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For more information on this release:
E-mail: busreg@cso.ie Barry Sobey (+353) 21 453 5355 Liam O'Flaherty (+353) 21 453 5245
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-6402
CSO statistical release, 30 June 2017, 11am

Business Demography

2015

 2008201320142015% Change 2008- 2015% Change 2014- 2015
Number of enterprises244,195243,571238,249248,8431.9%4.4%
Persons engaged1,511,9201,288,0171,334,2911,402,981-7.2%5.1%
Enterprise births15,44413,82516,25618,10017.2%11.3%
Enterprise deaths19,15718,28715,315*   
*The enterprise deaths figure for 2014 is an estimate as a 2nd year of inactivity is necessary to be counted as a final death (see Background Notes).

Number of enterprises up 4.4% in 2015

Figure 1 Index of Enterprises and Persons Engaged
go to full release

This release provides data on the "Business Demography" of Ireland for reference year 2015 and earlier years.

The detailed tables provided with this release present a breakdown of the numbers of active enterprises and newly birthed and ceased enterprises, classified by economic activity, employment size and legal form.

Related employment numbers are also outlined.

A detailed county level breakdown is also provided in relation to active enterprises and employment only.

Annual changes and sectoral comparison

There were nearly 249,000 active enterprises in the private business economy1 in Ireland in 2015, with over 1.4 million persons engaged2. This represents an increase of 4.4% and 5.1% respectively from 2014. See summary table. The Services sector3 accounted for over half (51.2%) of all enterprises in 2015, with the Construction sector accounting for just over a fifth (20.3%). In 2008 the Services sector accounted for less than half (46.8%) while the Construction sector accounted for over a quarter (25.4%) of all enterprises. See figures 2 & 3 and summary table.

For long labels below use
to display on multiple lines
Percentage of Enterprises by Sector 2015
Services51.2
Distribution18.8
Industry6.9
Construction20.3
Financial Service Activities2.8

When comparing the contribution to total persons engaged between 2008 and 2015, we see that the Services sector accounted for 44.8% of all persons engaged in 2015, up from 40.1% in 2008. The Construction sector accounted for 7.7% of all persons engaged in 2015, down from 12.6% in 2008. The contributions made by the other three sectors (Distribution, Industry and Financial Service Activities) remained relatively stable in this period. See figures 4 & 5.

For long labels below use
to display on multiple lines
Percentage of Enterprises by Sector 2008
Services46.8
Distribution18.9
Industry6.5
Construction25.4
Financial Service Activities2.4
For long labels below use
to display on multiple lines
Distribution of Persons Engaged by Sector 2015
Services44.8
Distribution24.7
Industry15.8
Construction7.7
Financial Service Activities7

Size class composition of the business economy

Small and medium sized enterprises4 accounted for 99.8% of the total enterprise population for 2015. They also accounted for 69.1% of total persons engaged, with large enterprises (employing 250 or more persons) employing 30.9% of persons engaged, despite accounting for only a small fraction (0.2%) of total enterprise numbers. See figure 6.

In 2008, small and medium sized enterprises accounted for 99.8% of the total enterprise population while accounting for a higher percentage (71.1%) of total persons engaged than in 2015. Large enterprises in 2008 accounted for 0.2% of all enterprises while employing 28.9% of persons engaged. See figure 7.

For long labels below use
to display on multiple lines
Distribution of Persons Engaged by Sector 2008
Services40.1
Distribution24.8
Industry15.9
Construction12.6
Financial Service Activities6.6
EnterprisesPersons Engaged
Under 1092.2127.57
10-496.4321.92
50-2491.1419.57
250 and over0.2230.94
EnterprisesPersons Engaged
Under 1090.9328.11
10-497.6323.67
50-2491.2319.33
250 and over0.2128.89

Enterprise births and deaths

This Business Demography release relates to reference year 2015. However, data on enterprise deaths5 are available up to reference year 2014 only, due to the fact that two complete sets of yearly data are required for an enterprise to be declared a final enterprise death. All enterprise births6 were followed for 5 years (2010 to 2014) to assess their survival rate and the resulting effect on employment.

Over 29.5% of all enterprises that were active during 2015 began trading in the period 2010 - 2014 inclusive.

The one year survival rate (relating to enterprises born in one year and still active in the next year) decreased slightly from 2010 to 2014 from 87.3% in 2010 to 85.8% in 2014, and shows almost 86% of enterprises created in 2014 were still active in 2015.

Of the 13,954 enterprises birthed in 2010, 9,331 or 66.9% survived to reference year 2015. See figure 8.

2010 births2011 births2012 births2013 births2014 births
Year of birth1395414344150801382516256
Survived 1 year1218112970132561170813952
Survived 2 years11678119431169210938
Survived 3 years107751072010931
Survived 4 years974210157
Survived 5 years9331

There were 18,100 new enterprise births in 2015, an increase of over 11% on 2014. There were 22,738 persons engaged in these newly birthed enterprises. There were less enterprise births in 2008 (15,444) but a slightly higher number of persons engaged (22,872) in these newly birthed enterprises.

The largest numerical increase in the number of births was in the Construction sector which increased by 700 from 3,526 in 2014 to 4,226 in 2015. This figure of 4,226 represented the highest number of births recorded for the Construction sector in the period 2008 to 2015.

The Financial Service Activities sector experienced the highest percentage increase (30.1%) between 2014 and 2015.

All of the remaining sectors (Distribution, Industry & Services) experienced an increase in the number of births between 2014 and 2015. See Figure 9

IndustryServicesConstructionDistributionFinancialTotal
200873283793443245343715444
200997096463573275889817845
201077877102467255244813955
201189577912589268338514343
201292681752757270451915081
201396874412473230463913825
2014111087343526246841816256
2015118595724226257354418100

Over 15,000 enterprises ceased during 20147, resulting in a loss of over 22,000 persons engaged. This represented 16.3% less enterprise deaths than 2013.

Enterprise death figures for 2014 are estimated as an enterprise needs two full years of inactivity before being declared a final death.

The number of enterprise deaths decreased across all sectors in 2014. In 2014, the Services sector had the highest number of enterprise deaths with 8,129 enterprises ceasing activity or 53.1% of total deaths. The Construction sector was also responsible for a large proportion of total deaths, with 3,203 enterprise deaths or 20.9% of overall deaths.

The sector with the largest percentage decrease in the number of enterprises deaths was the Financial Service Activities sector with a decrease of over 46.2%. This was followed by the Distribution sector with a decrease of 19.2%.

The total number of enterprise deaths decreased by 20% in the period 2008 to 2014, with the number of enterprise deaths in the Construction sector falling by 57.4% in the same period. See figure 10. 

IndustryServicesConstructionDistributionFinancialTotal
200892875657518284829819157
2009105885476146303945219242
201096380664697285743917022
201187473633786277138315177
201295781443584295256216199
2013106093193803321788718286
201490981293203259847715316

As can be seen from figure 11, there were 23,073 persons engaged in enterprise births in 2015. This represents the highest recorded number of persons engaged in enterprise births since the Business Demography series first began. The Services sector accounted for 57.3% (13,210) of the total, followed by the Construction sector which accounted for 19% (4,376). The number of persons engaged in enterprise births increased across all sectors from 2014 to 2015. 

IndustryServicesConstructionDistributionFinancialTotal
20082101122754009406941922873
20091280105892749315531718090
2010711103082432320630416961
201199494742679335229416793
20122071101052817290271118606
201391092502497333851016505
20141276111563663285043719382
20151704132104376333345023073
http://3.1.2.157/terminalfour/SiteManager?ctfn=content&fnno=30&sid=21948&svi=hierarchy:false:20&cid=132967&cVer=0.25#

As can be seen from figure 12, there were 22,001 persons engaged in enterprise deaths in 2014. The Services sector accounted for 56.5% (12,429) of these, followed by the Distribution sector which accounted for 17.7% (3,896). There was a decrease in the total number of persons engaged in enterprise deaths from 2013 (22,857) to 2014 (22,001). The total number of persons engaged in enterprise deaths in 2014 was almost 37% lower than the level experienced in 2008. 

IndustryServicesConstructionDistributionFinancialTotal
200822841358612457604433834709
20092049128577668547535828407
201012821107853724708125023690
20111277105044080453735120749
20121399106733508455533120466
20131227131113544454842722857
20141957124293227389649222001

International Comparison

In EU terms8 (latest data available is for 2014), Ireland’s largest sector of active enterprises, the Services sector, at 51% of total enterprises, is higher than the EU average (47%) but lower than the Netherlands (54%), and the UK (58%) as well as five other Member States. The Services sector is also the UK's largest sector of active enterprises. In 2014, Ireland had the largest percentage share of active enterprises in the EU for the Construction sector at 20% along with Slovakia. This compares to 15% for the EU average, the UK at 14% and Germany at 14%. Bulgaria had the smallest percentage at 6%, followed by Latvia and Romania at 9%. See figure 12.

Industry (%)Services (%)Construction (%)Distribution (%)Financial (%)
EU Average104715262.03110418926076
Belgium6.5405180458523550.867613306766916.52547983555724.0352846225632.03110418926076
Bulgaria10.412860576923139.84314903846156.0144230769230842.35306490384621.37650240384615
Czech Republic18.392243002998938.012807655240216.788791100196223.97702645186862.82913178969615
Denmark8.9837584877959354.273719948614414.351715911176419.28656634244823.10423930996513
Germany11.524544173552549.197789442166913.859373159701423.18198007972082.23631314485837
Belgium6.5405180458523550.867613306766916.52547983555724.0352846225632.03110418926076
Ireland6.92426830752751.287098791600419.873745535133419.14719474163592.7672728951643
Spain7.1957411712594345.928541245174815.493894510290428.72087035328552.66095271998989
France8.5088680594644145.885596439304717.900588470614825.74355402982591.96139300079013
Croatia14.810650968207946.182358311870612.509027976506825.81388059904880.684082144365861
Italy11.063834875927442.742598187154113.988112801264729.82850832371682.37694581193706
Cyprus10.966796278577437.497200789886214.891797805419332.67848781580183.96571731031534
Latvia10.812149060695851.04328622782969.3326335178601527.23536576912031.5765654244942
Lithuania11.190310094963836.374836851343415.764098294252734.11269634096942.55805841847068
Luxembourg3.0627920373807856.37841643730411.275043205530324.05747935735775.22626896242719
Hungary9.6257503955499250.610468568626510.65034919491725.15180305636543.96162878454118
Malta41.302094783455332.71882164504888.2283847869099613.95056687918093.80013190540498
Netherlands6.0006471204071754.42310517380214.388015627585922.37651250448612.81171957371873
Austria8.9454955513495755.83167420391039.6574199933088922.87305846764292.69235178378834
Poland12.807526897648236.940062312679314.957610590192931.83624899396133.45855120551828
Portugal8.75863468341751.39497162417129.8107395863922127.95942313194042.07623097407925
Romania10.564223965800139.52311453697669.1535922268732539.21829167037761.54077759997242
Slovenia15.50008003608948.836566306261714.648787089451219.56664095810471.44792561009328
Slovakia15.880447511453736.015723622185620.317211750713926.30853271303251.47808440261421
Finland10.495427684005650.14527425400416.979586843419820.26023631278652.11947490578412
Sweden8.3270311223802356.240288865849514.312114820325119.15028779332781.97027739811731
United Kingdom7.1139502918046858.191937628157514.30271074156718.62051871380611.77088262466482
Norway7.0651081903151855.216207415003219.095261520553717.50202661973691.12139625439101
Table 1: Active Enterprises (Number) by Activity and Year
Number of Enterprises
  20082009201020112012201320142015
Mining and quarrying (B)..434408412411421411405
Manufacturing (C)14,51314,62914,31114,33614,53314,64914,62815,242
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (D)..330403423456485483515
Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (E)8448929289619859859751,014
Construction (F)61,90557,47252,60750,25649,53048,50247,34950,546
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (G)46,23446,49446,82047,03047,55447,06145,61846,626
Transportation and storage (H)27,74327,27127,19626,37026,28425,73424,59525,066
Accommodation and food service activities (I)17,46617,46717,55217,69317,89217,91317,79018,336
Information and communication (J)10,63211,26411,86912,35013,09913,57813,68714,246
Financial and insurance activities excluding activities of holding companies (K-642)15,8366,6997,0416,9867,3107,5026,5937,009
Real estate activities (L)9,76610,54111,36111,38711,98612,06511,91213,228
Professional, scientific and technical activities (M)34,25936,05137,19437,68538,80538,91138,79540,186
Administrative and support service activities (N)14,39914,88315,00114,99015,54815,76415,41216,423 
Business economy excluding activities of holding companies (B to N,-642)244,195244,428242,692240,880244,394243,571238,249248,843
1 NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies is excluded from sector K.
.. indicates that the data has been suppressed to protect the confidentiality of individual enterprises.
Table 2: Persons Engaged (Number) by Activity and Year
Number of Persons Engaged
  20082009201020112012201320142015
Mining and quarrying (B)5,1346,1764,3844,2694,1804,1464,0584,164
Manufacturing (C)218,792194,172181,611181,050178,700181,091189,966200,047
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (D)9,2359,9229,1178,8428,7358,2468,4968,846
Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (E)7,7858,0097,1897,5347,5787,5088,0258,740
Construction (F)190,069134,313104,54594,64089,35191,12299,860108,720
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (G)374,598345,721329,380328,147327,687332,768336,866345,911
Transportation and storage (H)104,73097,34194,35892,58291,85291,64491,98594,622
Accommodation and food service activities (I)163,673154,069148,189146,374150,735155,105161,097170,222
Information and communication (J)73,29766,81167,68369,29072,68477,06082,01087,597
Financial and insurance activities excluding activities of holding companies (K-642)1100,48794,27396,50396,54597,67396,37196,46097,836
Real estate activities (L)21,61317,31218,42319,09520,11120,84822,77524,723
Professional, scientific and technical activities (M)125,971113,458108,168108,630110,924115,426120,245127,591
Administrative and support service activities (N)116,536103,884100,925102,328104,559106,682112,448123,962
Business economy excluding activities of holding companies (B to N,-642)1,511,9201,345,4611,270,4751,259,3261,264,7691,288,0171,334,2911,402,981
1 NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies is excluded from sector K.
Table 3: Persons Engaged (Number) by Size Class and Year
 Number of Persons Engaged
Business economy excluding activities of holding companies (B to N,-642)120082009201020112012201320142015
All persons engaged size classes1,511,9201,345,4611,270,4751,259,3261,264,7691,288,0171,334,2911,402,981
Under 10425,018387,521372,075370,497371,116370,112373,342386,725
10-19160,072139,072129,385126,201123,545125,812131,445138,098
20 - 49197,808166,716152,823148,758150,353153,589160,269169,527
50 - 249292,297247,755229,547230,472229,404236,123254,928274,531
250 and over436,725404,397386,645383,398390,351402,381414,307434,100
1 NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies is excluded from sector K.
Table 4: Enterprise Births (Number) by Activity and Year
  Number of Enterprise Births
  20082009201020112012201320142015
Mining and quarrying (B)2333....20261818
Manufacturing (C)6207776507708068419971,060
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (D)2387563934..3143
Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (E)6673....66..6464
Construction (F)3,4433,5732,4672,5892,7572,4733,5264,226
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (G)2,4532,7582,5522,6832,7042,3042,4682,573
Transportation and storage (H)1,6651,4541,0479811,0058051,0261,044
Accommodation and food service activities (I)1,1671,1591,1371,2321,2061,1421,2511,452
Information and communication (J)9691,1541,1081,1811,2751,2491,3331,375
Financial and insurance activities excluding activities of holding companies (K-642)1437898448385519639418544
Real estate activities (L)9341,4079258559158621,1711,406
Professional, scientific and technical activities (M)2,5793,3432,5562,6432,7152,4312,8003,000
Administrative and support service activities (N)1,0651,1299378991,0599521,1531,296
Business economy excluding activities of holding companies (B to N,-642)15,44417,84513,95514,34315,07913,82516,25618,100
1 NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies is excluded from sector K.
.. indicates that the data has been suppressed to protect the confidentiality of individual enterprises.
Table 5: Enterprise Deaths (Number) by Activity and Year
  Number of Enterprise Deaths
  2008200920102011201220132014 2
Mining and quarrying (B)183119..21..22
Manufacturing (C)862955862772850935802
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (D) ..16........30
Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (E)42566156..6855
Construction (F)7,5186,1464,6973,7863,5843,8033,203
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (G)2,8483,0392,8572,7712,9523,2172,598
Transportation and storage (H)1,4441,7131,5611,3221,3081,5591,263
Accommodation and food service activities (I)1,3081,3611,3071,2661,2921,4341,253
Information and communication (J)8399809409011,0401,1871,116
Financial and insurance activities excluding activities of holding companies (K-642)1..452..383562887477
Real estate activities (L)7989048157259181,085973
Professional, scientific and technical activities (M)2,2512,5372,4972,3162,6412,8402,518
Administrative and support service activities (N)9251,0529468339451,2141,006 
Business economy excluding activities of holding companies (B to N,-642)19,15719,24217,02215,17716,19918,28715,316
1 NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies is excluded from sector K.
2 The enterprise deaths figures for 2014 are an estimate as a 2nd year of inactivity is necessary to be counted as a final death (see Background Notes).
.. indicates that the data has been suppressed to protect the confidentiality of individual enterprises.

Background Notes

This release covers the reference year 2015, however data on enterprise deaths relates to 2014. Statistics are also provided on enterprise births since 2010 that were still active during 2015. All 2015 enterprise births will be followed for 5 years to assess their survival rate and the resulting effect on employment.

Detailed data tables are available on CSO’s data dissemination service at:

http://www.cso.ie/px/pxeirestat/database/eirestat/Business%20Demography/Business%20Demography_statbank.asp?sp=Business Demography&Planguage=0

The Background Notes at the link below provide more details on the release:

http://www.cso.ie/en/surveysandmethodology/multisectoral/businessdemography/backgroundnotes/

For further information on the NACE Rev. 2 classification of economic activity, see this link:

http://www.cso.ie/en/surveysandmethodology/classifications/classificationofindustrialactivity/

Footnotes:

1The private business economy covers the NACE Rev 2 sectors B - N (excluding K64.20 Activities of holding companies). For comparison with previous Business Demography releases only sectors B – N (excluding K64.20, activities of holding companies) figures are included in the release text.

The full list of Rev 2 sectors covered is:

B – Mining and Quarrying

C – Manufacturing

D – Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply

E – Water Supply; Sewerage, Waste management and Remediation Activities

F – Construction

G – Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles

H – Transportation and Storage

I – Accommodation and Food Service Activities

J – Information and Communication

K – Financial and Insurance Activities (excludes NACE code 64.20 Activities of holding companies)

L – Real Estate Activities

M – Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities

N – Administrative and Support Service Activities

An enterprise is considered to be active in a certain period if it generates turnover, employs staff or makes investments in that period.

The number of active enterprises in year t (reference year) cannot be calculated from previous active enterprise figures and births and deaths figures. e.g. the number of active enterprises in year t does not equal the number of active enterprises in year t-1, minus deaths in t-1 plus births in year t. Birth calculations involve profiling work where real births are checked and weights applied based on checks conducted (a similar process is conducted for death calculations). In addition, final enterprise deaths take two years to be finalised, therefore enterprises may not be in enterprise totals in one year but could be in the next year and may still not be considered an enterprise birth or death. 

Geographical Breakdown the geographical breakdown for enterprises is an approximation. The county breakdown is based on the address at which an enterprise is registered for Revenue purposes, rather than where the business actually operates from, because no comprehensive administrative data source is currently available for business locations. In particular, where an enterprise has local units in several counties, but one head office where all employment is registered, all its employees will be counted against the county where the head office is located. Enterprises where the county location is categorised as Unknown generally have Revenue registered addresses outside of the Republic of Ireland. However, the employees registered with these addresses are working in the Republic of Ireland.

2Persons engaged include employees, proprietors and family members. Persons engaged are the sum of Employees plus Working Proprietors.

Employees are persons who are paid a fixed wage or salary. Employees are calculated using an annual employment return received from Revenue. This return contains all registered employers and the number of employees they have paid a wage or salary for a reference year. The file can contain individuals paid a wage by an employer as well as self-employed individuals who pay themselves a working wage. An individual may be counted more than once for a reference year if they work multiple jobs in that reference year. The annual employment return from Revenue contains persons at work or temporarily absent because of illness, holidays, strike etc. If an individual is paid a wage for any segment of a reference year they are included in the overall figures.

Working Proprietors (Proprietors and family members); included here are those proprietors, partners, etc and members of their families who work regularly in the firm and are not paid a definite wage or salary. Working Propreitors is not a full count of self-employed individuals as some self-employed receive a wage and are returned via annual employment returns and are included in the Employees calculation.  

Comparison of Business Demography and Quarterly National Household Survey employment levels:
The primary classification used for the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) results is the International Labour Office (ILO) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed. Persons in employment classify their employment status as being self-employed, employee, assisting relative/family worker or on a state sponsored employment scheme. Employees are defined as persons who work for a public or private employer and who receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, payment by results or payment in kind. Self-employed persons who pay themselves a working wage are classified as self-employed in the QNHS.

Key Differences between QNHS and Business Demography figures include:
- Business Demography is based purely on administrative data received from Revenue on an annual basis.
- QNHS is based on survey data which is collected every quarter from the household.
- Business Demography does not cap employment at 1 or at any value for an individual. Business Demography employment is a count of persons engaged at an enterprise and sector level. All work conducted by an individual over an annual period is included in the relevant enterprise (and therefore sector) in which they worked, on the basis of weeks (not hours) worked.
- QNHS caps employment at 2 for an individual in relation to full time equivalence only, therefore it takes into consideration a person’s first and second job. Otherwise employment is capped at one for an individual. 
- Timing issues. As stated, QNHS is conducted on a quarterly basis while Business Demography is conducted over a yearly basis. QNHS also takes into account the hours worked by an individual and uses these values in full time equivalent employment calculations. Business Demography operates on a weeks worked basis from files received from Revenue. If an individual is classed as working 52 weeks in a reference period for an enterprise, they are classed as 1 employee (no hours worked is taken into consideration), irrespective of how many hours they have actually worked in those weeks.

3The composition of sectors used in the graphs is as follows:

- Services: Sectors H,I,J,L,M,N

- Distribution: Sector G

- Industry: Sectors B,C,D,E

- Construction: Sector F

- Financial Service Activities: Sector K excluding 64.20, Activities of holding companies.

4Small and Medium Enterprises are defined as enterprises with less than 250 persons engaged. The persons engaged breakdown provided in the figures are;

Less than 10: Micro Enterprises

10 – 49: Small Enterprises

50 – 249: Medium Enterprises

250+: Large Enterprises.

5Enterprise Deaths: An enterprise death amounts to the dissolution of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Deaths do not include exits from the population due to mergers, takeovers, break-ups or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include exits from a sub-population resulting only from a change of activity.

An enterprise is included in the count of deaths only if it is not reactivated within two years.

The population of enterprise deaths in 2014 contains all enterprises that ceased at some point during the year 2014. The figures given in the release in relation to deaths are final figures for the period 2008 – 2013. The death figures for 2014 in this release are estimates of final deaths based on analysis of preliminary and final death figures from previous years. This will be revised to a final figure next year, when two years of death data is available. The death figures for 2014 in the Statbank tables are preliminary based on one year’s data, and are not adjusted as per the estimates given in this release.

6Enterprise Births: An enterprise birth amounts to the creation of a combination of production factors with the restriction that no other enterprises are involved in the event. Births do not include entries into the population due to mergers, break-ups, split-off or restructuring of a set of enterprises. It does not include entries into a sub-population resulting only from a change of activity.

A birth occurs when an enterprise starts from scratch and actually starts activity. An enterprise creation can be considered an enterprise birth if new production factors, in particular new jobs, are created. If a dormant unit is reactivated within two years, this event is not considered a birth.

The population of enterprise births in 2015 contains all enterprises that started at some stage during the year 2015.

7Population, births and survival data in this release relates to 2015, but the latest deaths data available is for 2014.

8Business Demography figures at an EU level are available at the following link. Latest data available is for 2014.

 http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/structural-business-statistics/entrepreneurship/business-demography

 

 

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