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E-mail: eaads@cso.ie Dr Mary Smyth +353 21 453 5309 Morgan O'Donnell +353 21 453 5269 Ann O'Dwyer +353 21 453 5251
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-9886
CSO statistical release, 09 February 2017, 11am

Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources

2011-2014

Mean and Median Weekly Earnings 2011 to 2014
  2011201220132014
  
All employmentsMean662.23661.03662.58668.88
 Median522.67518.69522.81528.81
      
MaleMean758.45753.70753.36759.72
 Median586.69578.95580.75584.60
      
FemaleMean570.19572.79574.47578.53
 Median461.64460.45463.90468.88
      
Public SectorMean895.03891.15885.01883.16
 Median821.95821.81821.96815.64
      
Private SectorMean592.58593.38597.91609.88
 Median453.18450.00453.87462.38
 

Mean weekly earnings increased by 1% between 2011 and 2014

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In the period 2011 to 2014 both mean and median weekly earnings for all employment increased by 1%. There was an increase of 1.5% in mean weekly earnings for females for the same period while mean earnings for males remained unchanged. Other features of the results for the period 2011 to 2014 include:

Public/Private Sector

Between 2011 - 2014 Public Sector mean weekly earnings fell by 1.3% while Private Sector wages rose by 2.9%. For the same period median weekly earnings for Public Sector employments fell by 0.8% and rose for Private Sector employments by 2%. See Tables 1 and 2 below.

Age Groups

Mean weekly earnings for all age groups grew by 1% between 2011 and 2014 with the ‘40-49’ group showing a growth of 2.1% and the ‘30-39’ group falling by 1.5%. Median weekly earnings for all age groups grew by 1.2% for the same period with the ‘25-29’ group falling by 1.7% and the ‘60 and over’ group growing by 4.5%. See Tables 3 and 4 below.

Nationality

Growth in mean weekly earnings between 2011 and 2014 for ‘Irish’ nationals was the smallest at 0.5% with the biggest growth for the ‘EU27/28 excl. Irl & UK’ group at 5.5%. Median weekly earnings in the same period show a similar pattern with 0.3% growth for Irish and 3.4% growth for employees from the ‘EU27/28 excl. Irl & UK’ group. See Tables 5 and 6 below.

Region

In the period 2011 and 2014, mean earnings for employees who resided in the ‘Connacht’ region grew by 1.6% while those in ‘Ulster (Part of)’ fell by 0.4%. There was no change in median weekly earnings for employees who resided in the ‘Dublin’ region for the same period but those residing in the ‘Rest of Leinster’ grew by 1.1%. See Tables 7 and 8 below.

Distribution of employees

In the Accommodation and food services sector 75% of employments earned less than €400 per week. The Public administration & defence sector had the lowest percentage of jobs (just over 9%) earning less than €400 per week. In the same sector just 4.3% of jobs earned over €1,600 per week. The Information and communication sector had the highest percentage of employments earning over €1,600 per week (15.2%) followed by Financial, insurance and real estate at 13.3%.  See Table 9 below.

Information on earnings sources

This release presents statistics on earnings based on administrative data sources. The primary data source is the Revenue Commissioner’s P35L dataset of employee annual earnings which is linked to CSO and other data to provide demographic breakdowns of earnings similar to those previously provided by the National Employment Survey (NES). Please refer to the background notes in this release for further information on how the data sources were matched.

The matched datasets on which this release is based contains almost 2 million records of employment for each year in the period 2011 to 2014. These reference datasets allow for a more detailed analysis of earnings based on the variables NACE (principal business activity), public/private status, gender, age, nationality and region.

The results detail mean and median weekly earnings based on annual employments for the period 2011 to 2014.  Information and results in relation to employee hourly earnings and hours worked are available from the Earnings, Hours & Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) on the Central Statistics Office website.

The aggregate results presented in this release should not be used for detailed analysis of either the public/private pay gap or the gender pay gap, as mean or median weekly earnings do not take account of the compositional differences in education, occupation, length of service etc.

To fully understand issues relating to the composition of earnings the use of econometric analysis is the preferred approach in international literature. The CSO has begun work exploring the possibility of developing a suitable model to allow for a detailed econometric analysis based on administrative data sources. 

 

Mean weekly earnings for all employment was €668.88 in 2014

NACE Principal Activitymeanmedian
Industry823.71644.46
Construction618.69554.62
Wholesale and retail trade498.12387.71
Transportation and storage678.62568.15
Accommodation and food services322.09293.91
Information and communication1059.49868
Financial, insurance and real estate995.93732.42
Professional, scientific and technical activities790.85592.78
Administrative and support services 516.25426.67
Public administration and defence885.85816.58
Education742.15700.88
Human health and social work685.46606.05
Other services436.48338.02
Overall668.88528.81

The analysis shows that in 2014 mean weekly earnings was €668.88 for all employments (jobs) during the year. Men earned €759.72 per week compared with women’s weekly earnings of €578.53. Figure 2 shows that jobs in the Information and communication sector had the highest weekly earnings of €1,059.49. Weekly earnings were lowest in the Accommodation and food services sector at €322.09.  Other services which includes Arts, entertainment and recreation had mean weekly earnings of €436.48.

Median weekly earnings in 2014 for all employments were €528.81 (half of all jobs earned more than this amount and half earned less).  Also in 2014 median weekly earnings for men were €584.60 while women had median weekly earnings of €468.88. See Tables 1 and 2 below.

A total of 35.1% of all employees earned less than €400 per week in 2014

NACE Principal ActivityLess than €400€400-<€800€800-<€1200€1200-<€1600€1600 or more
Industry17.846.019.68.87.8
Construction28.848.217.43.91.8
Wholesale and retail trade51.935.57.32.62.7
Transportation and storage25.747.418.04.93.9
Accommodation and food services75.022.41.90.00.0
Information and communication12.632.625.114.615.2
Financial, insurance and real estate13.841.720.910.213.3
Professional, scientific and technical activities25.841.716.47.48.7
Administrative and support services 45.043.57.02.12.3
Public administration and defence9.139.033.314.24.3
Education27.330.326.113.33.1
Human health and social work30.338.222.45.63.5
Other services60.329.66.32.01.9
Overall35.137.516.26.44.7

Figure 3 shows that 35.1% of all employments earned less than €400 per week. Jobs earning between €400 and €800 per week accounted for 37.5% of all employments. Just over a quarter (27.3%) of all employments earned more than €800 per week. In 2014, 4.7% of employments earned €1,600 or more per week.

Table 1 Mean Weekly Earnings in 2011 - 2014 by NACE principal activity, public/private sector status and sex
NACE Principal ActivityMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
  2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
B-EIndustry862.67850.50846.17867.62 680.47682.93691.38710.41 809.78802.98802.52823.71
FConstruction636.58618.14636.51637.82 434.71434.00429.44444.69 614.08597.40614.63618.69
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles576.34577.13577.93588.72 390.68396.35399.44410.80 479.22483.24485.80498.12
HTransportation and storage726.65714.74713.30706.79 591.57568.46577.32583.18 695.71680.01681.57678.62
IAccommodation and food services366.60362.14359.04363.71 284.08282.92282.15284.46 322.92320.35318.76322.09
JInformation and communication1,057.091,109.481,130.761,154.37 810.31856.76865.31889.44 966.661,018.661,035.821,059.49
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate1,255.051,227.071,225.071,217.85 796.77805.05818.15811.33 996.81991.981,001.04995.93
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities914.21905.87920.52934.79 626.71627.98635.68658.08 758.22756.81770.56790.85
NAdministrative and support services 544.91539.07549.62565.38 418.18423.15431.87446.18 490.07491.17500.85516.25
OPublic administration and defence963.73956.96963.30956.09 767.25768.91784.78787.08 883.80878.98889.38885.85
PEducation874.76850.43839.49824.33 724.53724.42722.20708.79 767.81760.92756.13742.15
QHuman health and social work914.50949.84923.06901.55 634.44635.87633.57632.93 691.94696.16689.79685.46
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities572.52534.20533.20534.16 386.33369.24370.68370.27 463.33434.78436.42436.48
                
Total758.45753.70753.36759.72 570.19572.79574.47578.53 662.23661.03662.58668.88
Of which:              
 Public sector11,034.361,021.351,009.921,005.44 804.91808.33806.34805.56 895.03891.15885.01883.16
 Private sector695.99694.58698.30710.16 482.14485.44488.23497.82 592.58593.38597.91609.88
1Public sector including semi-state companies. See Background Notes for further information.
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 2 Median1 weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by NACE principal activity, public/private sector status and sex
NACE Principal ActivityMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
  2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
B-EIndustry673.65664.22665.92674.43 552.69550.44560.33578.86 633.60627.43632.46644.46
FConstruction565.32554.58571.15574.68 380.00371.27372.42375.96 544.10533.05548.90554.62
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles461.25456.83458.27466.60 325.30324.45326.04331.56 380.60378.50379.13387.71
HTransportation and storage614.38600.00597.92590.62 504.04485.89500.31510.35 580.02564.54568.30568.15
IAccommodation and food services335.81328.73327.96331.90 260.58256.38258.03260.08 295.83290.05291.38293.91
JInformation and communication862.87908.63928.27962.21 667.23695.19698.05711.88 788.48826.92843.94868.00
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate908.14882.17880.06865.37 660.90659.05670.60661.31 740.15735.28741.85732.42
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities673.08668.00678.77690.94 508.46507.32513.00527.38 576.10571.91576.92592.78
NAdministrative and support services 442.11442.88448.24457.94 357.76360.84364.50373.08 408.30412.00416.70426.67
OPublic administration and defence882.46888.23903.94890.62 698.01709.06723.92719.75 805.53809.93824.12816.58
PEducation807.59784.29783.63759.61 688.72688.90692.31688.35 724.74715.58715.58700.88
QHuman health and social work721.16752.49742.99731.81 569.78575.70576.83577.65 597.31608.21606.60606.05
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities428.31401.66396.82398.13 313.48303.20305.07303.24 352.51338.90337.78338.02
                
Total586.69578.95580.75584.60 461.64460.45463.90468.88 522.67518.69522.81528.81
Of which:              
 Public sector2920.08912.87911.36907.34 766.62771.21771.63766.21 821.95821.81821.96815.64
 Private sector523.07517.60521.40529.55 381.94379.40380.00386.50 453.18450.00453.87462.38
1Median weekly earnings: Half of the employees earn more than this amount and half earn less.
2Public sector including semi-state companies. See Background Notes for further information.
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 3: Mean weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by age group and sex
Age groupMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
15-24325.29317.81315.81324.48 290.27281.05276.72280.82 306.66298.55295.73302.58
25-29544.66535.55538.75547.61 516.10505.09499.92500.54 529.52519.45518.53523.56
30-39780.41764.69760.10763.40 660.61659.41656.81655.19 720.60711.95708.47709.84
40-49985.75985.03981.66984.03 659.35673.48678.21690.24 822.29828.67830.17839.39
50-59986.91995.07987.22997.78 624.92637.18639.13640.13 798.03806.45804.76811.68
60 and over767.07758.85762.37774.96 459.74455.03457.10471.93 613.54603.68608.58623.20
               
Total758.45753.70753.36759.72 570.19572.79574.47578.53 662.23661.03662.58668.88
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 4: Median1 weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by age group and sex
Age groupMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
15-24302.92295.82295.62305.39 255.26247.35245.00251.78 277.78269.92269.23278.59
25-29489.16479.46480.00486.59 462.86450.00444.59447.47 476.77464.60463.04468.62
30-39649.50633.21630.00631.92 582.15580.57579.92578.83 616.25607.88606.71607.06
40-49766.26759.62761.04760.00 524.39535.60548.58560.58 641.41644.97651.94659.50
50-59777.97775.77779.44774.50 499.56510.17516.94524.29 628.55636.20639.62641.77
60 and over576.92566.70582.98595.60 351.28345.16348.33361.26 449.26437.95452.10469.37
               
Total586.69578.95580.75584.60 461.64460.45463.90468.88 522.67518.69522.81528.81
1Median weekly earnings: Half of the employees earn more than this amount and half earn less.
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 5: Mean weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by Irish/other nationality and sex
NationalityMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
Irish797.01790.39786.52791.38 588.33591.12592.82596.89 687.58685.80685.75691.34
United Kingdom909.60917.89924.52932.18 592.12602.34605.55612.64 754.43763.63772.88784.89
EU27/28 excl. Irl & UK529.87530.02543.39560.27 415.88416.27424.62434.73 477.05477.04488.59503.15
Other650.17654.74672.37683.02 582.07586.20579.31570.31 624.66626.87634.96637.40
               
Total758.45753.70753.36759.72 570.19572.79574.47578.53 662.23661.03662.58668.88
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 6: Median1 weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by Irish/other nationality and sex
NationalityMale Female Total
  
        €         €         €
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
Irish638.71628.07625.00625.33 489.65487.50492.04496.54 559.27554.29556.79561.00
United Kingdom673.08673.08677.88678.85 473.94478.40482.94485.83 572.99576.92583.85588.42
EU27/28 excl. Irl & UK445.00441.35449.60461.67 362.97360.27361.67367.31 406.31403.22408.94420.10
Other434.42434.70448.51463.54 434.81434.54429.14420.32 439.43437.42445.61451.56
               
Total586.69578.95580.75584.60 461.64460.45463.90468.88 522.67518.69522.81528.81
1Median weekly earnings: Half of the employees earn more than this amount and half earn less.     
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
        
        
        
Table 7: Mean weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by region and sex
Region (Residence)Male Female Total
  
  
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
Dublin848.86843.89844.35848.84 628.30632.63634.43640.24 738.87738.39740.24746.32
Rest of Leinster736.63730.53729.00733.50 550.89554.01554.44557.28 641.41639.86640.40645.60
Munster734.69728.03727.23736.50 543.97543.40545.72549.02 636.55632.67634.41641.96
Connacht671.84668.61674.39683.18 554.96554.67558.56561.38 609.40607.59612.88619.41
Ulster (Part of)593.54590.02587.23589.36 500.37501.94500.91497.98 544.51543.37542.26542.54
               
Total758.45753.70753.36759.72 570.19572.79574.47578.53 662.23661.03662.58668.88
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 8: Median1 weekly earnings in 2011 - 2014 by region and sex
Region (Residence)Male Female Total
  
  
 2011201220132014 2011201220132014 2011201220132014
Dublin631.30617.67618.52618.93 502.28500.52503.94508.05 564.61557.69560.81564.38
Rest of Leinster588.91578.90580.52584.00 453.38451.92455.43460.48 520.00515.32519.36525.52
Munster580.75577.10580.73584.13 441.43438.22442.31446.58 508.44504.65510.71516.00
Connacht547.73537.28544.29554.73 461.61454.16461.54470.04 501.21494.89502.87512.81
Ulster (Part of)480.72478.43479.52483.10 402.51400.00402.66403.80 443.93440.54443.94449.13
               
Total586.69578.95580.75584.60 461.64460.45463.90468.88 522.67518.69522.81528.81
1Median weekly earnings: Half of the employees earn more than this amount and half earn less.
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources
Table 9 Distribution of employees (%) by weekly earnings in each NACE principal activity in 2014
NACE Principal Activity     
Less than €400€400 - €800€800-€1,200€1,200-€1,600€1,600 or more
%
       
B-EIndustry17.846.019.68.87.8
FConstruction28.848.217.43.91.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles51.935.57.32.62.7
HTransportation and storage25.747.418.04.93.9
IAccommodation and food services75.022.41.9**
JInformation and communication12.632.625.114.615.2
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate13.841.720.910.213.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities25.841.716.47.48.7
NAdministrative and support services 45.043.57.02.12.3
OPublic administration and defence9.139.033.314.24.3
PEducation27.330.326.113.33.1
QHuman health and social work30.338.222.45.63.5
R-SArts, entertainment, recreation and other service activities60.329.66.32.01.9
       
Total 35.137.516.26.44.7
* Confidential      
Source: CSO Ireland, Earnings Analysis using Administrative Data Sources

Background Notes

This release presents statistics on earnings based on administrative data sources. The primary data source is the Revenue Commissioner’s P35L dataset of employee annual earnings which is linked to CSO and other data to provide demographic breakdowns of earnings similar to those previously provided by the National Employment Survey (NES). This release does not replicate all the tables available from the former NES; it does not contain any breakdown of hours worked or hourly earnings.

Methodology

The results presented in this release are based on a data-matching exercise of three administrative data sources:

  • The P35L files (employer end-of-year returns) of the Revenue Commissioners.
  • The Central Records System of the Department of Social Protection.
  • The Central Statistics Office’s Business Register.

The linkage and analysis was undertaken by the CSO for statistical purposes in line with the Statistics Act, 1993 and the CSO Data Protocol available at: www.cso.ie/en/aboutus/csodataprotocol.

Before using personal administrative data for statistical purposes, the CSO removes all identifying personal information including the PPSN. The Personal Public Service Number (PPSN) is a unique number that enables individuals to access social welfare benefits, personal taxation and other public services in Ireland. The CSO converts the PPSN to a Protected Identifier Key (PIK). The PIK is a unique and non-identifiable number which is internal to the CSO. Using the PIK enables the CSO to link and analyse data for statistical purposes, while protecting the security and confidentiality of the individual data. The P35L, CRS and CSO records were linked using the PIK for this project. All records in the datasets are anonymised and the results are in the form of statistical aggregates which do not identify any individuals.

The publication tables in this release are provided by NACE principal activity, gender, age, nationality and region (residence) and are available on the CSO Statbank (CSO Main Data Dissemination Service). Average weekly earnings are provided and the information covers both the public and private sectors. Additional earnings analysis tables using the administrative data sources detailed above will be added to the CSO Statbank in the coming weeks.

The Revenue Commissioners also publish data based on the P35L file under 'Schedule E' on the CSO Statbank. This includes mainly PAYE individuals but also includes non-PAYE income and records for married couples.  The CSO analysis is for PAYE individuals only.

Exclusion of employees from earnings data:

For the purposes of this analysis the CSO excluded employees earning less than €500 per annum and employments where the duration was less than two weeks in the year.  Also excluded were secondary employments earning less than €5,000 per annum, extremely high earnings values and missing employer and employee reference numbers. Employment activity in NACE sectors A, T and U has also been excluded from the analysis. 

Data Sources

Revenue Commissioners (P35L):

The Revenue Commissioner’s P35L file contains a complete register of all employments and is the most accurate source of remuneration.  It provides details of gross annual earnings and number of weeks worked in the year for all employments. The annual P35 data is based on the number of all jobs held by employees during the year.  The weekly earnings are calculated by dividing the gross annual earnings, as declared to Revenue by the number of weeks worked in the year for each job.   

Department of Social Protection (DSP):

The Central Records System of the Department of Social Protection provides information on age, nationality, gender and county of residence. Using a Unique Identifier (PIK) each employee on the P35L file can be linked to their individual demographic characteristics on the Department of Social Protection Datasets. Therefore the P35L dataset is enhanced by adding the demographic details.

Central Statistics Office Business Register:

Linking the unique enterprise no. (CBR)  common to both the P35L file and the CSO’s Business Register allows enterprise level variables to be added to each individual employee for NACE Rev.2 industrial sectors.  The Nace Rev.2 sectors and the Public/Private Sector are harmonised to the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS).

Definitions

Total annual earnings 

Total annual earnings represent the total gross annual amount (before deduction of tax, PRSI and superannuation) payable by the enterprise to its employees. This information is obtained from the Revenue Commissioner’s P35L dataset. It includes bonuses and benefit in kind (BIK). It excludes pension payments and severance payments.  In the small number of cases where an employee has been made redundant in the course of the year the employee’s income excludes statutory redundancy payments but includes non-statutory redundancy payments.

Weekly earnings

Weekly earnings represent the gross weekly amount (before deduction of tax, PRSI and superannuation) payable by the organisation to its employees. It includes normal wages, salaries and overtime, taxable allowances e.g. BIK, bonuses and commissions, holiday or sick pay averaged over the year. It excludes employer’s PRSI and redundancy payments.  In the small number of cases where an employee has been made redundant in the course of the year the employee’s income excludes statutory redundancy payments but includes non-statutory redundancy payments. Weekly earnings are calculated by dividing the gross annual earnings by the number of weeks worked as declared on the P35L file. 

Benefit in kind 

Benefit in kind is the notional income calculation of the value of all ‘payments in kind’, made to the employee during the year (for example, the private use of a company car, medical insurance payments paid by the company, company products at reduced prices, housing, etc.). BIK is included in the gross annual earnings of the employee submitted to the Revenue Commisioners by the employer. 

NACE Rev.2 Classification:

The economic sector classification (NACE) is aligned to the CSO’s EHECS Survey. The economic sector classification used for the EHECS is based on the ‘Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2)’ which can be accessed on the Eurostat website. The NACE code of each enterprise included in the survey was determined from the predominant activity of the enterprise, based on information provided to the CSO.

Public Sector Data:

Public sector data is compiled from employees in the Civil Service, Defence, Garda Síochána, Education, Regional bodies, Health and Semi State, both commercial and non-commercial as published in the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS).

Nationality groups:

Irish - Republic of Ireland.

United Kingdom - Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

EU27 excluding Ireland & UK - Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Croatia joined the EU on 1st July 2013 and is in the category EU28.

Other Nationalities - All other nationalities not included in the above three groupings as well as those who could not be coded.

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