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E-mail: earnings@cso.ie Majella Lysaght (+353) 21 4535513 Margaret O'Mahony (+353) 21 4535216 Brendan Curtin (+353) 21 4535577
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CSO statistical release, 26 November 2013, 11am

Earnings and Labour Costs Quarterly

Q2 2013 (Final) Q3 2013 (Preliminary Estimates)

QuarterAverage Weekly EarningsAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Hours
  € €Hours
Q3 2012691.9321.8031.7
Q2 2013 695.5322.0131.6
Q3 2013*675.5321.4031.6
    
Quarterly change %-2.9 -2.8  -
Annual change %-2.4 -1.8 -0.3
* Preliminary Estimates   

Average weekly earnings €675.53 in Q3 2013

Average weekly earnings by economic sector

Preliminary estimates show that average weekly earnings were €675.53 in Q3 2013, down 2.4% from €691.93 a year earlier.  Revised weekly earnings were €695.53 in Q2 2013 and showed an increase of 0.4% over the same period in 2012.  See table 1.

Other features of the preliminary results for Q3 2013 include:

  • Average hourly earnings were €21.40 in Q3 2013 compared with €21.80 in Q3 2012, representing a decrease of 1.8% over the year.  See table 2.
  • Average weekly paid hours fell to 31.6 in Q3 2013, a decrease of 0.1 hours or 0.3%.  See table 3.
  • Estimated public sector numbers stood at 375,000 in Q3 2013, a decrease of 3,900 (-1.0%) from Q3 2012 when the total number employed was 378,900. See table A1.

Average weekly earnings decrease in 9 of the 13 sectors in year to Q3 2013

Across the economic sectors average weekly earnings decreased in 9 of the 13 sectors in the year to Q3 2013, with the largest percentage decrease in the Education sector (-6.6%) from €879.88 to €821.97.  The largest annual percentage sectoral increase in weekly earnings was recorded in the Information and communication sector (+4.1%) from €987.95 to €1,028.23. See table 1.

In the four years to Q3 2013 average weekly earnings across individual  sectors show changes ranging between -12.8% for the Education sector from €942.42 to €821.97,  and +12.3% for the Information and communication sector from €915.43 to €1,028.23. See table 1 and graph below.

X Axis Label4 year % change
J12.3220781490666
K-L4.62443852472718
B-E4.46625766871167
G2.16872782666213
H1.72506055314594
R-S-1.11514522821577
M-1.18870164978145
N-1.67284342431253
F-2.26277372262774
Total-3.37147761407525
I-5.48170803434891
O-7.49780616722108
Q-10.7127799736495
P-12.7809257019163

 

 

Total      All Sectors
B-E Industry
F Construction
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 
H Transportation and storage
I Accommodation and food services
J Information and communication
K-L Financial, insurance and real estate
M Professional, scientific and technical
N Administrative and support services
O Public Administration and defence
P Education
Q Human health and social work
R-S Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities

 

 

Weekly earnings in the private sector decreased by 1.4% in the year to Q3 2013 compared with a decrease of 1.1% in the public sector (including semi-state sector) over the same period, bringing average weekly earnings in Q3 2013 to €606.97 and €915.88 respectively.  In the four years to Q3 2013 public sector earnings have fallen by €47.88 (-5.0%), and this compares with a decrease of €2.41 (-0.4%) in private sector average weekly earnings in the same period.  See table 1.

Hourly earnings decrease in year to Q3 2013

Average hourly earnings decreased from €21.80 per hour in Q3 2012 to €21.40 in Q3 2013, representing a decrease of 1.8%.  This compares with an annual increase of 0.2% in average hourly earnings in the year to Q2 2013 from €21.97 to a revised €22.01.  Overall average hourly earnings in Q3 2013 are 2.2% lower than at the value recorded four years earlier in Q3 2009 (€21.89).  See table 2 and graph below.

 

 

X-axis labelQ3 2012Q3 2013
B-E21.6421.63
F20.420.07
G16.4816.56
H20.7720.23
I12.2712.13
J27.2228.29
K-L28.3827.57
M24.0824.83
N15.8115.67
O26.0925.19
P36.7635.04
Q23.2822.79
R-S15.8115.81
All sectors21.821.4

 

Average hourly earnings fell in 9 of the 13 economic sectors. The largest percentage decrease was in Education sector (-4.7%) from €36.76 to €35.04, followed by the Public administration and defence sector (-3.4%) from €26.09 to €25.19.  The largest sectoral percentage increase was recorded in the Professional, scientific and technical sector (+3.9%) from €27.22 to €28.29.  See table 2.

In the four years to Q3 2013 overall average hourly earnings have decrease by 2.2%. However, across the sectors hourly earnings have increased in 7 of the 13 sectors with the largest percentage increase recorded in the Information and communication sector (+12.4%) from €25.16 to €28.29. The largest percentage decrease in average hourly earnings over the same period was recorded in the Education sector (-10.3%) from €39.08 to €35.04.

Enterprises with less than 50 employees showed an annual increase of 0.7% in Q3 2013, from €17.89 to €18.01, while enterprises with between 50 and 250 employees recorded a decrease of 0.3%, from €19.17 to €19.12 in average hourly earnings, over the same period.  Results for enterprises with greater than 250 employees showed a decrease of 2.8% in the year to Q3 2013 with values of €25.29 and €24.58 respectively.

Paid hours per week at 31.6 in Q3 2013

Average weekly paid hours were 31.6 in Q3 2013, which represented a decreased of 0.3% (-0.1 hours) over the year.  Average weekly paid hours were also 31.6 in Q2 2013 and showed an increase of 0.3% over the same period in 2012.  In the four years to Q2 2013 average weekly paid hours are down 0.9% or 0.3 hours. See table 3.

The largest annual percentage increases in average weekly paid hours in Q3 2013 was recorded in the Construction and Public administration and defence sectors (both +3.2%).  The largest percentage decrease over the same period was seen in the Human health and social work sector (-2.0%) from 30.3 to 29.7 hours.

Enterprises with less than 50 employees showed a decrease of 3.2% over the four years to Q3 2013 from 30.9 to 29.9 hours, while enterprises with between 50 and 250 employees recorded a decrease of 2.7%, from 32.9 to 32.0 hours, over the same period.  Enterprises with greater than 250 employees showed an increase of 0.6% (+0.2 hours) from 32.4 to 32.6 hours between Q3 2009 and Q3 2013. See table 3. 

 

Overall decrease of 3.3% in average hourly total labour costs over the four years to Q3 2013

Average hourly total labour costs decreased by 3.3% over the four years to Q3 2013 from €25.38 per hour to €24.54 per hour.  The percentage changes across the sectors ranged from -9.3% in the Human Health and social work sector (from €27.59 to €25.02 per hour) to +12.9% in the Information and communication sector (from €30.22 to €34.12 per hour).  See table 5b and graph below.

X Axis Label4 year % change
J12.9053606882859
H3.90390390390389
B-E0.539707016191193
G0.532481363152271
M0.139811254805999
R-S-1.32963988919669
K-L-1.45092460881934
Total-3.3096926713948
N-4.43376068376068
I-5.57541100786275
F-7.37402703809914
O-8.06233062330623
P-8.5707502374169
Q-9.31496919173613

Public sector sub-sector earnings and hours worked

Tables 6a-6d inclusive provide details for average weekly earnings, average hourly earnings, average paid hours and average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings for the sub-sectors within the public sector. 

Average weekly earnings decreased in 5 of the 7 sub-sectors in the year to Q3 2013.  The largest percentage decrease in the main sub-sectors was in the Defence sector where earnings fell by 2.7% from €854.17 to €831.29 in the same period. The largest percentage increase was in the Garda Síochána where earnings rose by 3.3% from €1,152.13 to €1,189.64 per week.  See tables 6a and graph below.

 

X-axis labelQ3 2012Q3 2013
Civil service914.2903.04
Defence854.17831.29
Garda Siochana1152.131189.64
Education985.29965.31
Regional bodies796.55800.18
Health870.03856.37
Semi-state998.04994.43

 Annual decrease of 1.0% in public sector numbers in Q3 2013

The estimated number of persons employed in the public sector showed a decrease of 1.0% over the year to Q3 2013 to 375,000.  In the year to Q3 2013 the largest percentage decrease was recorded in the Semi-state sector (-4.5%), a fall of 2,300 over the Q3 2012 number, while the largest percentage increase was recorded in the Education sector (+1.9%), from 105,800 to 107,800 over the same period. Over the four years from Q3 2009 to Q3 2013 employment in the public sector recorded a decrease of 33,800 (-8.3%) from 408,800 to 375,000. See table A1 and graph below.

 

 

 

X-axis labelQ3 2012Q3 2013
Civil service3950039400
Defence88009000
Garda Siochana1340013100
Education105800107800
Regional bodies3440033300
Health125800123500
Semi-state5120048900

 

Table A1 contains estimates of public sector numbers by high level area within the overall public sector.   Public sector employment is spread across a number of NACE economic sectors and includes Semi-state bodies in sectors such as Transportation and storage and Information and communication. Furthermore, while employment in the Public administration and defence, Education and Human health and social work sectors is mainly in public sector organisations, there is some element of private sector employment too.

 

It should be noted that all earnings are gross amounts before deductions for PRSI, tax and other levies.  This is particularly relevant to the public sector since March 2009 when the pension levy was introduced. 

The terms of the Haddington Road agreement have implications on public sector earnings, for example, some public sector workers have increased hours resulting in a fall in hourly earnings.  For the full text of the agreement see the following link: -   http://per.gov.ie/haddington-road-agreement/  

Changes in the composition of employees in a given sector or group has an effect on the average levels of earnings and paid hours over time.  For example, if the proportion of part-time employees increases within a sector then it would be expected that the average weekly earnings and paid hours would fall in that sector even if the hourly pay rates were unchanged.  Also, estimated averages do not reflect differences in characteristics of the job or the employees, and since EHECS collects aggregate data from each enterprise it is not possible to correct for such differences using EHECS data.

Many public sector employees are paid on the basis of incremental scales. Recruitment, particularly at lower levels, to these sectors would generally result in a depression to average earnings.  The absence of recruitment has the opposite effect.  Earnings are inclusive of overtime and irregular earnings. The variability of these components can impact on trends over time.   The reduction in employee numbers across the public sector will also impact on average earnings.  Consideration to these factors should be given when interpreting results.

 

 

Table 1 Average weekly earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1   
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
          
            
  %%
            
B-EIndustry774.25812.18792.99811.92817.65808.83-8.82 -1.1 -3.09 -0.4
FConstruction739.80661.65708.60712.94698.27723.06+24.79+3.6+10.12+1.4
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles498.91498.75507.70510.48531.22509.73-21.49 -4.0 -0.75 -0.1
HTransportation and storage710.12693.93704.11754.90739.03722.37-16.66 -2.3 -32.53 -4.3
IAccommodation and food services340.04330.13339.18323.06307.90321.40+13.50+4.4-1.66 -0.5
JInformation and communication915.43986.87969.62987.951,020.301,028.23+7.93+0.8+40.28+4.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate897.19950.56948.90976.55982.67938.68-43.99 -4.5 -37.87 -3.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical791.62776.30742.54772.51813.97782.21-31.76 -3.9 +9.70+1.3
NAdministrative and support services 488.39464.86481.88490.96493.84480.22-13.62 -2.8 -10.74 -2.2
OPublic administration and defence980.02919.57910.01909.49940.06906.54-33.52 -3.6 -2.95 -0.3
PEducation942.42889.91890.94879.88814.02821.97+7.95+1.0-57.91 -6.6
QHuman health and social work759.00752.59713.37705.34703.44677.69-25.75 -3.7 -27.65 -3.9
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities462.72483.79459.94454.47500.42457.56-42.86 -8.6 +3.09+0.7
            
Total 699.10693.70687.67691.93695.53675.53-20.00 -2.9 -16.40 -2.4
            
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector609.38604.22608.29615.45623.79606.97-16.82 -2.7 -8.48 -1.4
Public sector2963.76940.35916.83925.75928.01915.88-12.13 -1.3 -9.87 -1.1
            
            
Size of Enterprise          
            
Less than 50 employees534.68521.42536.08543.93546.34539.15-7.19 -1.3 -4.78 -0.9
50-250 employees648.14624.40629.19620.77636.16611.40-24.76 -3.9 -9.37 -1.5
Greater than 250 employees841.53834.31820.22820.31831.17802.52-28.65 -3.4 -17.79 -2.2
            
1 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.    
2 Average weekly earnings by Public sector sub-sector are set out in Table 6a.        
* Preliminary Estimates          
Table 2 Average hourly earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1    
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
          
            
  %%
            
B-EIndustry21.1421.3720.8921.6421.9421.63-0.31 -1.4 -0.01 -
FConstruction20.7519.0919.2120.4019.7820.07+0.29+1.5-0.33 -1.6
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles16.2416.0716.3516.4817.2416.56-0.68 -3.9 +0.08+0.5
HTransportation and storage19.5719.4519.7720.7720.6820.23-0.45 -2.2 -0.54 -2.6
IAccommodation and food services12.5112.3612.5812.2712.1112.13+0.02+0.2-0.14 -1.1
JInformation and communication25.1626.4526.7227.2227.7828.29+0.51+1.8+1.07+3.9
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate26.7527.6628.0728.3828.4827.57-0.91 -3.2 -0.81 -2.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical24.4524.2923.3924.0824.3824.83+0.45+1.8+0.75+3.1
NAdministrative and support services 16.3815.3516.2515.8116.1315.67-0.46 -2.9 -0.14 -0.9
OPublic administration and defence27.4525.9625.8626.0926.5225.19-1.33 -5.0 -0.90 -3.4
PEducation39.0837.6238.4036.7635.1235.04-0.08 -0.2 -1.72 -4.7
QHuman health and social work24.8023.7323.4123.2823.2522.79-0.46 -2.0 -0.49 -2.1
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities15.6216.4216.1315.8116.8815.81-1.07 -6.3 --
            
Total 21.8921.6421.5821.8022.0121.40-0.61 -2.8 -0.40 -1.8
            
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector19.0718.8919.0019.3719.7319.33-0.40 -2.0 -0.04 -0.2
Public sector 230.2429.1629.2129.2829.3928.48-0.91 -3.1 -0.80 -2.7
            
Size of Enterprise          
Less than 50 employees17.2917.1617.3317.8918.0518.01-0.04 -0.2 +0.12+0.7
50-250 employees19.6819.0619.2519.1719.7219.12-0.60 -3.0 -0.05 -0.3
Greater than 250 employees26.0025.3325.4425.2925.6824.58-1.10 -4.3 -0.71 -2.8
            
1 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.     
2 Average weekly earniings by Public sector sub-sector are set out in Table 6b.     
* Preliminary Estimates          
Table 3 Average weekly paid hours by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1   
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
          
       
  hourshourshourshourshourshourshours%hours%
          
B-EIndustry36.638.038.037.537.337.4+0.1+0.3-0.1-0.3
FConstruction35.734.736.934.935.336.0+0.7+2.0+1.1+3.2
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles30.731.031.031.030.830.8---0.2-0.6
HTransportation and storage36.335.735.636.335.735.7---0.6-1.7
IAccommodation and food services27.226.727.026.325.426.5+1.1+4.3+0.2+0.8
JInformation and communication36.437.336.336.336.736.3-0.4 -1.1 --
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate33.534.433.834.434.534.0-0.5 -1.4 -0.4-1.2
MProfessional, scientific and technical32.432.031.732.133.431.5-1.9 -5.7 -0.6-1.9
NAdministrative and support services 29.830.329.731.130.630.6---0.5-1.6
OPublic administration and defence35.735.435.234.935.436.0+0.6+1.7+1.1+3.2
PEducation24.123.723.223.923.223.5+0.3+1.3-0.4-1.7
QHuman health and social work30.631.730.530.330.329.7-0.6 -2.0 -0.6-2.0
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities29.629.528.528.729.628.9-0.7 -2.4 +0.2+0.7
            
Total 31.932.131.931.731.631.6---0.1-0.3
            
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector32.032.032.031.831.631.4-0.2 -0.6 -0.4-1.3
Public sector231.932.231.431.631.632.2+0.6+1.9+0.6+1.9
            
            
Size of Enterprise          
            
Less than 50 employees30.930.430.930.430.329.9-0.4 -1.3 -0.5-1.6
50-250 employees32.932.832.732.432.332.0-0.3 -0.9 -0.4-1.2
Greater than 250 employees32.432.932.232.432.432.6+0.2+0.6+0.2+0.6
            
1 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.   
2 Average weekly earniings by Public sector sub-sector are set out in Table 6c.   
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table 4a Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1 2
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
          
         
  %%
          
B-EIndustry20.3620.3420.0920.7720.6920.81+0.12+0.6+0.04+0.2
FConstruction20.2718.6519.0319.5819.3019.76+0.46+2.4+0.18+0.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles15.8515.6915.8716.0016.3416.11-0.23 -1.4 +0.11+0.7
HTransportation and storage18.8118.6618.7619.1419.3419.28-0.06 -0.3 +0.14+0.7
IAccommodation and food services12.3712.2312.4512.1211.9211.97+0.05+0.4-0.15 -1.2
JInformation and communication23.5224.4224.8424.7925.5525.58+0.03+0.1+0.79+3.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate25.8926.4826.8927.1326.9326.50-0.43 -1.6 -0.63 -2.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical23.8823.5422.3323.0023.6823.86+0.18+0.8+0.86+3.7
NAdministrative and support services 15.9114.8915.7715.1615.5015.19-0.31 -2.0 +0.03+0.2
OPublic administration and defence26.3024.7824.7525.0625.2124.22-0.99 -3.9 -0.84 -3.4
PEducation37.1435.3535.9534.3334.8033.11-1.69 -4.9 -1.22 -3.6
QHuman health and social work23.5522.5522.3322.2122.0721.76-0.31 -1.4 -0.45 -2.0
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities15.3816.1515.8415.4816.4515.55-0.90 -5.5 +0.07+0.5
            
Total 21.0920.7220.7020.8121.0120.54-0.47 -2.2 -0.27 -1.3
            
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector18.5518.2818.3718.5918.8718.64-0.23 -1.2 +0.05+0.3
Public sector328.5927.3827.5627.6227.9627.03-0.93 -3.3 -0.59 -2.1
            
            
Size of Enterprise          
            
Less than 50 employees17.0216.8416.9217.2517.5217.60+0.08+0.5+0.35+2.0
50-250 employees19.1718.5718.6918.6118.8718.53-0.34 -1.8 -0.08 -0.4
Greater than 250 employees24.7123.8924.1023.9124.3023.31-0.99 -4.1 -0.60 -2.5
            
1 Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings plus the average hourly irregular earnings in Table 4b equal average hourly earnings as set out in Table 2.
2 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.   
3 Average weekly earniings by Public sector sub-sector are set out in Table 6d.    
* Preliminary Estimates       
Table 4b Average hourly irregular earnings by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1 2
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
        
        
  
        
B-EIndustry0.781.040.790.861.250.81-0.44-0.05
FConstruction0.480.440.180.810.480.31-0.17-0.50
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles0.390.380.480.480.900.45-0.45-0.03
HTransportation and storage0.760.791.011.631.330.95-0.38-0.68
IAccommodation and food services0.140.130.120.150.180.16-0.02+0.01
JInformation and communication1.642.031.882.422.232.71+0.48+0.29
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate0.851.181.191.251.551.07-0.48-0.18
MProfessional, scientific and technical0.570.751.061.080.710.97+0.26-0.11
NAdministrative and support services 0.470.460.470.650.630.49-0.14-0.16
OPublic administration and defence1.141.181.121.031.310.97-0.34-0.06
PEducation1.952.272.462.440.321.93+1.61-0.51
QHuman health and social work1.251.181.071.071.181.02-0.16-0.05 
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities0.250.280.290.330.430.26-0.17-0.07
          
Total 0.800.920.880.991.000.86-0.14-0.13
          
Public/Private Sector        
          
Private sector0.520.600.620.780.860.68-0.18-0.10
Public sector1.641.781.651.661.431.46+0.03-0.20
          
Size of Enterprise        
          
Less than 50 employees0.270.330.410.640.530.41-0.12-0.23
50-250 employees0.520.490.560.560.840.60-0.24+0.04
Greater than 250 employees1.291.441.341.381.391.27-0.12-0.11
1 Average hourly irregular earnings plus the average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings in Table 4a equal average hourly earnings as set out in Table 2.
2 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table 5a Average hourly other labour costs by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1  
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
            
  %%
  
B-EIndustry4.804.684.094.894.714.45-0.26 -5.5 -0.44 -9.0
FConstruction3.672.492.632.902.392.54+0.15+6.3-0.36 -12.4
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles2.542.472.452.422.662.32-0.34 -12.8 -0.10 -4.1
HTransportation and storage3.733.493.604.163.673.99+0.32+8.7-0.17 -4.1
IAccommodation and food services1.481.311.191.111.121.09-0.03 -2.7 -0.02 -1.8
JInformation and communication5.075.066.595.695.585.83+0.25+4.5+0.14+2.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate8.406.506.266.646.877.07+0.20+2.9+0.43+6.5
MProfessional, scientific and technical4.163.933.543.934.153.82-0.33 -8.0 -0.11 -2.8
NAdministrative and support services 2.352.001.952.102.202.21+0.01+0.5+0.11+5.2
OPublic administration and defence2.081.891.822.002.061.95-0.11 -5.3 -0.05 -2.5
PEducation3.043.043.293.673.493.47-0.02 -0.6 -0.20 -5.4
QHuman health and social work2.782.122.242.382.342.24-0.10 -4.3 -0.14 -5.9
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities2.422.011.961.892.292.00-0.29 -12.7 +0.11+5.8
            
Total 3.493.083.053.273.283.15-0.13 -4.0 -0.12 -3.7
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector3.643.233.143.363.373.21-0.16 -4.7 -0.15 -4.5
Public sector3.052.702.803.022.992.92-0.07 -2.3 -0.10 -3.3
            
Size of Enterprise          
Less than 50 employees2.512.132.162.582.402.32-0.08 -3.3 -0.26 -10.1
50-250 employees4.353.513.053.033.203.07-0.13 -4.1 +0.04+1.3
Greater than 250 employees3.903.533.683.823.933.74-0.19 -4.8 -0.08 -2.1
            
1 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.  
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table 5b Average hourly total labour costs by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1 2   
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
          
          
  %%
          
B-EIndustry25.9426.0524.9826.5326.6526.08-0.57 -2.1 -0.45 -1.7
FConstruction24.4121.5821.8423.3022.1722.61+0.44+2.0-0.69 -3.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles18.7818.5318.8018.9019.9018.88-1.02 -5.1 -0.02 -0.1
HTransportation and storage23.3122.9423.3724.9324.3424.22-0.12 -0.5 -0.71 -2.8
IAccommodation and food services13.9913.6713.7713.3813.2213.21-0.01 -0.1 -0.17 -1.3
JInformation and communication30.2231.5133.3132.9133.3634.12+0.76+2.3+1.21+3.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate35.1534.1634.3435.0235.3534.64-0.71 -2.0 -0.38 -1.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical28.6128.2226.9328.0128.5328.65+0.12+0.4+0.64+2.3
NAdministrative and support services 18.7217.3518.2017.9118.3317.89-0.44 -2.4 -0.02 -0.1
OPublic administration and defence29.5227.8527.6828.0928.5827.14-1.44 -5.0 -0.95 -3.4
PEducation42.1240.6641.7040.4338.6138.51-0.10 -0.3 -1.92 -4.7
QHuman health and social work27.5925.8525.6525.6625.5925.02-0.57 -2.2 -0.64 -2.5
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities18.0518.4318.0917.7119.1717.81-1.36 -7.1 +0.10+0.6
            
Total 25.3824.7224.6325.0825.2924.54-0.75 -3.0 -0.54 -2.2
            
Public/Private Sector          
            
Private sector22.7122.1122.1322.7223.1022.54-0.56 -2.4 -0.18 -0.8
Public sector33.2931.8632.0032.3032.3731.41-0.96 -3.0 -0.89 -2.8
            
Size of Enterprise          
Less than 50 employees19.8019.2919.4920.4720.4520.32-0.13 -0.6 -0.15 -0.7
50-250 employees24.0322.5722.3022.2022.9222.20-0.72 -3.1 --
Greater than 250 employees29.9028.8629.1229.1029.6128.32-1.29 -4.4 -0.78 -2.7
            
1 Average hourly total labour costs equal the average hourly earnings in Table 2 plus the average hourly other labour costs as set out in Table 5a.
2 Coillte is excluded from the results with effect from Q1 2012 as it is no longer classified under NACE B-S.  
* Preliminary Estimates       
Table 5c Employment by economic sector and other characteristics and quarter1  
NACE Principal Activity20092010201120122013
      
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3
      
        
B-EIndustry206,100202,800196,900190,100195,900199,900
FConstruction92,30068,00066,70060,80061,80062,200
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles283,400281,300282,100279,000276,700278,700
HTransportation and storage64,80063,10066,50062,20059,80061,000
IAccommodation and food services133,000133,300122,800128,900136,500144,800
JInformation and communication54,40054,40053,50057,30057,00058,100
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate97,10087,90086,20090,30086,50088,700
MProfessional, scientific and technical72,60067,70067,30071,50075,00080,000
NAdministrative and support services 80,10073,80081,80078,20068,00075,500
OPublic administration and defence116,800116,100111,000110,900105,400106,300
PEducation125,900132,500122,300126,200134,700126,100
QHuman health and social work214,200219,800223,400223,400222,200223,400
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities49,00048,00047,70050,90048,40047,000
        
Total 1,589,8001,548,7001,528,2001,529,7001,527,9001,551,600
        
Public/Private Sector      
Private sector1,181,0001,144,9001,134,1001,150,8001,150,3001,176,600
Public sector408,800403,800394,100378,900377,600375,000
        
1 It should be noted that the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) is the official source of estimates of employment. The estimated trend in the number of employees refers to QHNS employee estimates, but differs in coverage in certain ways, such as the fact that a person with two jobs could be counted twice in the table and the exclusion of the Agriculture, forestry and fishing sector which is covered by the QNHS.
Table 6a Average weekly earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter
Public sector sub-sector20092010201120122013Annual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
         
 %
         
Civil service956.14884.39913.42914.20943.46903.04-11.16-1.2
Defence967.89845.63860.67854.17837.73831.29-22.88-2.7
Garda Siochana1,170.551,164.701,169.061,152.131,237.871,189.64+37.51+3.3
Education1027.35979.59953.97985.29914.50965.31-19.98-2.0
Regional bodies920.29864.48800.29796.55818.54800.18+3.63+0.5
Health902.93901.02865.31870.03897.68856.37-13.66-1.6
Semi-state973.481,016.35992.70998.041027.95994.43-3.61-0.4
         
Total public sector963.76940.35916.83925.75928.01915.88-9.87-1.1
         
Total public sector excluding semi-state bodies962.22929.28905.54915.08913.50905.58-9.50-1.0
         
Semi-state by sub-sector        
Non Commercial Semi-state bodies1,040.251,026.46991.731,031.681,045.65985.03-46.65-4.5
Commercial Semi-state bodies954.491,013.46992.97988.691023.02996.99+8.30+0.8
         
* Preliminary Estimates        
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
Table 6b Average hourly earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter
Public sector sub-sector20092010201120122013Annual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
         
 %
         
Civil service27.9326.1326.4826.3826.9425.05-1.33-5.0
Defence25.3523.4824.1923.9123.4923.28-0.63-2.6
Garda Siochana28.0627.7628.2428.4430.3728.89+0.45+1.6
Education42.1340.4240.5240.9738.8239.98-0.99-2.4
Regional bodies26.3624.5523.5123.723.8223.17-0.53-2.2
Health27.8526.2126.4326.4526.8825.48-0.97-3.7
Semi-state26.8327.3326.9927.0228.0326.94-0.08-0.3
         
Total public sector 30.2429.1629.2129.2829.3928.48-0.80-2.7
         
Total public sector excluding semi-state bodies30.8729.4829.6029.6829.6228.96-0.72-2.4
         
Semi-state by sub-sector        
Non Commercial Semi-state bodies30.5429.6129.1730.1730.3128.45-1.72-5.7
Commercial Semi-state bodies25.8626.7326.4426.2327.4426.56+0.33+1.3
         
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table 6c Average weekly paid hours by public sector sub-sector and quarter
Public sector sub-sector20092010201120122013Annual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
 hourshourshourshourshourshourshours%
Civil service34.233.834.534.735.036.1+1.4+4.0
Defence38.236.035.635.735.735.7--
Garda Siochana41.742.041.440.540.841.2+0.7+1.7
Education24.424.223.524.123.624.1--
Regional bodies34.935.234.033.634.434.5+0.9+2.7
Health32.434.432.732.933.433.6+0.7+2.1
Semi-state36.337.236.836.936.736.9--
         
Total public sector 31.932.231.431.631.632.2+0.6+1.9
         
Total public sector excluding semi-state bodies31.231.530.630.830.831.3+0.5+1.6
         
Semi-state by sub-sector        
Non Commercial Semi-state bodies34.134.734.034.234.534.6+0.4+1.2
Commercial Semi-state bodies36.937.937.537.737.337.5-0.2-0.5
         
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table 6d Average hourly earnings excluding irregular earnings by public sector sub-sector and quarter1
Public sector sub-sector20092010201120122013Annual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
         
 %
 
Civil service27.4425.6225.9425.9426.4124.63-1.31-5.1
Defence24.2022.3623.0022.8222.5022.38-0.44-1.9
Garda Siochana24.6224.0924.4324.6124.9425.07+0.46+1.9
Education39.9137.8737.9438.1538.5137.58-0.57-1.5
Regional bodies25.3423.5322.8623.0723.0922.59-0.48-2.1
Health26.1624.6224.9324.9225.0624.10-0.82-3.3
Semi-state25.1925.2225.3925.6025.8525.77+0.17+0.7
         
Total public sector 28.5927.3827.5627.6227.9627.03-0.59-2.1
      
Total public sector excluding semi-state bodies29.2227.7627.9427.9828.3327.43-0.55-2.0
         
Semi-state by sub-sector        
Non Commercial Semi-state bodies30.4529.4828.9829.9930.1828.33-1.66-5.5
Commercial Semi-state bodies23.8124.1024.4924.4924.7425.12+0.63+2.6
1 To calculate average hourly irregular earnings subtract values in Table 6d from Table 6b.     
* Preliminary Estimates     
Table A1 Public sector numbers by sub-sector and quarter1   
Public sector sub-sector20092010201120122013Annual change
Q3Q3Q3Q3Q2Q3*
        
         
  '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000%
         
Civil service41.640.039.939.539.439.4-0.1-0.3
Defence10.29.79.58.89.19.0+0.2+2.3
Garda Siochana15.114.614.113.413.213.1-0.3-2.2
Education109.1111.3111.1105.8111.0107.8+2.0+1.9
Regional bodies38.337.335.134.432.133.3-1.1-3.2
Health138.2135.9131.1125.8123.6123.5-2.3-1.8
Semi-state56.355.053.351.249.248.9-2.3-4.5
         
Total public sector408.8403.8394.1378.9377.6375.0-3.9-1.0
       
Total public sector excluding semi-state bodies352.5348.8340.8327.7328.4326.1-1.6-0.5
Semi-state by sub-sector        
Non Commercial Semi-state bodies11.111.111.010.19.79.8-0.3-3.0
Commercial Semi-state bodies45.343.942.341.139.439.2-1.9-4.6
         
1 Source: Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey. Public Sector numbers include all those who received a payment which would include both full-time and part-time employees as well as contract workers. Total public sector numbers are also published by the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform on a quarterly basis. Those differ in coverage from the estimates in Table A1 as Department of Public Expenditure and Reform estimates are based on full-time equivalents which will change over time based on both changes in working hours and number of persons employed.
* Preliminary Estimates        
Table A2 Estimates of average weekly earnings by broad occupational categories1
  201120122013Quarterly changeAnnual change
 Occupation with certain    
  NACE groupsQ2Q2Q1Q2
        
 Managers, professionals
 and associated professionals             % %
        
 B-E1,386.601,445.571,409.271,455.61+3.3+0.7
 B-N, R-S1,177.791,203.761,198.861,237.49+3.2+2.8
 O-Q1,009.781,023.951,083.141,060.23-2.1+3.5
        
 Total (B-S)1,096.671120.121121.681,149.49+2.5+2.6
        
        
 Clerical, sales     
 and service employees             % %
        
 B-E748.50773.99750.76748.67-0.3-3.3
 B-N, R-S453.68450.78445.96444.47-0.3-1.4
 O-Q558.93542.71537.86523.61-2.6-3.5
        
 Total (B-S)484.22479.85474.31471.22-0.7-1.8
        
        
 Production, transport, craft     
 and other manual workers             % %
        
 B-E596.76622.12646.61619.37-4.2-0.4
 B-N, R-S511.86556.50551.17515.07-6.5-7.4
 O-Q436.29447.84450.38468.73+4.1+4.7
        
 Total (B-S)501.67541.58537.03509.05-5.2-6.0
        
1 See background notes.
Table A3 Response rates in selected sectors by quarter1
NACE Principal ActivityEmployer Response Rate %Employee Response Rate %Total number of respondent enterprises in Q3 2013
Preliminary Q2 2013Final Q2 2013Preliminary Q3 2013Preliminary Q2 2013Final Q2 2013Preliminary Q3 2013
         
B-EIndustry52.463.153.174.084.668.7584
FConstruction34.640.334.855.664.357.194
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles51.061.051.473.381.670.7679
HTransportation and storage49.458.845.180.791.384.1119
IAccommodation and food services40.947.841.853.863.255.3344
JInformation and communication58.169.655.484.088.981.3164
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate59.171.160.183.692.488.8182
MProfessional, scientific and technical53.863.451.255.478.772.0211
NAdministrative and support services 52.664.055.174.783.274.7188
OPublic administration and defence90.594.390.891.892.388.7139
PEducation61.075.563.090.097.789.3160
QHuman health and social work69.979.067.989.295.492.0468
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities55.765.255.576.884.975.8227
      
Total 53.663.353.779.487.379.43,559
         
1 This table presents the response rates achieved by sector. Greater caution should be taken in the interpretation of estimates for sectors with lower response rates as these sectors could be subject to greater revisions if response levels are increased for final estimates.
Table A4 Preliminary data versus final data1
NACE Principal ActivityPreliminary Q2 2013Final Q2 2013Percentage Change
Average Weekly EarningsAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly HoursAverage Weekly EarningsAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly HoursAverage Weekly EarningsAverage Hourly EarningsAverage Weekly Hours
           
  hourshours%%%
       
B-EIndustry811.1721.7637.3817.6521.9437.3+0.8+0.8-
FConstruction718.1819.9536.0698.2719.7835.3-2.8 -0.9 -1.9
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles538.5417.4230.9531.2217.2430.8-1.4 -1.0 -0.3
HTransportation and storage742.3020.8535.6739.0320.6835.7-0.4 -0.8 +0.3
IAccommodation and food services305.5712.1525.1307.9012.1125.4+0.8-0.3 +1.2
JInformation and communication1,021.9827.8336.71,020.3027.7836.7-0.2 -0.2 -
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate968.6127.9834.6982.6728.4834.5+1.5+1.8-0.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical798.9024.1033.1813.9724.3833.4+1.9+1.2+0.9
NAdministrative and support services 481.6016.0630.0493.8416.1330.6+2.5+0.4+2.0
OPublic administration and defence940.6226.5235.5940.0626.5235.4-0.1 --0.3
PEducation815.8535.1623.2814.0235.1223.2-0.2 -0.1 -
QHuman health and social work701.0523.2930.1703.4423.2530.3+0.3-0.2 +0.7
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities492.9016.7429.5500.4216.8829.6+1.5+0.8+0.3
           
Total 695.7822.0231.6695.5322.0131.6---
           
Public/Private Sector         
           
Private sector623.1719.7331.6623.7919.7331.6+0.1--
Public sector928.7629.3531.6928.0129.3931.6-0.1 +0.1-
           
Size of Enterprise         
           
Less than 50 employees546.9418.1030.2546.3418.0530.3-0.1 -0.3 +0.3
50-250 employees635.3219.7432.2636.1619.7232.3+0.1-0.1 +0.3
Greater than 250 employees829.0025.5932.4831.1725.6832.4+0.3+0.4-
         
1 See background notes for information on the annual review of preliminary and final data.

Background Notes

Introduction

The Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) replaced the four-yearly Labour Cost Survey, and also replaced all other CSO short-term earnings inquiries. The EHECS results are comparable across sectors and include more detail on components of earnings and labour costs than was previously available.

 

Legislation  

The survey information was collected by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) under the S.I. No 314 of 2008 Statistics (Labour Costs Surveys) Order 2008.  The information collected is treated as strictly confidential in accordance with the Statistics Act 1993.  The survey results meet the requirements for Labour Costs statistics set out in Council Regulation (EC) 530/1999.

 

Business Register 

The CSO’s Business Register provides the register of relevant enterprises for the survey. An enterprise is defined as the smallest legally independent unit.

 

Business Classification

The business classification used for the EHECS is based on the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2). The NACE code of each enterprise included in the survey was determined from the predominant activity of the enterprise, based on information provided in this or other CSO inquiries.

 

Nace Classification

NACE Rev.2 is the latest classification system for economic activities, updated from NACE Rev 1.1. A major revision of NACE was conducted between 2000 and 2007, in order to ensure that the NACE classification system remained relevant for the economy.  The main changes that affected the release was the reclassification of some industrial enterprises from industry to services (principally in the software and publishing sectors) and the inclusion of air conditioning supply, sewerage, water management and remediation activities in industry.

 

Coverage

The  survey  results  relate  to  enterprises  in  the  Nace  Rev  2  Sections  B  –  E  (Industry),  F (Construction), G (Wholesale & retail trade: repair of motor vehicles & motorcycles), H (Transportation & storage), I (Accommodation & food services activities), J (Information & communication), K-L (Financial, insurance & real estate activities), M (Professional, scientific & technical activities), N (Administrative & support services activities), O (Public administration & defence), P (Education), Q (Human health & social work activities) and R-S (Arts, entertainment, recreation & other service activities) with 3 or more employees.  The data was collected at the enterprise level.

All enterprises with 50 or more employees and a sample of those with 3 to 49 employees are surveyed each quarter. The sample is based on the proportion of companies in each NACE 2 digit economic sectors in the 3 to 49 size classes (3 to 9, 10 to 19 and 20 to 49).

Earnings in the public sector are calculated before the deduction of the pension levy that was introduced in March 2009.

For Q1 and Q2 2011 temporary census field staff are included in all tables due to the large numbers involved.  Table A1 in the Annex provides employment details exclusive of these staff.

 

Data Collection

The survey is conducted by post and questionnaires are issued in the last week of the relevant quarter. Some returns are received electronically. All returns are scrutinised for accuracy. Where appropriate, firms are queried by post or telephone regarding incompleteness, apparent inconsistencies, etc. Information about the survey is on the CSO website and all questionnaires and instructions are available electronically there.

 

Differences with discontinued sources

The EHECS is not directly comparable with other discontinued short-term earnings surveys such as the Quarterly Industrial Inquiry (QII), the Quarterly Services Inquiry (QSI) and the Quarterly Earnings and Hours worked in Construction (QEC).  The main differences are:

The EHECS collects data on the entire reference quarter while the QII, QSI and QEC only collected data for a reference week in the quarter.

  •   Data on earnings and labour costs per hour is generally presented on the basis of hours paid and worked in the EHECS.  Data on earnings per hour was presented on the basis of hours paid (including paid leave)   in the QII.
  • The EHECS uses a standardised form for all NACE sectors with a standard occupational classification for all enterprises while the QII, QSI and QEC surveys had their own occupational classifications.  However the EHECS category “Production, Craft and other Manual workers” corresponds broadly to the “Industrial” category in the QII; the EHECS category “Clerical, Sales and Service Workers” also corresponds broadly to the QII category “Clerical and other office staff”; the QII category “Managerial and technical staff” is largely equivalent to the EHECS category “Managers, Professional and Associated Professionals”.
  •   The EHECS collects data for enterprises while the QII collected data for local units.
  •   Data on hours is collected for all categories of employees in the EHECS, while such data was limited to the industrial workers in the QII, non-managerial employees in the QEC and not collected at all in the QSI.
  •  The earnings data collected for the EHECS includes irregular earnings, irregular bonuses etc while these items were excluded from the QII, QSI and QEC which only collected data on regular earnings (including regular bonuses) and overtime.
  •   Non-labour costs such as employers PRSI, other social costs, benefit in kind etc., are collected for the EHECS but were not collected for the QII, QSI and QEC surveys.
  •  Data on employees in the QII, QSI and QEC was collected with regard to the reference week. In the EHECS employment data is collected with regard to the first and last day of the quarter.

 

Definitions

Employees:

All full-time or part-time workers paid a specific wage or salary or who had a contract of employment are defined as employees.   Persons not working for salary e.g. family members, directors, partners, outside pieceworker’s etc., are not considered employees but other persons engaged.  These workers are included separately but not used in the calculation of derived variables.  All employment figures are rounded to the nearest hundred.

 

Part-time Employees:

Part-time employees are defined as those who normally worked less than around 30 hours per week.  These included persons who worked for some whole days per week as well as those who worked for part of the day each day.

 

Apprentices

Apprentices are defined as those whose wages/salaries are governed by the fact that they work either under an apprenticeship contract or as part of a training program.  They are included in the calculation of earnings and hours data.  They were also combined with full-time and part-time employees in determining the size group to which enterprises were classified.

 

Category of employees  by occupation

For some enterprises information was collected separately for three occupational groups. The three groups are:

1. Managers, Administrators, Professionals and Associate Professionals.

2. Clerical, Sales and Service workers.

3. Production, Transport workers, Craft & Tradespersons and other Manual workers.

 

Wages and Salaries

All wages and salaries payments are gross (i.e. before deduction of income tax and employees’ PRSI contributions and levies such as the public sector pension levy).  In the analysis, the total wages and salaries are divided into: 

  •   Regular earnings i.e. pay and allowances paid at each pay period, even if the amount may vary.
  •   Overtime, i.e. payments for working in excess of normal hours, usually paid at a premium.
  •   Irregular bonuses and premiums, pay and allowances not paid at each pay period, i.e. annual or quarterly bonuses etc.

 

Hours

Weekly paid hours include total contracted hours plus overtime hours.

 

Other Costs

The following are the other categories of labour costs:

 

  •   Statutory employers’ PRSI including the social security contributions for apprentices.
  •  Other social costs; which encompass pension fund contributions, life assurance premiums, income continuance insurance as well as other employee-related payments paid by the employer.
  •   Benefits in kind; which include private use of company cars, stock options & share purchase schemes, voluntary sickness insurance, staff housing and other free or subsidised benefits (e.g. canteen facilities,   childcare provision, health costs).
  •   Other labour costs.
  • Redundancy payments.

 

Subsidies and Refunds

These are amounts received by firms under the various state schemes (IDA employment incentive scheme, grants etc.) as well as refunds from the Department of Social Protection (DSP) for sick and maternity leave.  These are deducted from the firms’ labour costs in the analysis.

 

National Minimum Wage (NMW)

The National Minimum Wage Act 2000 became law on the 1st April 2000. Enterprises are asked to indicate the number of employees in receipt of the NMW at the end of each quarter.  A detailed guide to the Act is available from the Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation at www.djei.ie. Employees earning less than the minimum wage due to age or training status are also included.  These rates do not apply to close relatives of the employer or apprentices other than apprentice hairdressers.

 

Derived Variables

Persons Employed

The sum of full-time employees and part-time employees on the last day of the quarter plus the average number of apprentices engaged during the quarter.

 

Average Hourly Earnings

The sum of regular earnings, irregular earnings, and overtime earnings for the quarter divided by total paid hours for the quarter.

 

Average Irregular Earnings

Total irregular earnings in the quarter divided by total paid hours for the quarter.

 

Average Weekly Paid Hours

Total paid hours for the quarter divided by the average number of persons employed during the quarter divided by 13 (number of weeks in a quarter).  Unpaid hours worked (including unpaid overtime) and unpaid leave are excluded.

 

Other  Labour Costs

The sum of other labour costs divided by total paid hours for the quarter. Other labour costs include redundancy payments, employers’ contributions to social security, other social costs, benefit in kind and other labour costs.  Subsidies and refunds received were deducted.

 

Hourly Labour Costs

Hourly labour costs are total labour costs divided by the total number of hours paid during the quarter.

 

Earnings Per Week

Total earnings for the quarter divided by the average number of persons employed during the quarter divided by 13  (number of weeks in a quarter).

 

Annual Data

Annualised results for years 2008 – 2012 are available as a separate release, details of which are available on the CSO website. LINK   

 

Methodology for production of final results
 
All enterprises with 50 or more employees are surveyed as well as a sample of enterprises which have between 3 and 49 employees inclusive. The classifications by size of enterprise are based on total persons engaged on the first day of the quarter.

 

Weighting

For enterprises with 3 to 49 employees inclusive, a weighting factor (the reciprocal of the sampling fraction) is used to weight the estimates to the total population for both employees and enterprises. The CSO Business Register forms the basis of the sampling frame used for weighting the sample data to the population.  Decay factors are calculated for each size class and sector to adjust the non-sampled element of the register for the respondent non-relevant enterprises.

 

Imputation

Imputation is carried out for non-respondents in the greater than 50 employees’ categories. Where an enterprise responded in the previous quarter ratio-imputation is used to estimate figures for the current quarter while for enterprises that did not respond in the previous quarter a stratum average imputation method is used to estimate the missing variables. These estimates are based on respondent enterprises of a similar size and activity.

 

Final Estimates 

After imputation, all enterprises with 50 or more employees are accounted for and included in the final dataset.  For those cells where a sample survey of enterprises is used (enterprises employing between 3 and 49 employees), the results are expanded using the grossing factors to cover the entire population for the relevant industries in the quarter.  Macro edits are carried out at this stage and any outliers are investigated and corrected. Coherence of the data is ensured by scrutinising quarter on quarter changes.

 

Interpretation of results

The series presented in this release and all estimates deriving from the EHECS survey are primarily of use as an indicator of trends in average earnings and paid hours of employees across different classifications. However, in interpreting the trends and in undertaking direct comparison of the average level of earnings of different groups of employees or sectors some caution in interpretation is warranted.

In the case of trends, changes in the composition of employees in a given sector or group has an effect on the average levels of earnings and paid hours over time. For example if the proportion of part time employees increases within a sector then it would be expected that the average weekly earnings and paid hours would fall in that sector even if hourly pay rates were unchanged.

In the case of direct comparison of earnings levels estimates are based on raw earnings levels. To get a true picture of differences in earnings levels of different employees comparisons should take account of differences in the characteristics of employees such as length of service, educational attainment level, nature of work  etc., none of which are available via EHECS.  The additional information available from the annual National Employment Survey (NES) allows for a more detailed analysis of differences in earnings levels and should be referred to by users seeking more detailed information on earnings determinants than is available from EHECS.

 

Public Sector Employment
 
There are two CSO surveys which can potentially provide information on public sector employment. The Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) can provide estimates based on all respondents who are in employment being asked whether they work in the public sector or not. The EHECS, which is the source of the quarterly Earnings and Labour Costs data, provides estimates based on responses from the employer. Specifically in the case of EHECS there is a response level of close to 80% for public sector employers over time.

Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with EHECS the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector number estimates over time and the CSO publishes data from EHECS as the primary series on public sector numbers. Annex table A1 contains the estimates of public sector numbers broken down by the different high level areas within the public sector.

 

Methodology for production of broad occupational category estimates
 
From Q2 2010 a sub-sample of EHECS respondents has been used to generate earnings and hours estimates by three broad occupational categories.

Results are derived by utilising a matched sample of enterprises between consecutive quarters to generate quarterly changes.  An estimated series is included in Annex table A2.  The analysis conducted on these estimates revealed that volatility in the quarterly changes at individual NACE sectors means that it is only possible to produce reliable estimates when the sectors are grouped. Earnings for the broad occupational groups are therefore presented by the following amalgamations:-

 

•       B-E                    Industry

•       B-N/R-S             All NACE sectors from Industry to Administrative and support service activities inclusive, plus Arts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities

•       O-Q                   All NACE sectors from Public administration and defence to Human health and social work activities, inclusive

•       B-S                    All NACE sectors

 

Review of preliminary versus final data
 
An annual review of preliminary estimates and final data has been undertaken to ascertain the extent of change between both sets of results.  The review focused on response rates, scale of revision at NACE sectoral level and significant changes in trends.  The findings of the review indicate that the preliminary figures can be accepted as a suitable indicator for quarterly trends. Analysis of the results for individual NACE sectors highlighted that the change from preliminary to final data was broadly in the range of plus or minus 5%. However, as response rates can impact on the quality of data at the sectoral level, it is advisable to be aware of this when interpreting preliminary results.

 

Annex table A4 contains the differences between preliminary and final data for the most recent reported quarter, while Annex table A3 highlights response rates.  A review of the continued validity of preliminary estimates in this survey will be undertaken annually.

 

Public Sector Organisations

Public sector organisations consist of the following:

 

•       Civil Service

•       Defence

•       Garda Síochána

•       Education

•       Regional bodies

•       Health

•       Semi State, both commercial and non-commercial

 

 

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