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For more information on this release:
E-mail: earnings@cso.ie Brian Cahill (+353) 21 4535173 Gerard Brett/Ronan O'Sullivan (+353) 21 4535513/5216 Karen Desmond/Orla Healy (+353) 21 4535216/5514
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-5023
CSO statistical release, 29 June 2017, 11am

Earnings and Labour Costs Annual

2016

 20152016Annual Change
 € million€ million%
Total Earnings58,83761,171+4.0
Total Other Labour Costs9,1859,672+5.3
Total Labour Costs68,02270,843+4.1
 %
Average Earnings36,51936,919+1.1
Average Other Labour Costs5,7015,838+2.4
Average Total Labour Costs42,22142,757+1.3

Average annual earnings €36,919 in 2016, up by 1.1%

Figure 1: Average annual earnings by economic sector
go to full release

Average annual earnings €36,919 in 2016, up by 1.1%

Average annual earnings increased by 1.1% to €36,919 in 2016, from €36,519 in 2015. This compares to an annual increase of 1.2% in 2015 from €36,090 in 2014. See figure 1 and table 5.

Key features of the annual results for 2016 include:

  • Average annual earnings for full-time employees in 2016 were €45,611 (up 1.2% on 2015) while the average for part-time employees were €16,597 (an increase of 1.6%). See figure 5 and table 5.
  • Total earnings rose to €61.2 billion in 2016, an increase of 4% on 2015. This increase was driven by a rise in the average numbers employed of 2.8%, a 0.5% increase in average weekly hours worked and a 0.6% increase in average hourly earnings. See figure 9, table 2 and table 11.
  • Total cost of employing labour increased by 4.1% in 2016 with total annual labour costs reaching €70.8 billion. See figure 2, table 1 and table 4.

Total annual labour costs increase 4.1% to €70.8 billion in 2016

The total cost of employing labour in 2016 was €70.8 billion, an increase of 4.1% from 2015. Total annual labour costs were €62.8 billion in 2011, the lowest value since the start of the series in 2008. Total annual labour costs have increased each year between 2011 and 2016. See figure 2, table 1 and table 4.

GroupOther Labour CostsIrregular EarningsOvertime EarningsApprentice EarningsPart-time Regular EarningsFull-time Regular Earnings
2011791049600025863190001478464000402272000631330300044076722000
2012840792000027348230001422774000353533000647156100044078409000
2013870109100027260680001395926000370563000678300900044371412000
2014879485500030006920001450838000378035000700621200044945721000
2015918515200029721880001500368000417955000715442800046791826000
2016967203800032354410001640127000419725000751019500048365405000

Full-time employee regular earnings comprised €48.4 billion (68.3%) of the €70.8 billion total labour costs, while part-time employee regular earnings were €7.5 billion (10.6%). The other main components were €9.7 billion (13.7%) other labour costs, €3.2 billion (4.6%) irregular earnings, €1.6 billion (2.3%) overtime earnings and €0.4 billion (0.6%) apprentice/trainee earnings. See figure 3 and table 1.

The Industry sector had the highest total annual labour costs of €11.5 billion in 2016 followed by the Wholesale and retail trade sector (€9.6 billion)  and the Human health and social work sector (€9.1 billion). The Administrative and support services sector and the Arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities sector had the lowest total annual labour costs of €2.5 billion and €1.5 billion respectively. See table 4.

Figure 4 outlines the annual growth of each component of the total annual labour costs from 2011 to 2016. Full-time regular earnings increased each year from 2011 to 2016, with a 3.4% rise in 2016. The changes in full-time regular earnings are strongly linked to the number of full-time employees employed. See table 1.

Part-time regular earnings increased every year from 2011 to 2016 with a 5.0% rise in 2016.  These increases are strongly linked to the growth of part-time employment. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual earnings of apprentices/trainees fell 12.1% between 2011 and 2012 and has increased each year to 2016, with an increase of 0.4% in 2016. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual overtime earnings were €1.5 billion in 2011. It decreased by 3.8% in 2012 and by 1.9% in 2013. There have been modest increases in overtime payments in 2014 and 2015 and a 9.3% increase in 2016 reaching €1.6 billion. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual irregular earnings were €2.6 billion in 2011. Total annual irregular earnings fluctuated over the past five years, increasing by 5.7% in 2012, 10.1% in 2014 and 8.9% in 2016 and decreasing by 0.3% in 2013 and 0.9% in 2015. The 2016 figure of €3.2 billion constitutes an increase of 25.1% over the five year period. See figure 4 and table 1.

Total annual other labour costs have increased each year from €7.9 million in 2011 to €9.7 million in 2016, a cumulative increase of 22.3%. See figure 4, table 1 and table 3.

Proportion of Total Annual Labour Costs 2016 (%)
€ 48,365 million
Full-time Regular Earnings
68.3
€ 7,510 million
Part-time Regular Earnings
10.6
€ 420 million
Apprentice/Trainee Earnings
0.6
€ 1,640 million
Overtime Earnings
2.3
€ 3,235 million
Irregular Earnings
4.6
€ 9,672 million
Other Labour Costs
13.7
Proportion of Total Annual Labour Costs 2016 (%)
€48,365 million
Full-time Regular Earnings
68.3
€7,510 million
Part-time Regular Earnings
10.6
€420 million
Apprentice/Trainee Earnings
0.6
€1,640 million
Overtime Earnings
2.3
€3,235 million
Irregular Earnings
4.6
€9,672 million
Other Labour Costs
13.7
2011 - 20122012 - 20132013 - 20142014 - 20152015 - 2016
Full-time Earnings00.71.34.13.4
Part-time Earnings2.54.83.32.15
Apprentice Earnings-12.14.8210.60.4
Overtime Earnings-3.8-1.93.93.49.3
Irregular Earnings5.7-0.310.1-0.98.9
Other Labour Costs6.33.51.14.45.3

Average annual earnings €36,919 in 2016

Average annual earnings for all employees, including regular, overtime and irregular earnings, were €36,919 in 2016, an increase of 1.1% from 2015. Average annual earnings were €45,611 for full-time employees in 2016 while part-time employees earned €16,597 on average in the year. See figure 5 and table 5.

Average annual earnings have recovered since the downturn, rising by approximately €1,000 (2.8%) from €35,915 in 2011 to €36,919 in 2016.

Average annual earnings for full-time employees has increased 3.5% in the five year period up from €44,062 in 2011, to €45,611 in 2016.

Average annual earnings for part-time employees increased from €15,772 in 2011, to €16,597 in 2016, an increase of 5.2%. See figure 5 and table 5.

All EmployeesFull-time EmployeesPart-time Employees
2011359154405415768
2012361454452315886
2013359764469915856
2014360904483616019
2015365194507516332
2016369194561116597

Average annual total earnings rise in 9 of the 13 sectors

Average annual total earnings rose in 9 of the 13 economic sectors in 2016. The largest percentage increase was 6.4% in the Professional, scientific and technical sector where average annual earnings rose from €41,973 to €44,667. Average annual earnings in both the Construction and the Accommodation and food services sectors rose by 3.3%, rising from €37,103 to €38,326 and €16,671 to €17,214 respectively. The largest decrease was in the Public administration and defence sector (-1.7%) where average annual earnings fell from €48,173 to €47,330 between 2015 and 2016. 

Average annual total earnings were comprised of 92.0% regular earnings, 2.7% overtime earnings and 5.3% irregular earnings. Figure 6 illustrates these components of average annual total earnings by economic sectors in 2016.

Average annual total earnings vary widely across the economy with the highest averages in Information and communication at €55,961 and Financial, insurance and real estate at €54,317. The Information and communication sector had the highest average regular earnings of €49,319 and highest average irregular earnings of €6,216, making it the highest paid sector in 2016. The Industry sector recorded the highest average annual overtime earnings of €2,403 in 2016. The Accommodation and food services sector had average annual total earnings of €17,214, the lowest of the sectors. This comprised of €16,580 regular earnings, €245 overtime earnings and €389 irregular earnings. See figure 6 and table 5.

Irregular Earnings 2015Overtime Earnings 2015Regular Earnings 2015Irregular Earnings 2016Overtime Earnings 2016Regular Earnings 2016
Industry26812282392052943240339475
Construction870133034903682157336071
Wholesale & Retail158157825870169261726445
Transportation18971513355392098162735727
Accommodation & Food3832571603138924516580
Information & Comm603949349445621642649319
Financial & Real Estate426659548153471260848997
Professional & Technical224335039381257835841730
Admin & Support Service140756624972168854524887
Public Admin & Defence21691366446382063172443543
Education4791974128546420241018
Health & Social14661202325881536122932748
Arts & Entertainment88638623149102832123050
All Sectors184593133743195399033977
Total All Sectors K-L Financial, insurance and real estate activities
B-E Industry M Professional, scientific and technical activities
F Construction N Administrative and support service activities
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles O Public Administration and defence; compulsory social security
H Transportation and storage P Education
I Accommodation and food service activities Q Human health and social work activities
J Information and communication R-S Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities


Average annual hourly earnings €22.04 in 2016

The average annual hourly earnings of all employees were €22.04 in 2016. The Education sector recorded the highest average annual hourly earnings of €33.84, yet recorded the lowest number of average annual weekly paid hours of 23.7 hours. The Information and communication sector and the Financial, insurance and real estate sector had the next highest earners, with average annual hourly earnings of €29.74 and €29.66 respectively. These sectors had average annual weekly paid hours of 36.2 and 35.2 respectively. The Industry sector had the highest average annual weekly paid hours of 38.5, followed by the Construction sector which had an average of 37.1 hours in 2016. Figure 7 illustrates the components of average annual hourly earnings by economic sectors, while figure 8 illustrates the components of average annual weekly paid hours. See table 8 and table 9.

X Axis LabelIrregular EarningsOvertime EarningsRegular Earnings
Industry1.471.219.73
Construction0.350.8118.68
Wholesale & Retail1.050.3816.41
Transportation1.120.8719.02
Accommodation & Food0.280.1812.01
Information & Comm3.30.2326.21
Financial & Real Estate2.570.3326.76
Professional & Technical1.470.223.73
Admin & Support Service1.080.3515.9
Public Admin & Defence1.10.9223.21
Education0.380.1633.29
Health & Social0.960.7720.41
Arts & Entertainment0.70.2215.77
All Sectors1.170.5920.29
X Axis LabelAverage Overtime Weekly Paid HoursAverage Regular Weekly Paid Hours
Industry1.836.7
Construction1.236
Wholesale & Retail0.830.2
Transportation1.334.8
Accommodation & Food0.426.2
Information & Comm0.335.9
Financial & Real Estate0.334.9
Professional & Technical0.333.6
Admin & Support Service0.629.5
Public Admin & Defence1.135
Education0.123.6
Health & Social0.830
Arts & Entertainment0.527.6
All Sectors0.831.4

Components of earnings

In order to change their wage bill, employers have three options available to them, namely: employment level and composition, hourly wage rate and weekly working hours of employees.

                              Total earnings    =    hourly wage rate    x    hours worked    x    employees

Increase in all wage bill components in 2016

The total wage bill has increased each year from 2011 to 2016. The main driver of total earnings is employment, which has increased each year from 2012 to 2016.

Average weekly paid hours increased from 2011 to 2016, with the exception of 2013.

Average hourly earnings increased in 2012, fell in 2013 and 2014 before increasing in 2015 and 2016.

All wage bill components increased in 2016. The 4.0% increase in total annual earnings to €61.2 billion was made up from increases in employment of 2.8% to 1,657,000, in average hourly earnings of 0.6% to €22.04 and in average weekly paid hours of 0.5% to 32.2 hours. See figure 9 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2011 - 20120.4-0.30.20.412960609911051
2012 - 20131.11.5-0.4-0.126542233470417
2013 - 201421.7-0.20.570161545771297
2014 - 20153.62.40.20.976377952755914
2015 - 201642.80.60.467872738615083

Increase in total annual earnings of full-time employees from 2011 to 2016

Total annual earnings of full-time employees rose each year from 2011 to 2016.

Employment fell in 2012 but has increased each year since to 2016.

Average weekly paid hours increased each year from 2011 to 2016.

Average hourly earnings increased from 2011 to 2016, with the exception of 2014.

All components of full-time earnings increased in 2016, with employment up 2.6% to 1,157,000, average hourly earnings up 0.7% to €23.67 and average weekly paid hours up 0.5% to 37.1 hours. These contributed to an increase in total annual earnings of 3.8% to €52.8 billion in the year. See figure 10 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2011 - 20120.2-0.80.80.247049135328026
2012 - 20130.50.10.10.301204819277112
2013 - 20141.91.6-0.20.464100464100459
2014 - 20153.83.20.30.217391304347836
2015 - 20163.82.60.70.488069414316694

Increase in total annual earnings of part-time employees from 2011 to 2016

Total annual earnings of part-time employees rose each year from 2011 to 2016.

Employment has increased each year from 2011 to 2016.

Average weekly paid hours increased each year from 2011 to 2016.

Average hourly earnings decreased each year from 2011 to 2015, a cumulative decrease of 3.6% over the four years. This negative trend changed in 2016 when average hourly earnings increased by 0.8%.

All components of part-time earnings increased in 2016, with employment up 3.6% to 480,000, average hourly earnings up 0.8% to €15.58 and average weekly paid hours up 0.8% to 20.5 hours. These contributed to an increase in total annual earnings of 5.2% to €8.0 billion in the year. See figure 11 and table 11.

Total EarningsAverage EmploymentAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Paid Hours
2011 - 20122.41.7-1.62.32558139534882
2012 - 20134.74.9-1.31.13636363636362
2013 - 20143.22.1-0.31.32788559754853
2014 - 20152.10.2-0.52.41935483870968
2015 - 20165.23.60.80.836614173228334

Average annual other labour costs 13.7% of average annual total labour costs in 2016

Average annual other labour costs accounted for 13.7% of average annual total labour costs in 2016. This represents an increase from 2011 when average annual other labour costs were 12.6% of average annual total labour costs.

Other labour costs are comprised of statutory social contributions (e.g. employer PRSI), non-statutory contributions (employer pension contributions), benefits in kind (BIK), other expenses (e.g. employer training expenses), redundancy payments and subsidies.

Average annual statutory social contributions increased each year since 2011 and were €3,470 in 2016.

Average annual non-statutory social contributions increased from a series low of €1,606 in 2011 to €1,869 in 2013. They fell to €1,670 in 2015. In 2016 they increased to €1,724, an annual increase of 3.2%.

Average annual other expenses have remained steady since 2011, while average annual BIK has had an upward trend over the period 2011 to 2016. See figure 12, table 7 and table 10.

Statutory Social ContributionsNon-Statutory Social ContributionsOther ExpensesBenefits in Kind
201131411606307254
201232021781311311
201332041869310314
201433341688311323
201534031670315364
201634701724319381
Table 1 Total labour costs components
Total Labour Costs Components201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
 €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
Full-time Regular Earnings44,076.744,078.444,371.444,945.746,791.848,365.4+3.4+9.7
Part-time Regular Earnings6,313.36,471.66,783.07,006.27,154.47,510.2+5.0+19.0
Apprentices/Trainees Earnings402.3353.5370.6378.0418.0419.7+0.4+4.3
Overtime Earnings1,478.51,422.81,395.91,450.81,500.41,640.1+9.3+10.9
Irregular Earnings2,586.32,734.82,726.13,000.72,972.23,235.4+8.9+25.1
Total Earnings54,857.155,061.155,647.056,781.558,836.861,170.9+4.0+11.5
Other Labour Costs7,910.58,407.98,701.18,794.99,185.29,672.0+5.3+22.3
Total Labour Costs62,767.663,469.064,348.165,576.468,021.970,842.9+4.1+12.9
Table 2 Total annual earnings by economic sector ¹
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry8,275.78,211.58,486.98,782.29,098.59,428.9+3.6+13.9
FConstruction2,369.42,156.32,145.22,553.32,817.43,288.8+16.7+38.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles7,286.57,509.57,642.77,578.47,896.28,238.0+4.3+13.1
HTransportation and storage2,432.12,371.92,391.32,395.32,506.12,633.4+5.1+8.3
IAccommodation and food services1,965.52,058.92,229.92,395.32,423.72,691.7+11.1+36.9
JInformation and communication2,615.02,959.33,053.93,158.03,404.03,519.3+3.4+34.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate4,536.94,524.94,459.44,642.94,609.74,804.8+4.2+5.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical2,838.42,978.53,272.23,418.13,598.63,956.8+10.0+39.4
NAdministrative and support services 1,988.71,930.21,861.41,951.02,117.22,168.0+2.4+9.0
OPublic administration and defence5,369.35,407.25,216.85,263.35,471.45,265.5-3.8-1.9
PEducation5,918.75,685.55,636.35,637.55,620.65,700.0+1.4-3.7
QHuman health and social work8,123.48,102.48,060.87,907.68,073.48,198.6+1.6+0.9
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities1,137.71,165.11,190.21,098.61,199.81,277.1+6.4+12.3
Total 54,857.155,061.155,647.056,781.558,836.861,170.9+4.0+11.5
Table 3 Total annual other labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry1,685.81,740.81,865.71,899.31,947.02,104.1+8.1+24.8
FConstruction318.0274.7268.0330.7351.7418.0+18.9+31.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles1,088.91,189.81,146.61,192.61,251.31,313.5+5.0+20.6
HTransportation and storage444.5500.9451.2424.2436.3438.9+0.6-1.3
IAccommodation and food services199.8188.5204.0252.6259.3282.2+8.8+41.3
JInformation and communication545.5620.6813.9691.6797.1832.0+4.4+52.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate1,057.61,167.81,168.51,166.41,152.71,162.3+0.8+9.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical465.0488.6547.3531.6575.1650.0+13.0+39.8
NAdministrative and support services 250.0261.9255.1280.1299.1302.2+1.0+20.9
OPublic administration and defence393.9414.1411.8432.7459.4453.3-1.3+15.1
PEducation522.0560.5564.5574.9581.8611.8+5.2+17.2
QHuman health and social work778.3835.6822.0847.2888.1902.2+1.6+15.9
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities161.4164.1182.5170.9186.2201.7+8.3+25.0
Total 7,910.58,407.98,701.18,794.99,185.29,672.0+5.3+22.3
Table 4 Total annual labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  €/M€/M€/M€/M€/M€/M%%
B-EIndustry9,961.59,952.310,352.510,681.511,045.611,533.0+4.4+15.8
FConstruction2,687.42,431.12,413.22,883.93,169.13,706.8+17.0+37.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles8,375.38,699.38,789.38,771.09,147.59,551.5+4.4+14.0
HTransportation and storage2,876.62,872.82,842.52,819.62,942.43,072.3+4.4+6.8
IAccommodation and food services2,165.32,247.42,433.92,647.92,683.02,973.9+10.8+37.3
JInformation and communication3,160.53,579.83,867.73,849.64,201.14,351.3+3.6+37.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate5,594.55,692.75,627.95,809.35,762.45,967.1+3.6+6.7
MProfessional, scientific and technical3,303.43,467.13,819.53,949.74,173.74,606.7+10.4+39.5
NAdministrative and support services 2,238.72,192.12,116.52,231.12,416.32,470.2+2.2+10.3
OPublic administration and defence5,763.15,821.25,628.65,696.15,930.85,718.8-3.6-0.8
PEducation6,440.76,245.96,200.96,212.46,202.46,311.8+1.8-2.0
QHuman health and social work8,901.78,938.18,882.98,754.88,961.59,100.8+1.6+2.2
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities1,299.01,329.21,372.61,269.51,386.11,478.8+6.7+13.8
Total 62,767.663,469.064,348.165,576.468,021.970,842.9+4.1+12.9
Table 5 Average annual earnings by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  %%
B-EIndustry41,83442,72842,64244,20944,16844,821+1.5+7.1
FConstruction35,61035,49336,23037,88537,10338,326+3.3+7.6
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles26,35226,91727,22927,31228,02928,753+2.6+9.1
HTransportation and storage37,04737,64438,33938,10038,94939,453+1.3+6.5
IAccommodation and food services16,89716,31916,09916,48616,67117,214+3.3+1.9
JInformation and communication49,77052,03553,06753,44355,97655,961-0.0+12.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate50,98551,38851,29353,39353,01454,317+2.5+6.5
MProfessional, scientific and technical39,88541,97342,25241,16641,97344,667+6.4+12.0
NAdministrative and support services 25,30325,80225,88425,84626,94427,120+0.7+7.2
OPublic administration and defence47,06048,11848,28047,86248,17347,330-1.7+0.6
PEducation44,60643,66442,54341,33241,96141,684-0.7-6.6
QHuman health and social work37,27736,73735,77535,02535,25635,512+0.7-4.7
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities23,40424,07025,17524,43824,42224,398-0.1+4.2
Total 35,91536,14535,97636,09036,51936,919+1.1+2.8
Full-time/Part-time Employees        
Full-time employees44,06244,52344,69944,83645,07545,611+1.2+3.5
Part-time employees15,77215,88615,85616,01916,33216,597+1.6+5.2
¹ Average annual earnings are inclusive of overtime and irregular earnings.
Table 6 Average annual other labour costs by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  %%
B-EIndustry8,5229,0589,3749,5619,45210,002+5.8+17.4
FConstruction4,7794,5224,5264,9064,6324,871+5.2+1.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles3,9384,2654,0854,2984,4424,584+3.2+16.4
HTransportation and storage6,7717,9507,2346,7486,7806,575-3.0-2.9
IAccommodation and food services1,7181,4941,4731,7391,7841,805+1.2+5.1
JInformation and communication10,38210,91214,14211,70413,10713,229+0.9+27.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate11,88613,26213,44013,41313,25713,139-0.9+10.5
MProfessional, scientific and technical6,5346,8857,0686,4026,7087,337+9.4+12.3
NAdministrative and support services 3,1813,5013,5473,7113,8073,780-0.7+18.8
OPublic administration and defence3,4523,6853,8113,9354,0454,074+0.7+18.0
PEducation3,9344,3044,2614,2154,3434,474+3.0+13.7
QHuman health and social work3,5713,7893,6483,7533,8783,908+0.8+9.4
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities3,3193,3903,8603,8013,7913,854+1.7+16.1
Total 5,1795,5195,6255,5905,7015,838+2.4+12.7
¹ Other labour costs include statutory employers' PRSI, other social costs, benefits in kind, etc.
Table 7 Average annual total labour costs by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  %%
B-EIndustry50,35551,78652,01653,77053,62054,823+2.2+8.9
FConstruction40,38940,01640,75542,79241,73543,197+3.5+7.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles30,29031,18231,31431,61032,47033,338+2.7+10.1
HTransportation and storage43,81945,59545,57344,84845,72946,028+0.7+5.0
IAccommodation and food services18,61417,81317,57218,22518,45519,019+3.1+2.2
JInformation and communication60,15162,94767,20965,14669,08369,190+0.2+15.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate62,87064,65164,73366,80666,27167,456+1.8+7.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical46,42048,85949,32047,56848,68152,004+6.8+12.0
NAdministrative and support services 28,48329,30329,43229,55830,75130,901+0.5+8.5
OPublic administration and defence50,51251,80352,09151,79752,21851,404-1.6+1.8
PEducation48,54047,96946,80445,54746,30546,158-0.3-4.9
QHuman health and social work40,84940,52639,42438,77839,13439,420+0.7-3.5
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities26,72427,46029,03528,23928,21228,252+0.1+5.7
Total 41,09341,66541,60141,68042,22142,727+1.3+4.0
Table 8 Average annual hourly earnings by economic sector¹
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
  %%
B-EIndustry21.4721.9421.8422.3222.1522.41+1.2+4.4
FConstruction19.0619.3419.6019.5419.5419.85+1.6+4.1
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles16.6616.8417.1217.1817.4717.84+2.1+7.1
HTransportation and storage19.8220.1720.6520.6620.3521.01+3.2+6.0
IAccommodation and food services12.4812.3112.1212.1812.2312.47+2.0-0.1
JInformation and communication26.8027.7327.9628.3229.6529.74+0.3+11.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate29.2828.9628.8829.6229.4029.66+0.9+1.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical24.0724.9924.8324.3924.6325.40+3.1+5.5
NAdministrative and support services 16.5516.1616.5516.5317.0117.33+1.9+4.7
OPublic administration and defence26.1726.3025.9325.5325.5425.23-1.2-3.6
PEducation36.6235.7134.9233.9834.1533.84-0.9-7.6
QHuman health and social work23.5323.2222.8122.2722.0422.13+0.4-5.9
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities16.0716.2716.7816.7016.9916.69-1.8+3.9
Total 21.9421.9921.9121.8621.9022.04+0.6+0.5
¹ Earnings are inclusive of overtime and irregular earnings.
Table 9 Average annual weekly paid hours by economic sector
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change1 (2015-2016)Five year change1 (2011-2016)
  HoursHoursHoursHoursHoursHours%%
B-EIndustry37.537.537.638.138.438.5+0.3+2.6
FConstruction36.035.335.637.336.537.1+1.6+3.3
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles30.430.730.630.630.931.0+0.5+1.9
HTransportation and storage36.035.935.735.536.836.1-1.8+0.5
IAccommodation and food services26.025.525.626.026.226.5+1.3+1.9
JInformation and communication35.736.136.536.336.336.2-0.3+1.3
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate33.534.134.234.734.735.2+1.6+5.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical31.932.332.832.532.833.8+3.1+6.2
NAdministrative and support services 29.430.730.130.130.530.1-1.1+2.4
OPublic administration and defence34.635.235.836.136.336.1-0.6+4.3
PEducation23.423.523.423.423.623.7+0.3+1.2
QHuman health and social work30.530.430.230.230.830.9+0.3+1.3
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities28.028.528.828.127.728.1+1.7+0.4
Total 31.531.631.631.832.132.2+0.5+2.3
 1 % changes presented in this table are calculated from numbers at 2 decimal places
Table 10 Average annual other labour costs components
Other Labour Costs Components201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
 %%
Statutory Social Contributions3,1413,2023,2043,3343,4033,470+2.0+10.5
Non Statutory Social Contributions1,6061,7811,8691,6881,6701,724+3.2+7.3
Other Expenses307311310311315319+1.3+3.9
Benefits in Kind254311314323364381+4.7+50.0
Average Other Labour Costs5,1795,5195,6255,5905,7015,838+2.4+12.7
Table 11 Wage bill components, all employees, full-time employees and part-time employees
Wage Bill Components201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
All Employees         
Total earnings€/M54,857.155,061.155,647.056,781.558,836.861,170.9+4.0+11.5
Average employment'0001,5271,5231,5471,5731,6111,657+2.8+8.5
Average hourly earnings21.9421.9921.9121.8621.9022.04+0.6+0.5
Average weekly paid hoursHours31.531.631.631.732.132.2+0.5+2.3
Full-time Employees         
Total earnings€/M47,751.047,841.348,085.748,986.150,842.152,778.3+3.8+10.5
Average employment'0001,0841,0751,0761,0931,1281,157+2.6+6.8
Average hourly earnings23.2623.4423.4723.4323.5123.67+0.7+1.8
Average weekly paid hoursHours36.436.536.636.836.937.1+0.5+1.7
Part-time Employees         
Total earnings€/M6,703.86,866.37,190.87,417.47,576.77,972.9+5.2+18.9
Average employment'000425432454463464480+3.6+13.0
Average hourly earnings16.0415.7815.5715.5315.4615.58+0.8-2.9
Average weekly paid hoursHours18.919.419.619.820.320.5+0.8+8.3
Table 12 Registered annual employment by economic sector1
NACE Principal Activity201120122013201420152016Annual change (2015-2016)Five year change (2011-2016)
        %%
B-EIndustry198,700192,200197,300196,000204,100211,1003.46.2
FConstruction65,50060,80059,40065,60075,80086,10013.631.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles277,400277,200277,300276,200279,200286,7002.73.4
HTransportation and storage64,80062,00061,10061,70063,50066,8005.23.1
IAccommodation and food services118,700124,300137,300143,000144,200155,2007.630.7
JInformation and communication53,90057,70057,30059,00061,00063,0003.316.9
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate88,50088,40086,70087,00086,60088,6002.30.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical70,40071,30077,20083,40085,60089,0004.026.4
NAdministrative and support services 79,30074,50071,80076,40079,30080,0000.90.9
OPublic administration and defence112,900109,600105,500107,000110,600111,6000.9-1.2
PEducation128,400129,700130,800133,900134,200136,3001.66.2
QHuman health and social work221,000221,400224,700225,400229,300231,4000.94.7
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities48,70049,10047,00044,90048,90051,4005.15.5
Total 1,528,3001,518,1001,533,6001,559,5001,602,4001,657,2003.48.4
¹ It should be noted that the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) is the official source of estimates of employment. The estimated trend in the number of employees refers to QNHS employee estimates, but differs in coverage in certain ways, such as the fact that a person with two jobs could be counted twice in the table and the exclusion of the Agriculture, forestry and fishing sector which is covered by the QNHS. http://www.cso.ie/en/qnhs/releasesandpublications/qnhspostcensusofpopulation2011/

Background Notes

Introduction 

The Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) replaced the four-yearly Labour Costs Survey, and also replaced all other CSO short-term earnings inquiries. The EHECS results are comparable across sectors and include more detail on components of earnings and labour costs than was previously available.

Legislation

The survey information was collected by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) under the S.I. No 140 of 2013 Statistics (Labour Costs Surveys) Order 2013. The information collected is treated as strictly confidential in accordance with the Statistics Act 1993. The survey results meet the requirements for Labour Costs statistics set out in Council Regulation (EC) 530/1999.

Business Register

The CSO’s Business Register provides the register of relevant enterprises for the survey. An enterprise is defined as the smallest legally independent unit.

Business Classification

The business classification used for the EHECS is based on the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2). The NACE code of each enterprise included in the survey was determined from the predominant activity of the enterprise, based on information provided in this or other CSO inquiries.

Nace Classification

NACE Rev.2 is the latest classification system for economic activities, updated from NACE Rev 1.1. A major revision of NACE was conducted between 2000 and 2007, in order to ensure that the NACE classification system remained relevant for the economy. The main changes that affected the release was the reclassification of some industrial enterprises from industry to services (principally in the software and publishing sectors) and the inclusion of air conditioning supply, sewerage, water management and remediation activities in industry.

Coverage

The survey results relate to enterprises in the NACE Rev.2 Sections B – E (Industry), F (Construction), G (Wholesale & retail trade: repair of motor vehicles & motorcycles), H (Transportation & storage), I (Accommodation & food services activities), J (Information & communication), K-L (Financial, insurance & real estate activities), M (Professional, scientific & technical activities), N (Administrative & support services activities), O (Public administration & defence), P (Education), Q (Human health & social work activities) and R-S (Arts, entertainment, recreation & other service activities) with 3 or more employees. The data was collected at enterprise level.

NACE Rev.2 Sections A (Agriculture, forestry and fishing), T (Activities of households as employers) and U (Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies) are not covered in the survey as most employment in these sectors is not enterprise based.

All enterprises with 50 or more employees and a sample of those with 3 to 49 employees are surveyed each quarter. The sample is based on the proportion of companies in each NACE 2 digit economic sectors in the 3 to 49 size classes (3 to 9, 10 to 19 and 20 to 49).

Earnings in the public sector are calculated before the deduction of the pension levy that was introduced in March 2009. For Q1 and Q2 2011 and Q1 2016 temporary census field staff are included in all calculations due to the large numbers involved.

Data Collection

The survey is conducted by post and questionnaires are issued in the last week of each quarter. Some returns are received electronically. All returns are scrutinised for accuracy. Where appropriate, firms are queried by post or telephone regarding incompleteness, apparent inconsistencies, etc. Information about the survey is on the CSO website and all questionnaires and instructions are available electronically there.


Definitions

Registered Employment:

Registered employment refers to the employment of respondent enterprises at the end of the reference quarter. For non-respondent enterprises and enterprises not in the sample, registered employment refers to the employment from the Business Register. The Business Register base enterprise employment on data from the latest revenue P35 files. The Business Register has a lag of between 12 and 18 months between the current quarter and the latest revenue P35 file. For this reason the Business Register is not a suitable measure of short term trends in employment. Thus, sectoral registered employment is adjusted to reflect the trends of the QNHS sectoral employment. The QNHS is designed to measure short term changes in employment. 

Average Employment

For respondent enterprises average employment refers to the average of the quarters opening employement and closing employment. This variable is used as the denominator in calculating average earnings per person and average paid hours per person.

All Employees

All persons who have a direct employment contract with an enterprise as employees, who receive wages or salaries. Persons not working for salary e.g. family members, directors, partners, outside pieceworker’s etc., are not considered employees but other persons engaged. These workers are included separately but not used in the calculation of derived variables. All employment figures are rounded to the nearest hundred.

Full-time Employees

Employees whose regular working hours are the same as the collectively agreed or customary hours worked in the enterprise, irrespective of the duration of the employment contract. Full-time employment often comes with benefits that are not typically offered to part-time, temporary, or flexible workers, such as annual leave, sick leave, and health insurance.

Part-time Employees

Employees whose regular working hours are less than the collectively agreed or customary hours worked in the enterprise. The definition of part-time varies from enterprise to enterprise but in general part-time employees work 80% or less of the regular hours of the enterprise. 

Apprentices/Trainees

All persons, both full-time or part-time, whose wages or salaries are governed by the fact that they work either under an apprenticeship contract or as part of a training program. 

Wages and Salaries

All wages and salaries payments are gross (i.e. before deduction of income tax and employees' PRSI contributions and levies such as the public sector pension levy). In the analysis, the total wages and salaries are divided into:

- Regular earnings: payments made regularly at each pay period during the year, excluding all irregular and overtime earnings.

- Overtime earnings: payment for hours worked in excess of normal hours.

- Total earnings excluding irregular earnings: regular earnings + overtime earnings.

- Irregular earnings: bonuses which are not paid regularly at each pay period. For example: end of quarter or year productivity bonus.

- Apprentice/Trainees earnings: total of apprentices & trainees' regular wages and salaries, overtime and irregular bonuses and allowances.

- Total earnings: total of regular earnings, overtime earnings and irregular earnings.

Other Labour Costs

Other labour costs are costs to the employer, in addition to wages and salaries, of employing labour. They include the below categories:

- Statutory social contributions: statutory employers’ PRSI including the social security contributions for apprentices/trainees.

- Non-statutory social contributions: payments made by enterprises on behalf of their employees which include pension fund contributions, life assurance premiums, income continuance insurance as well as other employee related payments.

- Other expenses: other employee releated payments e.g. study grants, etc.

– Benefits in kind (BIK); net cost of all goods and services made available to employees by the employer. For example, payments for private use of company cars, stock options & share purchase schemes, voluntary sickness insurance, staff housing and other free or subsidised benefits (e.g. canteen facilities, childcare provision, health costs). BIK is included as earnings by Eurostat for the Labour Costs Survey and the Labour Costs Index.

- Redundancy payments.

- Subsidies and refunds: amounts received by enterprises intended to refund part or all of the cost of wages and salaries and training costs. These may include training subsidies from SOLAS or Job Bridge as well as refunds from the Department of Social Protection (DSP) for sick and maternity leave. These are deducted from the firms’ labour costs in the analysis.

Paid Hours

- Regular paid hours: These are normal working hours of employees, usually specified in the contract of employment and should include paid leave e.g. paid sick leave and annual leave.

- Overtime paid hours: Hours worked in excess of contracted hours.  

- Total paid hours: Sum of regular paid hours and overtime paid hours.

 

Derived Variables

Total annual earnings

- Total annual regular earnings: The sum of regular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual overtime earnings: The sum of overtime earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings: The sum of regular earnings and overtime earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual irregular earnings: The sum of irregular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

- Total annual total earnings: The sum of regular earnings, overtime earnings and irregular earnings in all enterprises in the year.

Total annual other labour costs

The sum of other labour costs which includes statutory and non-statutory employers contributions to social security, redundancy payments, training and other costs and benefits in kind in all enterprises in the year.  Subsidies and refunds are deducted.

Total annual labour costs

The sum of total annual earnings and total annual other labour costs.

 

Average annual earnings

- Average annual regular earnings: Total annual regular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual overtime earnings: Total annual overtime earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual earnings excluding irregular earnings: Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual irregular earnings: Total annual irregular earnings divided by average employment.

- Average annual total earnings: Total annual total earnings divided by average employment.

Average annual other labour costs

- Average annual other labour costs divided by average annual employment.

Average annual total labour costs

- Average annual total labour costs divided by average annual employment.

 

Average hourly regular earnings

- Average hourly regular earnings: Total annual regular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly overtime earnings: Total annual overtime earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings: Total annual earnings excluding irregular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly irregular earnings: Total annual irregular earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

- Average hourly total earnings: Total annual total earnings divided by total annual paid hours.

 

Average weekly paid hours

- Average regular weekly paid hours: Regular paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

- Average overtime weekly paid hours: Overtime paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

- Average total weekly paid hours: Total paid hours for the year divided by the average employment divided by 52 (Number of weeks in year).

Unpaid hours including unpaid overtime and unpaid leave are excluded. 

 

Methodology for production of annual results

Quarterly EHECS Dataset

All enterprises with 50 or more employees are surveyed quarterly as well as a sample of enterprises which have between 3 and 49 employees inclusive. For enterprises with 3 to 49 employees inclusive, a weighting factor (the reciprocal of the sampling fraction) is used to weight the estimates to the total population for both employees and enterprises. The CSO's Business Register forms the basis of the sampling frame used for weighting the sample data to the population. Decay factors are calculated for each size class and sector to adjust the non-sampled element of the register for the respondent non-relevant enterprises.

Imputation is carried out for non-respondents in the greater than 50 employees’ categories. Where an enterprise responded in the previous quarter ratio-imputation is used to estimate figures for the current quarter. For enterprises that did not respond in the previous four quarter a stratum average imputation method is used to estimate the missing variables. These estimates are based on respondent enterprises of a similar size and activity.

After imputation, all enterprises with 50 or more employees are accounted for and included in the final dataset. All enterprises employing between 3 and 49 employees are allocated a grossing factors to represent the entire population for their relevant industry sector and size class in the quarter. All enterprises' data are contained in the final quarterly dataset which is tabulated to produce the aggregates which are publlished in the Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.

Annual EHECS Dataset 

The four quarterly datasets are merged to create an annual dataset. This annual dataset is summarised, using the weighting factor, to produce aggregates which are published in the Earnings and Labour Costs Annual release.

 

Interpretation of results

The series presented in this release and all estimates deriving from the EHECS survey are primarily of use as an indicator of trends in average earnings across different classifications. However, in interpreting the trends and in undertaking direct comparison of the average level of earnings across sectors, some caution in interpretation is warranted. For example, the results presented here are based on raw earnings levels. To get a true picture of differences in earnings levels of different employees, comparisons should take account of differences in the characteristics of employees, such as length of service, educational attainment level, nature of work,  etc., none of which are available via EHECS. The additional information available from the National Employment Survey (NES) allows for a more detailed analysis of differences in earnings levels and should be referred to by users seeking more detailed information on earnings determinants than is available from EHECS.

Calculation of percentage rates of change in average annual weekly paid hours

Percentage rates of change presented in this release are calculated at two decimal places. Due to rounding, these may differ from the percentage rates of change calculated from the rounded values presented in the tables.

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