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For more information on this release:
E-mail: environment@cso.ie Clare O'Hara (+353) 1 4984208 Gerry Brady (+353) 1 4984201
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information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-9983
CSO statistical release, 07 June 2017, 11am

Environmental Subsidies and Similar Transfers

2015

Environmental Transfers by Environmental Protection/Resource Management Domain
€m
Domain20112012201320142015
Total transfers1799.3622.3536.6619.9642.4
of which     
Wastewater management286.4176.2146.9172.1184.0
Protection of biodiversity and landscape285.6264.5217.5212.4133.1
Production of energy from renewable resources40.853.455.589.7170.9
Heat/Energy saving and management113.568.156.990.290.0
Other72.960.059.755.564.3
1Due to rounding, totals may not correspond with the sum of the categories.

Environmental subsidies of €642 million paid in 2015

Figure 1 Total Environmental Protection and Total Resource Management Transfers, 2000-2015
go to full release

In 2015, €642 million was paid in environmental subsidies and similar transfers to Irish corporations, households and public bodies, as well as to international environmental organisations under Irish government commitments.

This was 4% higher than the amount paid in 2014 but 47% lower than the €1.2 billion provided in 2008.

Environmental protection activities were subsidised to a value of €375 million, or 58% of the total, while €268 million, or 42%, was used to support resource management activities.

Figure 1 shows the trend in the total amount of environmental transfers allocated to environmental protection and to resource management during the period 2000-2015. The amount directed towards environmental protection has decreased while there has been an increase in transfers for resource management activities.

The headline table shows the most subsidised activities during the years 2011-2015.

An environmental subsidy or similar transfer is a current or capital transfer that is intended to support activities which protect the environment or reduce the use and extraction of natural resources.

Environmental protection activities aim to prevent or reduce pollution and other negative impacts on the environment. Resource management activities aim to preserve natural resources from overconsumption.

We have elaborated on the classifications used and the rationale behind the classification of transfers in the Background Notes.

 

Analysis by Domain

In 2015, 29% of environmental transfers went to wastewater management, almost 27% to renewable energy production, 21% to biodiversity protection and 14% to heat and energy saving measures. Other activities, such as climate change mitigation and waste management, accounted for the remaining 10%.

There was a large increase in subsidies to renewable energy generation from funds collected through the PSO (Public Service Obligation) Levy on electricity consumers in 2015. This accounts for the increase in the proportion of subsidies to renewable energy sources from 14% in 2014 to 27% in 2015.

There was a large decrease in total payments to farmers under agri-environment schemes as one programme (Rural Environment Protection Programme, REPS) came to an end and another (Green, Low-carbon Agri-environment Scheme, GLAS) was launched. This resulted in the proportion of subsidies to biodiversity protection falling from 34% in 2014 to 21% in 2015.

Protection of air and climateWastewater managementWaste managementProtection of soil and groundwaterProtection of biodiversityResearch and developmentNoise abatement, protection against radiation and other environmental protection activities
20000.493325.7139.9960.18205.6791.2871.988
20010.673408.02411.8820.214165.0261.8612.752
20020.69387.54314.4710.241173.0992.5052.994
20030.766332.22318.6920.161185.4843.2732.224
20041.725275.41322.5110.474210.6733.6592.464
20052.51265.35226.2450.568286.6593.5072.672
20066.189301.92828.4348.054334.4563.6533.863
200713.835414.26832.6529.754317.7646.6113.267
200823.301692.29533.95246.724325.7216.9583.376
20097.632589.2434.3996.168356.2619.1413.709
201015.566616.03833.0165.882340.7567.8513.327
201112.22286.4226.41211.795285.6097.6444.013
201211.124176.24719.211.684264.5095.6234.089
20139.517146.9118.84113.952217.4795.1044.187
201411.252172.13714.57914.017212.4094.1673.579
201519.825184.03814.60116.154133.1393.7293.155

Figure 2 shows the distribution by environmental protection domain of environmental subsidies and similar transfers. The peak in the graph from 2008-2010 is due to payments under the Farm Waste Management Scheme which was a capital grant programme aimed at helping farmers meet the requirements of the EU Nitrates Directive by investing in animal housing and storage facilities for silage and agricultural waste. Further details of environmental protection transfers under particular programmes are provided in Table 1 and in Tables 2.1-2.9.

Management of forest resourcesManagement of wild flora and faunaProduction of energy from renewable resourcesHeat/Energy saving and managementMinimisation of the intake of fossil resourcesResearch and developmentManagement of water, management of minerals and other resource management activities
20000.0040.1290001.2870.14
200100.17600.08301.8610.14
20020.1210.3680.0152.64902.5050.214
20030.091.0047.934.51203.2730.224
20040.2940.49518.2372.95303.6590.22
20050.155.20914.7144.61503.5070.299
20060.79713.0842.1559.8310.1473.4840.418
20072.26513.3232.87638.6840.1475.8850.551
20081.24636.3797.14639.2040.1476.0850.806
20090.80923.79142.04146.1770.1477.8571.2
20100.6462.40746.805104.15107.0611.013
20110.4142.02240.843113.51506.8441.538
20120.6111.01853.37668.0910.3894.8851.423
20130.4231.58555.52456.9260.3894.3971.329
20140.2571.93889.69890.1590.3894.1671.111
20150.1061.477170.94489.9660.3893.7291.111

The impact of the increased PSO Levy subsidy to electricity generation from renewable sources in 2015 can be seen in Figure 3, which shows the distribution of environmental transfers by resource management domain. Along with renewable energy subsidies, energy efficiency grant programmes such as those run by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland account for a large proportion of transfers to resource management activities. Between 2006 and 2009 a fishing vessel decommissioning scheme was implemented by Bord Iascaigh Mhara and the compensation payments can be observed in the graph as an increase in transfers for the management of wild flora and fauna during those years. Full details of transfers under these and other resource management programmes can be found in Table 1 and Tables 2.10-2.16.

Analysis by NACE Sector

Agriculture, forestry and fishingManufacturing, energy and constructionCommercial and other servicesPublic servicesHouseholds
2000221.19804.451311.5429.703
2001179.0190.256.289395.43211.702
2002188.9610.6287.8815374.735515.207
2003217.4078.6399.4635305.314519.032
2004237.32718.51510.5895253.941522.402
2005318.30916.40210.472239.6131.215
2006377.2174.75910.7065281.790542.02
2007455.1259.67316.6085307.825572.622
2008785.46312.88619.974329.86174.989
2009682.73243.47826.6275309.003565.064
2010649.6646.78221.2685328.8285134.261
2011326.38843.46824.8485265.4985137.758
2012267.14559.52119.2505188.133587.217
2013221.28357.21117.6395163.870575.861
2014216.36889.45219.227187.883106.028
2015140.034167.86123.2785198.5525111.534

Figure 4 shows how environmental subsidies and similar transfers were distributed to different sectors of the economy. In the period 2000-2015 the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector and the public services sector were the two main beneficiaries. This is due to agri-environment schemes aimed at encouraging biodiversity-friendly farming, and funding to local authorities to develop and operate wastewater treatment facilities. A detailed breakdown of environmental transfers by benefitting institutional sector and economic activity is provided in Tables 4 and 5.

Types of Transfer and Sources of Funding

In 2015, 40% of environmental transfers took the form of investment grants or other capital transfers and 60% were subsidies or other current payments. Further details are available in Tables 3 and 6.

Table 7 contains information on the source of the payments. Most environmental transfers (85% in 2015) are paid by the exchequer with a significant minority of funds coming from the EU (15% in 2015).

Potentially Environmentally Damaging Subsidies

Certain subsidies or other support measures that have social or economic objectives may incentivise behaviour that could be damaging to the environment. For example, transport fuel tax rebates encourage the consumption of fossil fuels. Such transfers are referred to as potentially environmentally damaging subsidies (PEDS). 

In Table 8 we present preliminary data on PEDS. Subsidies on agricultural products, subsidies towards fossil fuel consumption and some tax reliefs or rebates on energy products are included. The amount paid in agricultural product subsidies decreased substantially between 2000 and 2015 in parallel with a movement away from headage and area-based subsidies.

Table 1 Environmental Transfers by Environmental Protection and Resource Management Domain, 2000-2015
€000
Environmental Protection/Resource Management Domain2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
01 Protection of ambient air and climate4936736907661,7252,5106,18913,83523,3017,63215,56612,22011,1249,51711,25219,825
02 Wastewater management325,713408,024387,543332,223275,413265,352301,928414,268692,295589,240616,038286,420176,247146,910172,137184,038
03 Waste management9,99611,88214,47118,69222,51126,24528,43432,65233,95234,39933,01626,41219,20018,84114,57914,601
04 Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water1802142411614745688,0549,75446,7246,1685,88211,79511,68413,95214,01716,154
05 Noise and vibration abatement144171193129183259281341351368201468667838386423
06 Protection of biodiversity and landscape205,679165,026173,099185,484210,673286,659334,456317,764325,721356,261340,756285,609264,509217,479212,409133,139
07 Protection against radiation2872912992084104381,220400447380304242200200400-
08 Environmental research and development1,2871,8612,5053,2733,6593,5073,6536,6116,9589,1417,8517,6445,6235,1044,1673,729
09 Other environmental protection activities1,5572,2902,5021,8871,8711,9752,3622,5262,5782,9612,8223,3033,2223,1492,7932,732
10 Management of water------------8-1924
11 Management of forest resources4-121902941507972,2651,246809646414611423257106
12 Management of wild flora and fauna1291763681,0044955,20913,08413,32336,37923,7912,4072,0221,0181,5851,9381,477
13A Production of energy from renewable resources--157,93018,23714,7142,1552,8767,14642,04146,80540,84353,37655,52489,698170,944
13B Heat/Energy saving and management-832,6494,5122,9534,6159,83138,68439,20446,177104,151113,51568,09156,92690,15989,966
13C Minimisation of the intake of fossil resources as raw materials------147147147147--389389389389
14 Management of minerals--7474747474---------
15 Research and development activities for resource management1,2871,8612,5053,2733,6593,5073,4845,8856,0857,8577,0616,8444,8854,3974,1673,729
16 Other resource management activities1401401401501462253445518061,2001,0131,5381,4151,3291,0921,087
                 
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
– No transfers identified
Table 2.1 Environmental Transfers for the Protection of Ambient Air and Climate, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Air Pollution Control (Local Authorities)144171193129183259281341351368201468667838386423
Aran Island Electric Vehicle Programme-----------7585779-
Electric Vehicle Programme-----------993861266041,322
GLAS (Green, Low-carbon Agri-environment Scheme)---------------1,145
Geneva Convention15202121242528253436353740571641
Green Schools Travel Programme--------580776799603714586632606
Smarter Travel and Carbon Reduction Programme---------2,8013,5597,0704,8555,3285,6589,740
Stockholm Convention----------21521232026
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change2765789564128136150135118135132142142112137
Vehicle Registration Tax Relief on Electric Vehicles-5637349791,6495,23312,83921,7853,04210,3453,2303,5851,7123,1905,750
Vienna Convention307361361486475450511480417490489491629629626635
                 
Total4936736907661,7252,5106,18913,83523,3017,63215,56612,22011,1249,51711,25219,825
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.2 Environmental Transfers for Wastewater Management, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Animal Carcase Disposal Scheme---10629822853573225-----
Capital Investment Plan (Wastewater)--------------150,000168,000
Farm Waste Management Scheme-1539,38820,61216,68419,15021,358113,937413,738292,763298,14932,639391521310-
On-farm Investment: Pollution Control 15,46813,9175,3071,305358132142---------
Rural Wastewater Programme (Capital)9,70311,56312,31616,10218,47825,58327,95627,95022,57521,50018,92017,0008,5457,2913,4443,633
Rural Wastewater Programme (Current)--2,7492,6532,6393,5713,8544,1755,7496,8168,09711,10911,9089,32610,5289,470
Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Local Authorities)5,3656,3777,1926,2477,5968,3159,22213,60410,34513,0277,1035,5295,0405,3777,8552,935
Water Services Investment Programme (Wastewater)295,177376,014350,592285,199229,630208,520239,368254,550239,831255,102283,744220,143150,363124,396--
                 
Total325,713408,024387,543332,223275,413265,352301,928414,268692,295589,240616,038286,420176,247146,910172,137184,038
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.3 Environmental Transfers for Waste Management, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Animal Carcase Disposal Scheme---10629822853573225-----
Basel Convention81013111137-133718392223192124
EU LIFE: HEATSUN--7474747474---------
Fallen Animals Scheme--9949,5529,6978,1178,8338,9219,51810,6946,7973,3582,2672,3112,8202,005
Litter Management (Local Authorities)8911,0591,1947981,1331,6001,7402,1112,1712,0201,9872,2252,4921,7631,8691,438
Recycling Facilities (Local Authorities)5,5486,5957,4384,9727,0569,96310,83213,14613,52113,28013,78611,8516,4896,2562,6122,332
Street Cleaning (Local Authorities)364248324564708487416714053-55-
Waste Planning and Regulation (Local Authorities)2,9943,5584,0132,6833,8075,3755,8447,0937,2956,8808,5187,9967,2628,0406,8138,030
Waste Processing Facilities Scheme----------400----400
Waste Collection Services (Local Authorities)5196176964666619331,0141,2311,2661,4351,398820615452389372
                 
Total9,99611,88214,47118,69222,51126,24528,43432,65233,95234,39933,01626,41219,20018,84114,57914,601
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.4 Environmental Transfers for the Protection and Remediation of Soil, Groundwater and Surface Water, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Contaminated Soil Forum------7--7------
EU LIFE: Duck Slurry----245245----------
Haulbowline Site Remediation------------7026791,8053,672
Landfill Remediation------7,6969,32846,2865,3463,5261,0013,3008,5987,6734,506
Landfill Remediation (Environment Fund)-----------6,0024,110---
Operation and Aftercare of Landfill (Local Authorities)1802142411612293233514264383623974992541211127
Organic Farming Scheme---------4531,9594,2933,3184,5544,4277,969
                 
Total1802142411614745688,0549,75446,7246,1685,88211,79511,68413,95214,01716,154
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.5 Environmental Transfers for Noise and Vibration Abatement, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Noise Pollution Control (Local Authorities)144171193129183259281341351368201468667838386423
                 
Total144171193129183259281341351368201468667838386423
Table 2.6 Environmental Transfers for the Protection of Biodiversity and Landscape, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
AEOS (Agri-Environment Options Scheme)-----------12,19053,78558,14860,76779,801
Burren Farming for Conservation Programme----------6399581,1471,0591,0441,031
Cartagena Biosafety Protocol-----281071011-24-141315
Cessation of Turf-Cutting Compensation Scheme-----------453,4973,9824,1734,022
Chalara Scheme-------------277510275
Chough, Goose and Wader Farm Plan Schemes------42763248317362353236320369
Conservation of Genetic Resources in Plants and Animals679810710397133152152258248308275172155179177
Corncrake Farm Plan Scheme--------9285281892033141426040
Corncrake Grant Scheme----------205188208226175716
EU LIFE: AranLIFE--------------487487
EU LIFE: Blackwater SAMOK-----------187187187187187
EU LIFE: Blanket Bog Project--89803807359361696--------
EU LIFE: BurrenLIFE-----335335335335335------
EU LIFE: CAISIE---------184184184184---
EU LIFE: GeoparkLIFE-------------222222222
EU LIFE: Golden Eagle-2121212121----------
EU LIFE: KerryLIFE--------------228456
EU LIFE: MulkearLIFE---------174174174174174--
EU LIFE: Raised Bog Project----22304458292386--258258258258258
EU LIFE: RaptorLIFE---------------342
EU LIFE: Restoring Priority Woodland------127344413589------
EU LIFE: Termoncarragh-117117117117117----------
EU LIFE: Waterbirds---319319319319319--------
Forest Environment Protection Scheme-------1,7417,07911,25011,5384,6522,3901,3874316
GLAS (Green, Low-carbon Agri-environment Scheme)---------------10,308
Hen Harrier Farm Plan Scheme--------5591,0372,5182,7932,5652,3082,185828
Heritage Council Biodiversity Grants-----9740140258026921211984162213228
Marine Biodiversity Scheme---------1,000750643496333330559
National Biodiversity Data Centre-----3102611830709629481477476568582
Native Woodland Conservation Scheme4-121902941506501,882862426410414611423257106
Native Woodland Establishment Scheme-------354311,41872215872232504-
Natterjack Toad Grant Scheme--------2540505050505050
Neighbourwood--728359120803023126872141174592-
OSPAR Convention1418181719192046423839604749--
Owenduff and Other Farm Plan Schemes------333835258301,2191,4981,2751,06430767
REPS (Rural Environment Protection Scheme)205,593164,773172,555183,931208,918284,654331,065310,713312,194336,861320,580259,551195,990145,856138,94032,009
                
Total205,679165,026173,099185,484210,673286,659334,456317,764325,721356,261340,756285,609264,509217,479212,409133,139
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.7 Environmental Transfers for Protection against Radiation, 2000-2015
€000
 2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland2872912992084104381,220400447380304242200200400-
                 
Total2872912992084104381,220400447380304242200200400-
– Programme not in operation
Table 2.8 Environmental Transfers for Environmental Protection Research and Development, 2000-2015
€000
 2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Forest Biodiversity and Climate Research------1707278721,285790800738707--
Cleaner Greener Production Programme-25025025025025025025025045025017570-35-
Cleaner Production Programme-----------3616111322194
ERTDI Research Programme1,2871,6112,2553,0233,4093,2573,234---------
STRIVE Research Programme-------5,6355,8357,4076,8116,6334,6544,3873,8093,535
                 
Total1,2871,8612,5053,2733,6593,5073,6536,6116,9589,1417,8517,6445,6235,1044,1673,729
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.9 Environmental Transfers for Other Environmental Protection Activities, 2000-2015
€000
 2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Aarhus Convention-------55141318211458
Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment--------10101010----
Environment Fund Grants------20761191732272311731112213
Global Environment Facility1,1001,2571,4691,4201,4091,4331,4691,4201,4201,4211,4691,4201,4201,4211,4691,420
Green Communities Programme-----------393837359
Green Healthcare Programme---------50508360493365
Green Home Programme-------50505050636338349
Green Hospitality Awards-------757575751871481237126
Green Schools Programme------1001001000100100901009090
GreenBusiness.ie/SMILE--------150150150306327359307274
EU LIFE: DfAuto------232232--------
EU LIFE: Epicentre-576576-------------
Local Agenda 21 Environmental Partnership Fund140140140150146125123146164156152192169200198190
Local Authority Waste Prevention Network-----100100100143491154238186198109111
OECD Environmental Compliance Indicators------------55--
Packaging Prevention Programme-------5555468--
Stop Food Waste Programme---------50509615610642-
UN Environment Fund317317317317317317317317317317317317361361358507
UNECE European Environmental Bureau--------20----202010
                 
Total1,5572,2902,5021,8871,8711,9752,3622,5262,5782,9612,8223,3033,2223,1492,7932,732
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.10 Environmental Transfers for the Management of Water, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Rainwater Harvesting Scheme------------8-1924
                 
Total------------8-1924
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.11 Environmental Transfers for the Management of Forest Resources, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
EU LIFE: CleanWood-------237237237237-----
EU LIFE: Tyre/Wood Block------147147147147------
Native Woodland Conservation Scheme4-121902941506501,882862426410414611423257106
                 
Total4-121902941507972,2651,246809646414611423257106
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.12 Environmental Transfers for the Management of Wild Flora and Fauna, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Conservation and Management of Fisheries1291763169521807069333031,0737531,010542221735630375
Environmentally Friendly Fishing Gear-------217475374------
Heritage Council Wildlife Grants----25728224325428825316-----
Lobster V-notching Scheme--5252581184555596185637186253320
Marine Environment Protection Scheme----------325279178141315296
Salmon Conservation Fund-------636774756615683397572731469
Salmon Hardship Scheme-------11,85812,7104,612------
Seafood Environmental Management Part A----------1671783451916
Seafood Environmental Management Part B----------182278117---
Whitefish Fleet Decommissioning Scheme-----4,10311,863-21,00016,9827-----
                 
Total1291763681,0044955,21013,08513,32336,37923,7912,4072,0221,0181,5851,9381,477
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.13A Environmental Transfers for the Production of Energy from Renewable Resources, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Bioenergy Scheme-------1,0401,1271,275974304245172101103
Biomass Harvesting Equipment Scheme--------7799------
Electric Vehicle Programme-----------993861266041,322
Microgeneration---------41028030----
Ocean Energy--------8872,5132452,0881,2064166282,107
PSO Levy: Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources---6,56816,08612,356210--34,68442,95936,95551,22454,47187,667166,467
ReHeat Deployment Scheme------509273,9841,8111,748331----
Renewable Energy Educational Support-----184208-176-------
Renewable Energy Information Office---858692714670---------
Renewable Energy RD&D--155041,4591,4601,0179098941,2495991,035316339699945
                
Total--157,93018,23714,7142,1552,8767,14642,04146,80540,84353,37655,52489,698170,944
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.13B Environmental Transfers for Heat/Energy Saving and Management, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Accelerated Allowances for Energy Efficient Equipment---------1,6006001,3001,0007009001,100
Better Energy Communities------------1,7837,78214,58316,074
Better Energy Homes---------16,26045,36257,67328,92213,1329,89614,325
Better Energy Workplaces-----------10,93511,3081,826--
CHP Deployment----2558293671,8421,9971,535376----
Energy Efficiency Retrofit Fund----------7,561746----
Energy in Education Programme-------------10010557
EU LIFE: WISER LIFE--------------150300
Greener Homes Scheme------4,29126,72721,84811,1006,2164,561----
Home Energy Saving Programme--------72883------
House of Tomorrow--4974198102,6293,6467,8208,5731,558211-----
Industry and Business Programme-------2,0103,0465,2298671,3989871,2901,059784
Industry RD&D---239-2716428727915-----
Local Authority Estate Energy Retrofit----------36,30132,72719,84926,95257,03456,431
Public Sector Energy Efficiency Programme---------4,676211---316383
Public Sector Energy Programme--2,0643,6181,8071,5081,173508859481151-----
Schools/Education Programme---14181010190385995118231240369
Warmer Homes Scheme-83872222913836678232,1473,0785,0623,7044,1244,9135,876142
                 
Total-832,6494,5122,9534,6159,83138,68439,20446,177104,151113,51568,09156,92690,15989,966
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.13C Environmental Transfers for the Minimisation of the Intake of Fossil Resources as Raw Materials, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
EU LIFE: DEPOTEC------------389389389389
EU LIFE: Tyre/Wood Block------147147147147------
                 
Total------147147147147--389389389389
– Programme not in operation
Table 2.14 Environmental Transfers for the Management of Minerals, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
EU LIFE: HEATSUN--7474747474---------
                 
Total--7474747474---------
– Programme not in operation
Table 2.15 Environmental Transfers for Research and Development Activities for Resource Management, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Cleaner Greener Production Programme-25025025025025025025025045025017570-35-
Cleaner Production Programme-----------3616111322194
ERTDI Research Programme1,2871,6112,2553,0233,4093,2573,234---------
STRIVE Research Programme-------5,6355,8357,4076,8116,6334,6544,3873,8093,535
                 
Total1,2871,8612,5053,2733,6593,5073,4845,8856,0857,8577,0616,8444,8854,3974,1673,729
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 2.16 Environmental Transfers for Other Resource Management Activities, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Environment Fund Grants------20761191732272311731112213
Green Communities Programme-----------393837359
Green Healthcare Programme---------50508360493365
Green Home Programme-------50505050636338349
Green Hospitality Awards-------757575751871481237126
Green Schools Programme------100100100-100100901009090
GreenBusiness.ie/SMILE--------150150150306327359307274
EU LIFE: WISER LIFE--------------150300
Local Agenda 21 Environmental Partnership Fund140140140150146125123146164156152192169200198190
Local Authority Waste Prevention Network-----100100100143491154238186198109111
Packaging Prevention Programme-------5555468--
Stop Food Waste Programme---------50509615610642-
                 
Total1401401401501462253445518061,2001,0131,5381,4151,3291,0921,087
– Programme not in operation or no payments made
Table 3 Environmental Transfers by Type of Transfer (Capital and Current), 2000-2015
€000
Type of Transfer2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Capital323,693405,770386,093337,024279,738274,656336,236478,020834,819679,909721,202396,524249,097199,524221,840254,252
Current223,202186,923201,322222,832263,038341,352380,255383,861388,520448,662463,319402,766373,171337,039398,017388,109
                 
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
Table 4 Environmental Transfers by Institutional Sector of Beneficiary, 2000-2015
€000
Institutional Sector2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
S.11 Non-financial corporations223,582183,093194,877232,548263,685342,078389,229477,928815,349750,483716,856392,127342,294290,555317,861322,857
S.12 Financial corporations-------2227154101721225-
S.13 General government311,542395,432374,619305,129253,479239,352281,796307,766329,394309,001329,328265,337187,886163,586186,978197,782
S.14 Households9,70311,70215,20719,03222,40231,21542,02072,62275,01965,064134,261137,75887,21775,861106,028111,534
S.15 Non-profit institutions serving households2804174357788929269481,1011,1081,4741,4731,5121,9903,7966,3077,365
S.2 Rest of the world1,7882,0482,2772,3682,3182,4362,4982,4632,4472,4792,5492,5462,7092,7542,6592,823
                 
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
- No transfers identified
Table 5 Environmental Transfers by NACE Section of Beneficiary, 2000-2015
€000
NACE Rev. 2 Section2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
A: Agriculture, forestry and fishing221,198179,019188,961217,407237,327318,309377,217455,125785,463682,732649,660326,388267,145221,283216,368140,034
B: Mining and quarrying-----------447180--
C: Manufacturing industries-2502515396397087263,2455,3216,6493,3545,4376,9402,4351,5781,114
D: Electricity, gas and air--47,57517,21113,5581,24433133835,25243,14337,80551,63354,57287,874166,747
E: Water, sewerage and waste---211571645510536964112181859124--
F: Construction--3733146081,9722,7345,9926,8581,513173118---
G: Wholesale and retail-2502502502502502545538571,4816581,324822182193124
H: Transportation and storage-------1-361914742806--
I: Accommodation and food services activities--1501441631214501,196696775890442454273201
J: Information and communication-------2173055242337709916610678
K: Financial and insurance activities-------234471542762211225-
L: Real estate--------23213-6968---
M: Professional, scientific and technical activities2,3833,5744,7485,7486,8486,6976,87111,62113,25919,05614,61716,23012,31510,76810,74313,886
N: Administrative and support services-------843475678165726155
O: Public administration311,542395,432373,907303,997253,033238,845281,210307,332328,448306,116324,888261,835185,623160,601182,932193,125
P: Education--6581,0487717655664791,2702,1613,3363,1502,1762,5583,6513,967
Q: Human health and social work activities--341539275-29292861,4531,2091,0276691,4232,6002,921
R: Arts and recreation-------5928710517596181---
S: Other services2804174357788929269481,1231,1701,3651,3451,5791,7142,5143,8674,651
U: Extra territorial1,7882,0482,2772,3682,3182,4362,4982,4632,4472,4792,5492,5462,7092,7542,6592,823
Households9,70311,70215,20719,03222,40231,21542,02072,62274,98965,064134,261137,75887,21775,861106,028111,534
Not assigned-------261651,6653,7201,3291,0007009001,100
                
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
– No transfers identified
Table 6 Environmental Transfers by Type of Transfer, 2000-2015
€000
Type of Transfer2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
D.39 Subsidies on production221,414184,791198,957220,241260,428338,533376,891368,417370,337437,517418,207362,546341,586297,289327,242323,870
D.63 Social transfers in kind-83872222913836679232,2473,27841,56336,82624,48532,22863,13156,608
D.73 Other current transfers within government------200200780776999803894786812786
D.74 Current international cooperation1,7882,0482,2772,3682,3182,4362,4982,4632,4472,4792,5492,5462,7092,7542,6592,823
D.92 Investment grants323,693405,714386,056336,990278,759268,904319,140465,181792,034658,284710,250391,994244,512197,112217,750247,401
D.99 Other capital transfers-----4,10311,86311,85833,71021,5957453,4973,9824,1734,022
T.04 Tax rate relief-5637349791,6495,23312,83921,7853,04210,3453,2303,5851,7123,1905,750
T.06 Accelerated depreciation allowances---------1,6006001,3001,0007009001,100
                 
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
– No transfers identified
Table 7 Environmental Transfers by Source of Funding (National and EU), 2000-2015
€000
Source of Funding2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
National 418,948501,165485,635443,904415,748442,312509,958617,371777,246927,5771,005,238642,712468,543412,542466,785543,032
EU127,94791,528101,780115,951127,028173,696206,533244,510446,093200,995179,282156,577153,726124,021153,07399,328
                 
Total546,895592,693587,415559,856542,776616,008716,491861,8811,223,3391,128,5711,184,521799,290622,268536,563619,857642,361
Table 8 Potentially Environmentally Damaging Subsidies, 2000-2015
€000
Programme2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Agricultural Product Subsidies: Cattle632,700512,600675,700695,000625,500438,8003,40060032,30029,90031,60030,80028,5009,40028,80042,500
Agricultural Product Subsidies: Sheep133,60082,000108,300109,300106,60011,500200---------
Agricultural Product Subsidies: Cereals99,700108,400112,400116,300112,2001,800----200200----
Agricultural Product Subsidies: Other9,9007,6007,6007,70067,7001,400100100100100-----700
PSO Levy: Electricity Generation from Peat--3938,92958,42862,70765,145--84,48878,20041,59794,17894,800119,000121,900
PSO Levy: Security of Electricity Supply-----19,987---18,20014,00020,73942,19161,000104,70047,300
Fuel Allowance66,45061,30080,60087,01784,70082,38484,969136,835151,117193,624222,062261,615211,394228,141217,731214,222
Electricity Allowance47,03651,30062,10072,40887,900103,874114,710130,769152,085165,515171,589179,251176,733161,048154,551149,572
Gas Allowance2,1822,6403,2114,7085,6136,4307,95613,62415,29217,70019,98220,71620,61516,29921,81518,752
Other Supplements (including Heating and Diet)5,3235,1006,2506507,3006,6966,7676,9187,143-6,7016,3835,624-4,0623,690
Smokeless Coal Allowance------6,0365,8845,9825,9856,6014,224----
Fishing Fleet Investment Scheme8,7973,941--------------
Petroleum Infrastructure Support Group378159349292,5590322992517235,2271,1051,105702804,297
Funding of Petroleum Scholarships--81411---2-------
Haulier's Diesel Rebate Scheme-------------70021,10013,100
Marine Diesel Tax Relief------------100200100-
– Programme not in operation

Background Notes

Environmental Accounts

As part of the implementation of the UN System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA)[1], Eurostat, the European statistical office, has developed a series of environmental accounts modules, including the Environmental Subsidies and Similar Transfers module. Eurostat has sought data under this module in 2015 and 2016 and will continue to seek annual submissions. Data collection is currently voluntary but will eventually be established on a legal basis.

Ireland has submitted data for both voluntary collections and this release is based on those submissions. Eurostat has published guidelines to assist countries and to ensure that there is a consistent methodology followed in all member states. As the data collection process matures, the guidelines will be developed into a more formal manual based on both SEEA principles and the practical experience of member states.

We have also included preliminary data on potentially environmentally damaging subsidies (PEDS) in this release; however the methodology for PEDS is less developed than the Environmental Subsidies and Similar Transfers methodology.

Environmental Subsidies and Similar Transfers

The UN SEEA Central Framework defines an environmental subsidy or similar transfer as a:

"current or capital transfer that is intended to support activities which protect the environment or reduce the use and extraction of natural resources".

This definition includes environmental subsidies and similar transfers that are current or capital transfers according to the SNA 2008[2] and its European version, the ESA 2010[3].

Types of Transfer

Type of Transfer

ESA 2010 Definition

Other subsidies on production (D.39)

Current unrequited payments other than subsidies on products which general government or the institutions of the EU make to resident producers.

Social transfers in kind (D.63)

Goods and services provided for free or at prices that are not economically significant to individual households by government units and non-profit institutions.

Current transfers within general government (D.73)

Transfers between the different subsectors of general government (central government, local government, social security funds) with the exception of taxes, subsidies, investment grants and other capital transfers.

Current international cooperation (D.74)

Transfers in cash or in kind between general government and governments or international organisations in the rest of the world, except investment grants and other capital transfers.

Investment grants (D.92)

 

Capital transfers in cash or in kind made by governments or by the rest of the world to other institutional units to finance all or part of the costs of their acquiring fixed assets.

Other capital transfers (D.99)

Transfers other than investment grants and capital taxes which do not themselves redistribute income but redistribute saving or wealth among the different sectors or subsectors of the economy or the rest of the world.

Although tax abatements are not covered in the definition of transfers above, we have included statistics on environment-related tax rate reliefs and accelerated depreciation allowances in this release as they are important for environmental policy making. An example of a tax rate relief is the waiving of the vehicle registration tax for purchasers of electric vehicles. An accelerated depreciation allowance incentivises purchases of fixed assets such as energy efficient equipment by permitting higher tax deductions in the early years of the asset’s life.

Environmental Protection and Resource Management Classifications

Environmental protection includes all activities and actions which have as their primary purpose the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution as well as any other degradation of the environment. Resource management includes the preservation, maintenance and enhancement of the stock of natural resources.

Environmental subsidies and similar transfers can be classified by the environmental protection or natural resource domain towards which they are targeted. We use the CEPA (Classification of Environmental Protection Activities) and CReMA (Classification of Resource Management Activities) classifications.

CEPA is an internationally agreed classification of environmental protection activities by environmental domain and is included in the amended Regulation (EU) No 691/2011[4]:

CEPA 2000

    01. Protection of ambient air and climate

    02. Wastewater management

    03. Waste management

    04. Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water

    05. Noise and vibration abatement

    06. Protection of biodiversity and landscape

    07. Protection against radiation

    08. Research and development

    09. Other environmental protection activities

CReMA can be used to classify environmental subsidies and similar transfers for resource management. It is also included in the amended Regulation (EU) No 691/2011:

CReMA 2008

    10. Management of water

    11. Management of forest resources

          11A. Management of forest areas

          11B. Minimisation of the intake of forest resources

    12. Management of wild flora and fauna

    13. Management of energy resources

          13A. Production of energy from renewable sources

          13B. Heat/energy saving and management

          13C. Minimisation of the intake of fossil resources for raw materials for uses other than energy production

    14. Management of minerals

    15. Research and development activities for natural resources management

    16. Other natural resource management activities

Environmental Protection and Resource Management Objectives

Activities and actions having a favourable impact on the environment but which have other goals were not included here. Programmes with more than one objective that are not wholly aimed at environmental protection or resource management were partially included. Where possible this was done by obtaining information on the amount of expenditure relating to the environmental objective under the programme. When this was not possible we applied a coefficient to the funding. To keep this process straightforward, easy to use and easy to understand we applied the coefficients[5] as follows:

Coefficient

Description

1.00

Main objective or technical nature of the programme is environmental protection or resource management

0.40

One of the main objectives of the programme is environmental protection or resource management

0.00

The main objective of the programme is not related to environmental protection or resource management

We applied the 0.40 coefficient to the following schemes: Chalara Scheme, Fallen Animals Scheme, Green Schools Travel Programme, Neighbourwood, Smarter Travel and Carbon Reduction Programme and Warmer Homes Scheme. The reason for each decision is outlined in the notes on individual programmes.

Institutional Sectors and Economic Activities of Beneficiaries

We have compiled data on the entities that receive environmental subsidies and similar transfers from the national government and from the EU. The beneficiaries are classified according to their institutional sector and their industry as follows:

(i) Institutional sector. An institutional sector is defined in ESA 2010 as an aggregation of institutional units with similar economic behaviour. The following institutional sectors are distinguished:

Sector

Title

S.11

Non-financial corporations

S.12

Financial corporations

S.13

General government

S.14

Households

S.15

Non-profit institutions serving households

S.2

Rest of the world

(ii) Industry. An industry is a group of producer units with the same principal economic activity. NACE[6] is the European reference classification for statistics related to economic activities.

Section

Title

A

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

B

Mining and quarrying

C

Manufacturing

D

Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

E

Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

F

Construction

G

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

H

Transportation and storage

I

Accommodation and food service activities

J

Information and communication

K

Financial and insurance activities

L

Real estate activities

M

Professional, scientific and technical activities

N

Administrative and support service activities

O

Public administration and defence; compulsory social security

P

Education

Q

Human health and social work activities

R

Arts, entertainment and recreation

S

Other service activities

T

Activities of householders as employers and producers

U

Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies

Allocation of funding to NACE sections and institutional sectors was straightforward for certain programmes but posed a challenge for others.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing transfers, international funding commitments, transfers to public bodies and transfers to households were in general quite simple to assign.

However identifying the sector, and in particular the NACE section, of the recipients of industry and commercial services grants (such as energy efficiency retrofit grants) was a more involved process. Details of grant recipients were sometimes published in the annual reports of the coordinating bodies. Otherwise we requested the data from the relevant organisations. The beneficiaries were assigned to NACE sections using the CSO’s Business Register.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

BIM          Bord Iascaigh Mhara (Sea Fisheries Board)

COFORD  Competitive Forestry Research for Development (formerly the Council for Forest Research and Development)

EPA          Environmental Protection Agency

NPWS       National Parks and Wildlife Service

SEAI         Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland 

Data Sources

Much of the data was collected from the publicly available annual accounts of government departments and organisations. The CSO's government accounts (part of National Accounts) were also very useful as they sometimes provided more detail than the published annual reports. Local authority annual financial statements contain information on subsidies and grants received from central government for specific purposes.

The largest proportion of environmental transfers originated with the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. We contacted the agriculture, forestry and marine divisions of the department directly in order to request data on relevant programmes along with a breakdown of the funding by national and EU contributions, current and capital amounts and information about the NACE section of the beneficiaries. A large proportion of environmental transfers also came from the Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government, formerly the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government.

The EPA, the SEAI and BIM provided data on grant recipients that allowed for classification by institutional sector and NACE. Some of this information was published in their annual reports and some was obtained through direct requests for data to the relevant organisation.

Annual costs of tax expenditures are published on the Revenue website. Where further details were required we contacted the Revenue Statistics division directly.

Note on the Environment Fund: The Environment Fund was established under the Waste Management (Amendment) Act 2001. Revenue from the plastic bag levy and the landfill levy is paid into the Fund, which is then used to finance national and international environment-related organisations, programmes, projects and activities. The Environment Fund is managed by the Department of Communications, Climate Action and the Environment and in the programme descriptions that follow it is referred to as the national Environment Fund.

List of Programmes

Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

The contribution by the Irish government to the Aarhus Convention is a current transfer to an international organisation paid from the national Environment Fund. As it relates to environmental regulation and information it is classified under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

Accelerated Capital Allowances for Energy Efficient Equipment

This tax abatement scheme began in 2009 and is aimed at encouraging investment in energy-efficient equipment so it is classified as CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

AEOS (Agri-Environment Options Scheme)

The main objective of AEOS is to promote farming practices that are favourable to biodiversity. Subsidies, as well as some capital grants, have been made by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine to farmers since 2011 for the implementation of measures such as maintaining traditional hay meadows or grassland. The scheme is co-funded by the EU and falls under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Air Pollution Control (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises the implementation of air pollution, noise pollution and water quality control measures by local authorities. We made the assumption of an even distribution of funds between the three areas and therefore included one-third of the total as a current transfer under CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate. A further one-third was assigned to CEPA 05: Noise and vibration abatement (see Noise pollution control (Local authorities) below) while the water quality expenditure is not included as its primary purpose is health rather than environment protection.

Animal Carcase Disposal Scheme

This capital grant scheme was designed to facilitate the appropriate handling, storage and collection of fallen farm animals with funding specifically provided for the improvement of wastewater collection and treatment. The programme is classified under CEPA 02: Wastewater management and CEPA 03: Waste management. We have distributed the funding evenly between the two environmental domains. The scheme began in 2002 under the National Development Plan and ran until 2010. Payments were made by the Department of Agriculture to farmers.

Aran Islands Electric Vehicle Programme

The aim of this SEAI programme is to demonstrate the potential for electric vehicles charged by wind energy to meet transport requirements on the Aran Islands. It is a capital grant scheme and is classified as CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

This contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 03: Waste management.

Better Energy Communities

This SEAI capital grant programme began in 2012 and brings together various organisations and sectors within communities under the same retrofit programme. The aim of the programme is to deliver energy savings so it is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Better Energy Homes

The SEAI Better Energy Homes Scheme was introduced in 2009 with the aim of encouraging home-owners to improve the energy efficiency of their homes by providing a capital grant to participants. The scheme operates nationally and is open to owners of dwellings built prior to 2006. It is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Better Energy Workplaces

This SEAI capital grant programme for energy efficient retrofitting in public and private sector organisations ran from 2011-2013 and is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Bioenergy Scheme

The Bioenergy Scheme was launched first as a pilot programme in 2007 and then as an EU co-funded scheme under the Rural Development Programme in 2010. The Department of Agriculture and the EU provide establishment grants to farmers to grow Willow and Miscanthus for the production of biomass suitable for use as a renewable source of energy. The scheme is classified as CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Biomass Harvesting Equipment Scheme

The purpose of this Department of Agriculture scheme, which ran from 2007 to 2010, was to support the purchase of biomass harvesting and processing equipment by farmers. The scheme is classified as CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Burren Farming for Conservation Programme/Burren Life Programme

The objective of this scheme is to implement farm plans that protect the environment in the Burren, in particular the habitats listed in Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive that occur within the Burren. The scheme is administered by the National Parks and Wildlife Service and participating farmers are funded by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and the EU. The Programme name changed to Burren Life Programme in 2015.  It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Capital Investment Plan (Wastewater)

Irish Water’s Capital Investment Plan began in 2014 and aims to continue the work of the Water Services Investment Programme. Here we include the wastewater investment portion of the plan under CEPA 02: Wastewater management.

Cartagena Biosafety Protocol

This contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape as its purpose is to protect biodiversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms.

Cessation of Turf-Cutting Compensation Scheme

Turf-cutting is restricted on 53 raised bog Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) in Ireland. The Cessation of Turf-Cutting Compensation Scheme was introduced by the NPWS in 2011 to compensate households affected by the restriction. The objective is to protect biodiversity and habitats so the payments are included under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Chalara Scheme

Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash trees. It is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously known as Chalara fraxinea). This Department of Agriculture scheme aims to restore forests affected by the disease and as many of these woodlands will have been afforested under the FEPS and NWE programmes (see below) we partially included the Chalara Scheme under the environmental domain CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape. Partial inclusion of schemes is implemented by applying a coefficient to those programmes whose environmental protection or resource management objective(s) may not be the only motivation for the implementation of the programme. In the case of the Chalara Scheme much of the woodland restoration will involve the afforestation of cultivated forest for commercial timber production.

Chough, Goose and Wader Farm Plan Schemes

Under these NPWS Farm Plan Schemes, capital grant payments are made to farmers in Special Protection Areas to encourage them to protect the habitats of birds that are listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive[7]. These programmes are classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

CHP Deployment

The SEAI’s Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Deployment programme provided grants to enterprises for the deployment of small-scale CHP systems. The programme closed in 2011. It is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Cleaner Greener Production Programme/Green Enterprise

The EPA launched the Cleaner Greener Production Programme (CGPP) in 2001 as a capital grant scheme to promote environmentally friendly practices in Irish industries. It has been funded under the EPA’s research programme and is therefore classified under CEPA 08: Environmental research and development and CReMA 15: Research and development activities for resource management. The funding was distributed evenly between the environmental protection and resource management classes.  Data was provided by the EPA for the years 2010-2015. As no figures for 2001-2009 were available we estimated the total funding paid out under the scheme in those years based on EPA reports.

Cleaner Production

Cleaner Production is part of the EPA’s research programme STRIVE. Since 2011, research grants have been provided to Irish enterprises and organisations to promote environmentally friendly practices. The programme is classified under CEPA 08: Environmental research and development and CReMA 15: Research and development activities for resource management. The funding was distributed evenly between the environmental protection and resource management classes.

Conservation and Management of Fisheries

Capital grants for the Conservation and Management of Fisheries were made by the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources up to and including 2006, with some of the expenditure being recouped from the EU. In 2007 the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority took over the role. The programme is classified under the resource management domain CReMA 12: Management of wild flora and fauna. The national and EU share of the payments was estimated for the years 2001 and 2003.

Conservation of Genetic Resources in Plants and Animals

The Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine funds conservation initiatives, awareness programmes and research aimed at supporting the conservation of genetic resources for food and agriculture.  This capital funding scheme is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

This current transfer from the Irish government to an international organisation was paid from 2008-2011 from the national Environment Fund. It sets out the obligation of countries to notify each other of all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

Corncrake Farm Plan Scheme

The aim of the NPWS Corncrake Farm Plan Scheme is to encourage farmers to mow their meadows later in the year and to mow in a corncrake-friendly manner. This capital grant scheme is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Corncrake Grant Scheme

This capital grant scheme is aimed at landowners who have corncrakes on or near their meadows, to encourage them to mow their meadows later in the year and to mow in a corncrake-friendly manner.  It is also run by the NPWS and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape. 

Electric Vehicle Programme

Since 2011, the SEAI offers capital grants to householders towards the purchase of electric vehicles. The aims of the grant scheme are to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions and to increase the use of renewable energy for road transport so the funding was distributed evenly between CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate and CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Energy Efficiency Retrofit Fund

This SEAI capital grant programme was available to public and private sector organisations in 2010 and 2011 for the implementation of energy efficiency projects. It is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Energy in Education Programme

This SEAI programme promotes energy efficiency in schools and is classified as a current transfer under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Environmentally Friendly Fishing Gear

This BIM programme promoted the use of environmentally friendly fishing techniques through capital grants and is classified under CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna. It was co-funded by the EU.

Environment Fund Grants

These projects, funded through the national Environment Fund, include the Young Environmentalist Awards, the Cork Environment Forum, the Green Awards and the SWAN and VOICE non-governmental organisations. They are classified as CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities, with the assumption of an even distribution of funding between the two classes. Not all grants paid from the national Environment Fund were included as there was a risk of double-counting, in particular with programmes that may have involved the Heritage Council or the Local Authorities.

ERTDI (Environmental Research, Technological Development and Innovation)

ERDTI was the title of the EPA’s research programme up to and including 2006. In 2007 the new research programme STRIVE was launched. Both are classified under CEPA 08: Environmental research and development and CReMA 15: Research and development activities for resource management. We distributed the research funding evenly between the environmental protection and resource management classes.

EU LIFE programmes – general note: EU LIFE programmes are jointly funded by the EU LIFE programme and national organisations. We have included only the EU contribution to the funding in order to avoid possible double-counting with other national programmes such as agri-environment schemes. Information on the total EU funding provided over the lifetime of the project was readily available; however it proved difficult to obtain details of the annual expenditure. Therefore for most of the EU LIFE programmes that follow we have distributed the total funding evenly across the project lifetime.

EU LIFE programmes: AranLIFE

The AranLIFE project began in 2014. It aims to develop and demonstrate the best conservation management practices of local farmers on the designated Natura 2000 sites of the three islands (protected habitats for flora and fauna of European importance). It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Blackwater SAMOK

This project worked towards the conservation and restoration of endangered fish, mammals and birds found in the Munster Blackwater River Special Area of Conservation. It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Blanket Bog Project

Blanket bog is listed for protection in Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive, which means that EU member states must protect the best representative examples of blanket bog habitat in Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). This subsidy scheme is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: BurrenLIFE

The overall objective of BurrenLIFE was to develop a new model for sustainable agriculture in the Burren in order to conserve the habitats of the region designated under the Habitats Directive. It was a subsidy to farmers and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape. This programme ran from 2005-2009. Its successor, the Burren Farming for Conservation/Burren Life programme, is currently in operation.

EU LIFE programmes: CAISIE

The full name of this programme is “Control of Aquatic Invasive Species and restoration of natural communities in Ireland”. It ran from 2009-2012 and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: CleanWood

This programme ran from 2006 to 2010 and aimed to demonstrate the environmental and competitive benefits of recovering waste wood for reuse. It is classified under CReMA 11: Management of forest resources.

EU LIFE programmes: DEPOTEC

This project aimed to use a depolymerisation process to recycle waste tyres into products that can be used for rubber manufacturing. It ran from 2011 to 2015 and is classified under CReMA 13C: Minimisation of the intake of fossil resources for raw materials for uses other than energy production.

EU LIFE programmes: DfAuto

The DfAuto project aimed to improve environmental compliance in the automotive sector. It is classified under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

EU LIFE programmes: Duck Slurry

This project aimed to develop a mechanism for the processing of duck slurry into a solid fertiliser, thus reducing water contamination. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water.

EU LIFE programmes: Epicentre

This project aimed to support environmental performance improvements in organisations across the EU and is classified under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

EU LIFE programmes: GeoparkLIFE

GeoparkLIFE is a conservation programme established by the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark that seeks a balance between the tourism interests and the conservation needs of the Geopark region. It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Golden Eagle

This project aimed to start a re-introduction programme for the golden eagle in the Glenveagh National Park in Donegal and is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: HEATSUN

The project aimed to address the issue of electrical and electronic waste management in the Dublin region and is classified under CEPA 03: Waste management.

EU LIFE programmes: KerryLIFE

The KerryLIFE project aims to promote agricultural and forestry practices that are compatible with the conservation of the pearl mussel. It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: MulkearLIFE

The objective of the MulkearLIFE programme was the restoration of the Lower Shannon Special Area of Conservation for the sea lamprey, the Atlantic salmon and the European otter. The project was coordinated by Inland Fisheries Ireland and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Raised Bog Project

Coillte coordinated two EU LIFE projects on raised bog restoration, the first began in 2004 and the second in 2011. Both are classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: RaptorLIFE

This EU LIFE project was launched in 2015 and aims to restore habitats for the hen harrier, the merlin, the Atlantic salmon and the brook lamprey in Duhallow in County Cork. It is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Restoring Priority Woodland

This project aimed to restore natural woodland habitat by removing non-native trees and invasive exotic shrubs. It ran from 2006-2009 and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Roseate Tern

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and Birdwatch Ireland were involved in this project to improve the conservation prospects of the roseate tern in the UK and Ireland. Three Special Protection Areas in Ireland and four in the UK were chosen for the project. Accordingly three-sevenths of the project funding was included here under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Termoncarragh

The objective of this project was to enhance the habitat conditions for breeding and wintering at Termoncarragh Lake Special Protection Area. It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: Tyre/Wood Block

The objective of this programme was to demonstrate the environmental and competitive benefits of a pallet block that re-used tyre-derived waste materials, sawmilling residues and woodchip from discarded pallets. It is classified under CReMA 11: Management of forest resources and CReMA 13C: Minimisation of the intake of fossil resources for raw materials for uses other than energy production. The funding was distributed evenly between the two environmental domains.

EU LIFE programmes: Waterbirds

The objective of this programme was to restore and manage wetland bird habitats. It is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

EU LIFE programmes: WISER LIFE

The objectives of the WISER LIFE project are to retrofit the Ballymun boiler house to meet best practice energy management standards and to create an environmentally educational experience for visitors to the building. The subsidy is classified as CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. We distributed the funding evenly between the two resource management classes.

Fallen Animals Scheme

This Department of Agriculture scheme was launched in 2001 with the objective of reducing the incidence of on-farm burials of fallen animals and implementing BSE testing. It provides for the subsidised collection and disposal of fallen bovine and other farm animals. As the scheme has objectives other than environmental protection or resource management (i.e. BSE testing) it is partially included here under the domain CEPA 03: Waste management through the application of a coefficient.

Farm Waste Management Scheme

The Farm Waste Management Scheme was introduced by the Department of Agriculture in 2001. It was amended in 2006 to specifically help farmers meet the requirements of the EU Nitrates Directive by providing grants for animal housing and storage facilities for silage and agricultural waste. The scheme is classified under CEPA 02: Wastewater management. It was co-funded by the EU. We estimated the EU contribution for the years 2005-2010 based on data from earlier and later years. A large increase in payments under this scheme from 2008-2010 is the reason for the peak in environmental transfers that can be observed in the tables and graphs during those years.

Forest Biodiversity and Climate Change Research Programme

COFORD has funded research into forests and climate change and forest biodiversity under its thematic research area “Policy and public goods”. Data on grant payments is available for the years 2006-2009. The climate change and biodiversity research programmes continued until at least 2013. Estimates of funding for the years 2010-2013 have been made based on the forestry research budget provided to COFORD by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. The programme is assigned to CEPA 08: Environmental research and development.

Forest Environment Protection Scheme (FEPS)

Under this scheme, which was introduced in 2007, capital grant and premium payments are made by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine to farmers to encourage the establishment of woodland for biodiversity and habitat support and protection. FEPS is therefore classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape. Afforestation programmes cannot be classified as CReMA 11: Management of forest resources as this refers exclusively to the management of non-cultivated forest resources.

Forum on Contaminated Soil

This was a contribution made by the Irish government in 2006 and 2009 to an international organisation and is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water.

Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution

This ongoing contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the Environment Fund and is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

GLAS (Green, Low-carbon Agri-environment Scheme)

GLAS was launched in 2014 with the first payments being made in 2015. It is funded by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and the EU under the Rural Development Programme. The scheme subsidises the implementation of farming practices that promote protection of biodiversity and help combat climate change so it is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape and CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate. As the majority of payments relate to practices that encourage biodiversity, 90% of the funding is classified as CEPA 06 while the remaining 10% is assigned to CEPA 01.

Global Environment Facility

This ongoing contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities. Through the Global Environment Facility, funds are made available to developing countries to help them meet the requirements of international environmental conventions and agreements.

Green Communities Programme

The Green Communities and Green Home programmes are run by the EPA and An Taisce as part of the National Waste Prevention Programme. The aims are to raise environmental awareness and to support positive environmental behaviour amongst households and community groups. The programmes are classified as CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the environmental protection and resource management classes.

Green Healthcare Programme

The Green Healthcare programme is part of the National Waste Prevention Programme. It started in 2009 and provides advice to healthcare providers on the reduction of waste, water and energy production, and hence costs. It is classified as CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes. Data were provided by the EPA for the years 2011-2015. We estimated the amount of funding provided under this programme for the years 2009-2010. 

Green Home Programme

The EPA’s Green Home programme began in 2007 and provides householders with information on waste prevention, water conservation and energy conservation. It is classified as a social transfer in kind under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes.  The EPA provided data on funding under this programme for the years 2011-2015. We estimated the amount of funding provided for the years 2007-2010.

Green Hospitality Awards

The Green Hospitality Award is an environmental certification introduced by the EPA in 2009 and aimed at the hospitality sector. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes.  The EPA provided figures for the years 2011-2015. We made estimates of the amount of funding provided under this programme for 2007-2010.

Green Schools Programme

The Green Schools programme is run by An Taisce in partnership with local authorities throughout Ireland and has been supported by the Department of Communications, Climate Action and the Environment through the Environment Fund since 2006. It is assigned to CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes. 

Green Schools Travel Programme

Travel is one of the themes of the Green Schools programme (see previous entry). The Travel theme is funded separately from the other themes by the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport. The programme has a number of objectives, including easing traffic congestion, improving children’s health and fitness and protecting the environment through reduced air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. The programme is partially included under domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate through the application of a coefficient.

GreenBusiness.ie/SMILE

The Greenbusiness.ie project was launched by the EPA in 2008. It is aimed at helping enterprises to reduce their environmental impacts and in doing so, to reduce costs. SMILE (Saving Money through Industrial Linkages and Exchanges) is a system for identifying and delivering by-products from one industry for use as inputs in other industries. It is classified under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes.  The EPA provided figures for the years 2011-2015 and estimates were made for 2008-2010.

Greener Homes Scheme

This SEAI capital grant programme ran from 2006 to 2011 with the aim of achieving wider deployment of renewable energy heating technologies in the residential sector. It is assigned to CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Haulbowline Site Remediation

Process waste from steel production was dumped on about nine hectares of land on Haulbowline Island from the early 1960s. As part of Ireland's obligations under the Waste Framework Directive the site is currently being remediated. The project was begun in 2011 by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and is ongoing. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water.

Hen Harrier Farm Plan Scheme

The Hen Harrier is a threatened bird of prey that is listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive[7]. This NPWS scheme provides grants to farmers to conserve hen harrier habitats and is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Heritage Council Biodiversity Grants

The Heritage Council administers grant payments towards projects that enhance biodiversity at the local level in Ireland. These grants are classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Heritage Council Wildlife Grants

From 2004-2010 the Heritage Council funded projects on Irish wildlife. These grants are classified as CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Home Energy Saving Scheme

This SEAI scheme was the pilot for the Better Energy Homes Scheme and is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

House of Tomorrow

House of Tomorrow was a capital grant programme run by the SEAI from 2001-2010 with the aim of encouraging energy efficient planning, design and construction practices in the Irish construction sector. It is classified under the resource management domain CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Industry and Business Programme

The SEAI’s Industry and Business programme supports efforts across all business sectors to improve energy efficiency. It is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Industry RD&D

This sustainable energy research, development and demonstration capital grant programme has been run by the SEAI since 2007. It is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Landfill Remediation

The Department of Communications, Climate Action and the Environment provides capital for the remediation of former landfill sites. The programme is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water.

Landfill Remediation (Environment Fund)

In 2011 and 2012 some of the capital for the landfill remediation programme (see previous entry) was sourced from the national Environment Fund. This expenditure is classified as CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water.

Litter Management (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises litter management measures by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

Lobster V-Notching Scheme

The Lobster V-notching Scheme is an ongoing, EU co-funded capital grant scheme run by BIM that aims to protect female lobsters so that they can breed a number of times. As the programme objective is to preserve lobster stocks it is classified under CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Local Agenda 21 Environmental Partnership Fund

The Local Agenda 21 Environmental Partnership Fund aims to promote, at local level, the objectives of the Agenda 21 action plan on sustainable development which was agreed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Capital grants are paid from the national Environment Fund. The programme is included here under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes. 

Local Authority Estate Regeneration (Energy Efficiency Retrofitting)

This capital transfer from the Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government aims to make local authority dwellings more energy efficient and less costly to heat. It is classified as CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Local Authority Waste Prevention Network

The Local Authority Waste Prevention Network is an EPA programme that aims to enable local authorities to implement resource efficiency programmes in partnership with businesses, public organisations and communities. The EPA provided data for the years 2011-2015. Estimates were made for the years 2005-2010. The funding was distributed evenly between CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities.

Marine Biodiversity Scheme

The objectives of the Marine Biodiversity Scheme are to reduce the impact of fisheries and aquaculture on the marine environment and to protect aquatic biodiversity and ecosystems. The EU and the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine co-fund projects on environment impact assessment, data collection, habitat mapping and habitat restoration under this capital grant scheme. It is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Marine Environment Protection Scheme (MEPS)

This BIM programme promoted an Environmental Management System for fishing operation and seafood produced in accordance with the system. It was co-funded by the EU and is classified under the resource management domain CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Microgeneration

The SEAI’s Microgeneration programme provided funding to households and businesses to deploy small-scale electricity generators using renewable energy sources. It is classified as CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

National Biodiversity Data Centre

The National Biodiversity Data Centre was set up in 2007 and is funded by the Heritage Council. It is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape. We included Heritage Council funding for maintaining biological records prior to 2007 under this programme. The National Biodiversity Data Centre works with other organisations such as the EPA and Inland Fisheries Ireland on projects such as monitoring native species like Irish butterflies, marine mammals and wild crops, as well as invasive species.

Native Woodland Conservation (NWC) Scheme

The aim of the NWC programme is to support the appropriate restoration of existing native woodlands as well as the ecosystems and habitats that native woodlands support. We distributed the funding evenly between CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape and CReMA 11: Management of forest resources. Funding is provided by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine.

Native Woodland Establishment (NWE) Scheme

Since 2007 the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine has made capital grant and premium payments to farmers to promote the establishment of native woodland species such as oak and ash with the objective of protecting their associated biodiversity and habitats. The NWE scheme is therefore classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Natterjack Toad Grant Scheme

This NPWS scheme is aimed at getting farmers involved in natterjack toad conservation by digging ponds and is classified under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Neighbourwood

Neighbourwoods are accessible, close-to-home woodland amenities. Grant payments are made to landowners, farmers and local authorities to provide access to local communities to their woodland. As this Department of Agriculture scheme has biodiversity as well as recreational objectives, it was partially included under CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Noise Pollution Control (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises the implementation of air pollution, noise pollution and water quality control measures by local authorities. We included one-third of the total as a current transfer under CEPA 05: Noise and Vibration Abatement (see also Air pollution control (Local authorities)).

Ocean Energy

This SEAI programme began in 2008 and funds research into the harnessing of ocean energy for use as a renewable energy source. It is classified as CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

OECD (Environmental Compliance Indicators)

This contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental class CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

On-farm Investment: Pollution Control

This capital grant scheme was run by the Department of Agriculture until 2006. Figures for 2004-2006 are estimated based on payments from previous years and total grants paid under the on-farm investment scheme in 2004-2006. The programme is assigned to CEPA 02: Wastewater management.

Operation and Aftercare of Landfill (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises the operation, maintenance and aftercare of landfill by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

Organic Farming Scheme

This EU co-funded Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine scheme is classified under CEPA 04: Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water as per Eurostat methodological guidelines for the Environmental Subsidies and Similar Transfers data collection module. The EU and national contributions to the total funding were estimated for the years 2009-2010 based on later years.

OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic

This contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Owenduff and Other Farm Plan Schemes

The NPWS Farm Plan Scheme was launched in 2006. It is an agri-environment grant scheme that aims to encourage farmers to implement habitat- and species-specific protection measures. It is classified as CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.

Packaging Prevention Programme

The Packaging Prevention Programme aims to help Irish businesses reduce packaging. The programme is classified under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes.  The EPA provided data for the years 2011-2015. Estimates were made for the years 2007-2010.

PSO Levy: Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources

The PSO Levy is charged to electricity consumers in Ireland. Some of the funding is used to subsidise electricity generation from renewable sources and is classified under CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Public Sector Energy Efficiency Programme

The Public Sector Energy Efficiency Programme provides capital grants to retrofit projects demonstrating energy-efficient technology upgrades to existing buildings and facilities. The programme is run by the SEAI and is classified as CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Public Sector Energy Programme

SEAI capital funding towards the Energy Management Bureau, the Public Sector Design Studies Support Scheme and the Public Sector Model Solutions Investments Support Scheme is included under this heading. The schemes were in operation between 2002 and 2010. They are classified as CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

The RPII was funded by the Department of the Environment until it was merged with the EPA in 2014. Its main objective was to protect the Irish public from the health and safety risks posed by ionising radiation. A portion of the funding (approximately 10%) it received from the exchequer was included under CEPA 07: Protection against Radiation.

Rainwater Harvesting Scheme

The objective of this Department of Agriculture scheme is to conserve water by maximising the use of rainfall run-off. It offers capital grants towards rainwater harvesting facilities and equipment.  It is classified under CReMA 10: Management of Water.

Recycling Facilities (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises the operation and maintenance of waste treatment facilities by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

ReHeat Deployment

The ReHeat Deployment programme aimed to increase the deployment of renewable heating technologies (e.g. solar thermal, bio-energy and heat pump) in the commercial and industrial sectors. This SEAI programme closed in 2011 and is classified under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Renewable Energy Educational Support

This SEAI programme provided information to Irish organisations interested in using renewable energy sources for energy production. It ran from 2005 to 2008 and is allocated to CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Renewable Energy Information Office (REIO)/Electricity and Heat Infrastructure

The REIO and the Electricity and Heat Infrastructure grants both formed part of SEAI’s Alternative Energy programme and are classified under CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

Renewable Energy RD&D

The Renewable Energy Research, Development and Demonstration programme was launched by the SEAI in 2001. It is a capital grant programme and is classified as CReMA 13A: Production of energy from renewable resources.

REPS (Rural Environment Protection Scheme)

REPS was an agri-environment scheme that closed in 2015. It was co-funded by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and the EU and subsidised farming practices that were compatible with the protection of biodiversity. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 06: Protection of biodiversity and landscape.                            

Rural Wastewater Schemes (Capital)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government funds capital investment in rural wastewater facilities through the Rural Water Programme. The programme is assigned to CEPA 02: Wastewater management.

Rural Wastewater Schemes (Current)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises rural group wastewater schemes through the local authorities. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 02: Wastewater management.

Salmon Conservation Fund

This programme for the rehabilitation of salmon stocks is funded through salmon fishing licences and prioritises rivers in special areas of conservation which have the greatest prospect of recovery. It is run by Inland Fisheries Ireland and is assigned to CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Salmon Hardship Scheme

BIM ran this compensation scheme for drift-net salmon fishermen from 2007-2009. It is classified under the resource management domain CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Schools/Education Programme

The SEAI runs energy workshops in schools throughout Ireland under this programme which is classified as a current transfer under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management.

Seafood Environmental Management Programme Part A

The Seafood Environmental Management & Certification Grant Aid Scheme encourages the implementation of a Seafood Environmental Management System (SEMS) on Irish fishing vessels. Part A involves financial payments to fishing collectives. The programme is run by BIM and is co-funded by the European Fisheries Fund. It is classified under the resource management domain CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Seafood Environmental Management Programme Part B

Part B of this scheme concerns financial assistance to fishing vessel owners (operators). See Part A above for further details.

Smarter Travel and Carbon Reduction Programme

This is a Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport initiative which has been running since 2009. It has a number of objectives, including increasing access to transport, improving the efficiency of the transport system, reducing transport emissions and improving energy security so it is partially included here under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.   

Stop Food Waste Programme

In 2009 the EPA launched the Stop Food Waste programme aimed at food waste prevention and home composting. Data for 2011-2015 were provided by the EPA while estimates were made for 2009-2010. The programme is classified as a social transfer in kind under CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities and CReMA 16: Other resource management activities. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes. 

Street Cleaning (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises street cleaning by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

This current transfer is paid from the national Environment Fund. It is a contribution by government to an international organisation and is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

STRIVE (Sustainable Technology, Research and Innovation for the Environment)

The EPA followed up the ERTDI research programme with STRIVE in 2007. It is classified under CEPA 08: Environmental research and development and CReMA 15: Research and development activities for resource management. The funding was distributed evenly between the classes.   

UN Environment Fund

The annual contribution by government to the UN Environment Fund is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental class CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities.

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

This annual contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

UNECE European Environmental Bureau

This international funding commitment is classified under the environmental class CEPA 09: Other environmental protection activities. It is a current transfer paid from the national Environment Fund.

Vehicle Registration Tax Relief on Electric Vehicles

This scheme was introduced to promote the use of electric vehicles, thereby reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer

This ongoing annual contribution by government to an international organisation is a current transfer paid from the Environment Fund. It is classified under the environmental domain CEPA 01: Protection of ambient air and climate.

Warmer Homes Scheme

The Warmer Homes scheme began in 2001. This SEAI programme supports energy efficiency improvements to privately owned homes experiencing fuel poverty and is classified as a social transfer in kind under CReMA 13B: Heat/Energy saving and management. It was partially included for its environmental objectives through the application of a coefficient.

Waste Collection Services (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises waste collection services by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

Waste Management Planning and Regulations (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises waste regulation, monitoring and enforcement activities and waste management planning activities by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to CEPA 03: Waste management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for waste management.

Waste Processing Facilities Scheme

The waste processing facilities scheme provides capital grants to farmers to invest in on-farm anaerobic digestion facilities. The funding is provided by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and is classified as CEPA 03: Waste management.

Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Local Authorities)

The Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government subsidises the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities by local authorities across Ireland. This funding is assigned to the domain CEPA 02: Wastewater management. Estimates were made for the years 2000-2008 based on total subsidies to local authorities for wastewater management.

Water Services Investment Programme (Wastewater)

The Water Services Investment Programme (WSIP) was run by the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government up to and including 2013 with the objective of funding major capital water and wastewater schemes.  As water treatment and water quality are mainly health issues the part of the WSIP that relates to water schemes is not included here. The portion that relates to wastewater management is included under CEPA 02: Wastewater management.

Whitefish Fleet Decommissioning Scheme

The whitefish fleet decommissioning scheme ran from 2005-2010 and was a compensation programme funded by the EU and the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. The objective of the scheme was to improve the management of fish stocks so the programme is assigned to CReMA 12: Management of Wild Flora and Fauna. The EU and national contributions were estimated for the years 2008-2009 based on the figures from later years.

Potentially Environmentally Damaging Subsidies

Certain subsidies or other support measures that have social or economic objectives may incentivise behaviour that could be damaging to the environment. For example, transport fuel tax rebates encourage the consumption of fossil fuels. Such transfers are referred to as potentially environmentally damaging subsidies (PEDS). The word “potential” is important as the effect of the transfer can be difficult to assess. Currently there is no agreed definition of PEDS but a possible approach is to identify transfers to activities or industries that are considered to have a particularly detrimental effect on the environment, e.g. the transport industry.

We have collected data on subsidies on agricultural products, subsidies to fossil fuel use and tax reliefs or rebates on energy products as a first step towards developing a data collection methodology for these transfers.

Agricultural Product Subsidies

Agricultural subsidies on products are paid per unit of a good produced, e.g. per head of cattle. Many agricultural product subsidies have been phased out and have been replaced by direct payments to farmers such as the Single Payment Scheme.

PSO (Public Service Obligation) Levy

The PSO Levy is charged to electricity consumers in Ireland and is used to subsidise electricity generation from peat and from renewable sources as well as security of supply. We have included the portions that go towards electricity generation from peat and security of supply as PEDS while the portion that supports electricity generation from renewable sources is included as an environmental subsidy.

Fuel Allowance

The fuel allowance is a social welfare payment to households. It is a means-tested subsidy towards the cost of fuel with the objective of preventing fuel poverty.

Electricity Allowance

The electricity allowance is part of the Household Benefits Package which is available to all householders over 70 and to householders under 70 in certain circumstances.

Gas Allowance

The gas allowance is part of the Household Benefits Package which is available to all householders over 70 and to householders under 70 in certain circumstances.

Other supplements (including Heating and Diet)

This is a supplement paid by the Department of Social Protection and the Social Insurance Fund as an income support measure. We included 50% of the amount of funding as an estimate of the proportion that went to heating rather than food support.

Smokeless Coal Allowance

This allowance was paid to low-income households to help them meet the extra costs of using smokeless or low smoke fuels.

Fishing Fleet Investment Scheme

This scheme was run by BIM and co-funded by the EU. Since 2002, fleet investment grant payments have been for safety improvements only. We estimated the amount paid in capital grants in 2000 based on the total amount spent on capital development in 2000 and expenditure on new vessel grants in 2001.

Petroleum Infrastructure Support Group

The Petroleum Infrastructure Programme is funded through contributions from oil companies with licences for hydrocarbon exploration and development activities off the Irish coast. The fund is administered by the Department of Communications, Climate Action and the Environment and its aims are to promote offshore exploration and development and to fund government and industry petroleum research.

Funding of Petroleum Scholarships

This funding was provided by the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources 2002-2004 and in 2008.

Haulier’s Diesel Rebate Scheme

This is a repayment to road transport operators of part of the tax that they pay on diesel purchased for use in the course of business.

Marine Diesel Tax Relief

This is a repayment of mineral oil tax to distributors who supply marine diesel on a tax-free basis to owners and masters of commercial sea vessels.


[1] United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012  Central Framework: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaRev/SEEA_CF_Final_en.pdf

[2] System of National Accounts 2008: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/nationalaccount/sna2008.asp

[3] European System of Accounts 2010: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/esa-2010

[4] http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:192:0001:0016:EN:PDF

[5]A similar system is used by the UN, OECD and the EU as described here: https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/public-environment-climate/minisite/tools-and-methods/short-guide-use-rio-markers

[6]http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM_DTL&StrNom=NACE_REV2

[7]http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/birdsdirective/index_en.htm

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