Student197.5217.6212.7202.8211.6216.1211.2
 Home duties8.48.18.79.911.211.211.0
 Retired254.3255.3255.3253.3252.4252.8256.8
 Others86.481.881.284.379.780.984.0
 Total males1,761.31,762.71,759.91,765.21,766.51,765.11,761.7
        
Females       
 At work823.8823.2829.0835.1840.5836.9841.5
 Unemployed108.0104.5102.3105.3100.699.8100.5
 Student201.2209.7202.6195.8203.9205.9200.5
 Home duties505.9480.7478.0468.2462.4464.8467.1
 Retired129.1146.4148.7152.1153.5154.4153.8
 Others61.767.365.771.269.969.668.9
 Total females1,829.71,831.91,826.31,827.71,830.91,831.41,832.2
           
All persons       
 At work1,773.51,785.51,803.51,828.51,849.11,834.31,842.6
 Unemployed373.1342.2330.0326.7303.5306.5298.1
 Student398.7427.3415.3398.6415.5421.9411.6
 Home duties514.3488.7486.7478.1473.7476.1478.1
 Retired383.4401.7404.0405.5405.9407.2410.5
 Others148.0149.1146.9155.5149.6150.5152.8
 Total persons3,591.03,594.53,586.33,592.83,597.43,596.53,593.9
Note: The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a respondent's own subjective assessment - see Background Notes.
Table 11 Labour Force Survey results classified by ILO Economic Status for persons in EU member states
               %
  Employment rate % (15-64 years) Unemployment rate % (15-74 years) Participation rate % (15 years and over)
  Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14Annual change Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14Annual change Q1 12Q1 13Q1 14Annual change
     Q1 14 pp    Q1 14 pp    Q1 14 pp
EU2863.563.364.10.8 10.611.410.9-0.5 57.357.457.50.1
EU1564.864.564.90.4 10.711.511.1-0.4 58.058.057.9-0.1
Eurozone63.563.063.20.2 11.412.512.2-0.3 57.057.056.8-0.2
                
Belgium61.561.361.50.2 7.28.58.70.2 52.953.153.30.2
Bulgaria56.957.759.01.3 12.913.813.0-0.8 51.852.853.50.7
Czech Republic65.666.868.11.3 7.17.46.8-0.6 58.158.959.10.2
Denmark72.372.071.3-0.7 8.17.77.4-0.3 63.362.461.5-0.9
Germany72.172.673.00.4 5.95.95.5-0.4 59.660.060.00.0
Estonia 66.067.467.60.2 11.310.08.5-1.5 61.261.260.0-1.2
Ireland 58.359.360.81.5 15.013.712.1-1.6 59.759.559.70.2
Greece52.349.148.5-0.6 22.627.427.90.5 53.052.751.9-0.8
Spain56.054.254.70.5 24.226.925.9-1.0 59.759.558.8-0.7
France63.363.564.00.5 9.910.410.2-0.2 56.456.456.40.0
Croatia49.847.552.85.3 16.518.118.90.8 44.643.352.28.9
Italy56.555.555.1-0.4 11.012.813.60.8 49.349.349.1-0.2
Cyprus64.761.860.9-0.9 11.115.916.91.0 63.263.563.2-0.3
Latvia61.164.165.81.7 16.313.011.9-1.1 58.859.359.50.2
Lithuania60.662.364.21.9 14.613.112.4-0.7 57.257.558.81.3
Luxembourg64.665.366.20.9 5.95.46.51.1 58.158.960.51.6
Hungary55.756.660.94.3 11.711.88.3-3.5 51.251.753.31.6
Malta58.659.960.80.9 6.46.06.00.0 51.752.152.80.7
Netherlands74.974.273.2-1.0 5.36.57.51.0 65.265.264.6-0.6
Austria71.471.171.50.4 4.35.45.40.0 60.760.861.10.3
Poland58.858.760.31.6 10.511.310.6-0.7 55.455.556.10.6
Portugal62.259.761.51.8 15.217.915.3-2.6 60.860.158.7-1.4
Romania58.058.159.51.4 7.67.57.2-0.3 53.853.753.70.0
Slovenia64.062.462.50.1 8.611.110.8-0.3 57.556.757.10.4
Slovakia59.659.860.20.4 14.114.514.1-0.4 59.259.559.2-0.3
Finland 67.967.467.3-0.1 8.08.89.00.2 58.958.558.0-0.5
Sweden72.472.973.40.5 8.28.68.60.0 63.063.563.80.3
United Kingdom69.470.271.51.3 8.27.86.7-1.1 62.362.662.80.2
Source: Eurostat
Note:Trends in some member states may be affected by changes in methodology
 pp refers to percentage point change
 Eurozone consists of EU15 states (with the exceptions of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom), Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Estonia and Slovakia.
 EU28 as of Q3 2013 with the addition of Croatia. Results for 2013 and 2012 shown above also include Croatia.
Table A1 Estimated number of persons aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and ILO Economic Status
          '000
Nationality   ILO Economic Status Total
   In employmentUnemployedIn labour forceNot in labour force 
Q2 14         
Irish nationals 1,619.1206.31,825.41,287.8 3,113.1
Non-Irish nationals282.548.3330.7150.0 480.7
of which:      
 United Kingdom49.310.259.445.6 105.1
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK23.7[2.1]25.88.8 34.6
 EU15 to EU28*129.420.9150.337.1 187.4
 Other80.115.195.258.5 153.6
Total persons1,901.6254.52,156.11,437.7 3,593.9
        
Q2 13         
Irish nationals 1,593.8245.31,839.11,275.0 3,114.1
Non-Irish nationals276.155.4331.6140.6 472.2
of which:      
 United Kingdom49.910.660.542.9 103.3
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK28.7*31.68.3 39.9
 EU15 to EU27125.326.4151.734.8 186.5
 Other72.315.687.854.6 142.4
Total persons1,869.9300.72,170.71,415.6 3,586.3
           
Year on year changes       
Irish nationals 25.3-39.0-13.712.8 -1.0
Non-Irish nationals6.4-7.2-0.89.4 8.6
of which:      
 United Kingdom-0.6-0.4-1.02.8 1.7
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK-5.0*-5.80.5 -5.2
 EU15 to EU28*4.1-5.5-1.42.3 0.9
 Other7.8-0.57.33.8 11.2
Total persons31.6-46.2-14.522.1 7.6
Note: Persons whose nationality is not stated are included with Irish nationals
* Results for Q2 2014 include Croatia for the EU15 to EU28 classification and this should be borne in mind when comparing year on year changes
Table A2 Number of employees in the Public Sector by sub-sector and in the Private Sector
           '000
      Q2 11Q2 12Q2 13Q1 14Q2 14¹Year on year change Q2 14
Including Census 2011 temporary field staff      
Civil Service45.039.339.438.738.8-0.6
Defence10.39.59.79.79.6-0.1
Garda Siochána14.213.513.213.012.9-0.3
Education117.5109.4111.0111.2110.1-0.9
Regional bodies34.834.132.133.032.90.8
Health132.0126.1123.6118.7118.5-5.1
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies353.8331.9329.0324.3322.8-6.2
           0.0
Semi-State bodies 53.551.549.251.251.52.3
           0.0
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies407.3383.4378.2375.5374.3-3.9
 
Excluding Census 2011 temporary field staff      
Civil Service39.839.339.438.738.8-0.6
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies348.6331.9329.0324.3322.8-6.2
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies402.1383.4378.2375.5374.3-3.9
            
Total Private Sector1,128.01,128.61,149.71,158.31,175.125.4
¹ Preliminary Data
Table A3 Seasonally Adjusted Standarised Unemployment Rates (SUR) by month
          %
Month   2011201220132014
January   14.515.013.912.1
February   14.415.113.712.0
March   14.414.913.611.9
April   14.414.813.611.7
May   14.414.713.611.5
June   14.514.813.311.4
July   14.714.713.011.3
August   14.814.712.7 
September   14.714.512.6 
October   14.814.412.4 
November   14.914.212.2 
December   15.014.112.2 

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) began in September 1997, replacing the annual April Labour Force Survey (LFS). The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter.   Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997.  As of the first quarter of 2009 the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) is now undertaken on a calendar quarter basis.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December.

Data Collection

Information is collected on laptop computers, using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) software.

Sample Design

A two-stage sample design is used. A new sample was introduced in Q4 2012 as a result of the 2011 Census of Population. The sample frame of households is clustered into blocks (small areas) with each block containing 60 occupied households on the night of the 2011 Census of Population. The sample frame is stratified using administrative county and population density.  In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling and in the second stage 20 households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS).  This ensures that each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection and results in a total quarterly sample of 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

The number of valid responding households in Q2 2014 was 19,301.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the QNHS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. As the new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was introduced incrementally across each quarter from Q4 2012 to Q4 2013, the new sample is fully effective from Q4 2013.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality control totals.  The population estimates for April of each year are published in a separate release.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates have been calculated using the de facto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). From Q2 2006 onwards a new concept of usual residence will be used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the QNHS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification.  Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988.  The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work.

Inactive Population (not in labour  force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed.

Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates

The rates given in this release are based on the ILO classification.  The Participation Rate is the number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 or over. The Employment Rate is the number of employed aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 to 64.  The Unemployment Rate is the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the total labour force.

Duration of Unemployment

The duration of unemployment is the length of time since a person last had a job or began looking for work, whichever is more recent.  The long-term unemployment rate is the number of persons unemployed for one year or more expressed as a percentage of the total labour force.

Part-time Underemployment

The calculation of part-time underemployment is based on ILO and Eurostat recommendations and uses the following criteria to derive underemployment:

1.    Working part-time

2.    Willing to work additional hours

3.    Available to work additional hours

This indicator is only available from quarter 3 2008 onwards as estimates prior to that quarter were based on one single question which included the need for the person to be looking for additional work. From quarter 3 2008 the indicator is derived from a series of separate questions which allow this requirement to be excluded.

Potential Additional Labour Force

The Potential Additional Labour Force (PALF) is the sum of the two groups ‘persons seeking work but not immediately available’ and ‘persons available for work but not seeking’. Persons in the PALF are not part of the standard labour force, which encompasses only employed and unemployed people but however they have a stronger attachment to the labour market than other persons not in the labour force. The new indicators have been defined by the European statistical office (Eurostat) following extensive international discussion regarding appropriate indicators to supplement the unemployment rate.

Further background information regarding the methodology and approach adopted by Eurostat in building these new indicators can be found at the link below. European wide and individual country results are also available from this link:

http://www.cso.ie/shorturl.aspx/134

Principal Economic Status Classification

Results are also available using the Principal Economic Status (PES) classification which was used in the Labour Force Survey and the Census of Population.  The PES classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation with regard to employment and given the following response categories:

 • At work

• Unemployed

• Student

• Engaged on home duties

• Retired

• Other.

NACE Industrial Classification

The QNHS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature generale des activites economique dans les Communautes europeennes) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006.  Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Table 2 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS outputs. From Q4 1997 to Q4 2008 the NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use.

NACE Rev. 2 classification is more detailed than the NACE Rev. 1.1 classification. In particular more sections are now identified for services activities with the aim of better capturing economic activity within services. In cases where there is a direct one to one correspondence (e.g. section H

‘Hotels and restaurants’ in NACE Rev. 1.1 directly corresponds to section I ‘Accommodation and food service activities’ sector in NACE Rev. 2) then the two different series can be expected to be broadly comparable.

However, the series will not be exactly the same, as the process of applying NACE Rev. 2 involved a very detailed recoding process whereby the new NACE classification was applied to each record in each quarter. The detailed nature of this process means it should be expected that even in the case of a one to one correspondence between a NACE Rev. 2 and NACE Rev. 1.1 section; minor differences in the level of the estimates may be seen.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 2004 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates will be published.

Occupation Classification

As a result of changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the QNHS) the CSO is obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO has changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010. This change is also being implemented for the Census 2011 results.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly.  This newer classification reflects the evolution over a period of time of certain occupational areas which were developing rapidly, both in terms of their scale and the complexity of work organisation. One particular example which highlights the impact of these changes on published results is the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of

‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available at the link below:

http://www.cso.ie/shorturl.aspx/104

NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994. The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. The composition of the regions is set out below.

Border, Midland and Western NUTS2 Region      Southern and Eastern NUTS2 Region          
Border Cavan Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Fingal
  Louth   South Dublin
  Monaghan    
  Sligo Mid-East Kildare
      Meath
Midland Laois   Wicklow
  Longford Mid-West Clare
  Offaly   Limerick City
  Westmeath   Limerick County
      North Tipperary
West Galway City    
  Galway County South-East Carlow
  Mayo   Kilkenny
  Roscommon   South Tipperary
      Waterford City
      Waterford County
      Wexford
       
    South-West Cork City
      Cork County
      Kerry

 

Seasonal Adjustment Methodology

To correct for typical seasonal patterns, the series presented in Table 3 have been seasonally adjusted. Since Q1 2011 the seasonal adjustment of data from the QNHS is completed by applying the X-12-ARIMA model, developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. Seasonal adjustment is conducted using the direct approach, where each individual series is independently adjusted.  As a result of this direct seasonal adjustment approach it should be noted that the sum of any component series may not be equal to seasonally adjusted series to which these components belong, e.g. the seasonally adjusted number of males in employment and the seasonally adjusted number of females in employment will not necessarily add up to the total employment on a seasonally adjusted basis.

The X-12-ARIMA method has the X-11 moving averages process at its core, but builds on this by providing options for pre-treating the series using a regARIMA approach for prior adjustment and series extension. In essence this methodology will estimate seasonal factors while taking account of calendar effects (e.g timing of Easter), outliers, temporary changes and level shifts.

For additional information on the use of X-12-ARIMA see detailed note in the Q1 2011 QNHS release.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Calculation of Rates and Estimates of Change

Rates and estimates of change presented in this release are calculated from whole unrounded numbers. Due to rounding, these may differ from the rates and estimates of change calculated from the rounded volumes presented in the tables.

Interpretation of volume and rate changes

The overall change in the number of people employed, unemployed, in the labour force and not in the labour force is a function both of changes in the population as well as changes in the proportion of people with that status.  Therefore, in interpreting changes in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc, both changes in population and changes in the relevant rates should be considered.

In recent years there has been a natural decline in the number of people in younger age groups arising from the falling number of births through the 1980’s until 1994 when a low of 48,255 births was recorded (compared with 74,278 in 2009). For example there were 326,030 people born in Ireland between 1982 and 1986 and, all other things being equal, these people would have been in the 20-24 age group in 2006. However between 1986 and 1990 there were nearly 50,000 fewer births which would create a natural decrease in the 20-24 age group of close to 50,000 between 2006 and 2010.

In addition to natural changes in population, net migration has been a significant feature of population change in Ireland in recent years and net migration has also been most heavily concentrated in younger age groups. Evidence shows that migration is also most heavily concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups.  As a result of both natural decrease and net outward migration, the population of persons in the younger age groups has fallen and this should be borne in mind when considering the changes in the number of people in these age groups who are employed, unemployed and in the labour force.

 Additional Data Series

Additional data series previously included in the QNHS release can still be accessed through the CSO website and are available at the link below:

http://www.cso.ie/shorturl.aspx/70

Labour market data can also be accessed from Statbank, the CSO’s main data dissemination service which can be accessed through the CSO website at the link below:

http://www.cso.ie/shorturl.aspx/78

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

 

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