Back to Top

Central Statistics Office

Search currently unavailable

 Skip navigation

Extra information
For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Martina O'Callaghan (+353) 21 453 5491 Jim Dalton (+353) 21 453 5623
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2565-5728
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Labour Force Survey

Quarter 2 2018

IndicatorQuarter 2 2018Annual change
Employed2,255,000 +74,100
Unemployed144,300-16,200
In labour force2,399,300 +57,900
Not in labour force1,448,900 +4,900

Employment increases by 3.4% in year to Q2 2018

Figure 1 Numbers in employment (ILO) in the second quarters 2014 to 2018
go to full release

There was an annual increase in employment of 3.4% or 74,100 in the year to the second quarter of 2018, bringing total employment to 2,255,000. This compares with an annual increase of 2.9% or 62,400 in employment in the previous quarter and an increase of 2.5% or 54,200 in the year to Q2 2017.

Summary points for Q2 2018

  • The increase in total employment of 74,100 in the year to Q2 2018 was represented by an increase in full-time employment of 73,000 (+4.2%) and an increase in part-time employment of 1,100 (+0.2%). See table 1 and figure 1.
  • On a seasonally adjusted basis, employment increased by 17,300 (+0.8%) over the previous quarter. This follows on from a seasonally adjusted increase in employment of 17,900 (+0.8%) in Q1 2018, an increase of 25,400 (+1.2%) in Q4 2017, an increase of 14,100 (+0.6%) in Q3 2017 and an increase of 4,600 (+0.2%) in Q2 2017. See table 3.
  •  Unemployment decreased by 16,200 (-10.1%) in the year to Q2 2018 bringing the total number of persons unemployed to 144,300. This is the twenty fourth quarter in succession where unemployment has declined on an annual basis. See table 1.
  • The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 5.8% for Q2 2018 and the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed increased by 400 to 139,300. See table 3.
  • The long-term unemployment rate decreased from 3.2% to 2.0% over the year to Q2 2018. Long-term unemployment accounted for 33.9% of total unemployment in Q2 2018. See table 6.
  • The total number of persons in the labour force in the second quarter of 2018 was 2,399,300, representing an increase of 57,900 (+2.5%) over the year.  This compares with an annual labour force increase of 3,300 (+0.1%) in Q2 2017.  The number of persons not in the labour force in Q2 2018 was 1,448,900, an increase of 4,900 (+0.3%) over the year. See table 1.

Users should note that effective from Q3 2017, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) has replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). The results presented in this report incorporate adjustments to the historic QNHS data series to take account of revisions to population estimates arising from the 2016 Census of Population. In addition, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for headline indicators.

However, as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.

Further information is available in the background notes and information notes accompanying recent LFS releases on the change from the QNHS to the LFS, revisions to population estimates, enhancements to the survey methodology now used, headline indicators and other series which have been adjusted along with details of changes to the NUTS regional groupings which were introduced in Q1 2018.

Note: This release includes minor revisions to persons aged 75 and over for Q1 2018. These minor revisions are reflected in all tables which include persons aged 75 and over.

Employment

  • The annual increase of 74,100 (+3.4%) in employment was represented by an increase of 39,200 (+3.3%) in male employment and an increase of 34,900 (+3.5%) in female employment over the year. See tables 1, 7 and figure 1.
  • Employment increased in 10 of the 14 economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated). The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Construction (+13.9% or 17,800) and the Accommodation and food service activities (+10.8% or +17,300) sectors.  See table 2 and figure 2.
  • The overall employment rate among persons aged 15-64 was 68.5% in Q2 2018 compared to 67.4% in Q2 2017. See table
  • The number of employees in Q2 2018 was 1,913,100, up 71,200 (+3.9%) over the year. The number of self-employed persons increased by 4,300 (+1.3%) over the year to 330,200. See table 5.
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 2017Q2 2018
1110.9106.5
2278.9274.7
3128145.7
4300.5298.1
59397.4
6159.8177.1
7114.4115.3
8107.1110.7
9133.9141.2
1094.2103.7
1198.9105.6
12156.9166.6
13280.5286
14117116.6
KEY  
1- Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2- Industry
3- Construction
4- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
5- Transportation and storage
6- Accommodation and food storage activities
7- Information and communication
8- Financial, insurance and real estate activities
9- Professional, scientific and technical activities
10- Administrative and support service activities
11- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
12- Education
13- Human health and social work activities
14- Other NACE activities

 Public Sector Employment

  • Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector employment estimates over time. In particular, employment data coded to Sectors P (Education) and Q (Human health and social work activities) of the NACE Rev. 2 Industrial Classification which is presented in Tables 2 and 3 are not exclusively public sector employment.
  • Table A2 in the annex shows the most recently available estimates of public sector employment from the EHECS survey at the time of this release being finalised.

Unemployment

  • Male unemployment decreased by 14,400 (-15.2%) to 80,200 over the year to Q2 2018, while female unemployment decreased by 1,800 (-2.7%) to 64,100 over the same period. See tables 1 and 7.
  • The overall unadjusted unemployment rate decreased from 6.9% to 6.0% over the year to Q2 2018. See tables 1 and 8.
  • In the year to Q2 2018, the number of persons classified as long-term unemployed decreased by 24,700 (-33.6%), bringing total long-term unemployment to 48,900. Short-term unemployment increased by 10,800 (+13.7%) over the year to 89,900. See table 6 and figure 3.
Short-termLong-term
Q2 15 Male52.880.3
Q2 18 Male46.429.3
Q2 15 Female51.645.5
Q2 18 Female43.519.6
  • The unemployment rate for 15-24 year olds (youth unemployment rate) decreased from 16.1% to 15.4% over the year to Q2 2018. See table 8.
  • A series of Monthly Unemployment statistics was first issued by the CSO in 2015. The most recent publication was issued in July 2018 for reference month July 2018. The Monthly Unemployment release contains a series of monthly unemployment rates and volumes. These series are based primarily on the LFS and are compiled in accordance with agreed international practice. Data for more recent periods for which no LFS benchmark is available is adjusted for trends in the Live Register. These statistics are the definitive measure of Monthly Unemployment and replaced the SUR (which has been discontinued).
  • The previously published seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment figures are now revised with the availability of new LFS benchmark unemployment estimates for Q2 2018. The seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment rate for June 2018 is now revised from 5.1% to 5.9%, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed is revised from 120,700 to 139,900.
  • The provisional estimate for July 2018 has also been revised with the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for July 2018 revised from 5.1% to 5.9%, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed is revised from 120,500 to 140,800. The full series of revised monthly unemployment rates and volumes are included in Tables A3, A4 and A5.

Labour force

  • As with employment, the number of persons in the labour force is also influenced by changes in the size of the working age population (demographic effect).  Up to the start of 2008 this demographic effect had been adding at least 30,000 to the labour force on an annual basis, primarily driven by net inward migration.  This demographic effect peaked at over 90,500 in the second quarter of 2007. See tables 1 and 7.
  • With the decline in inward migration the positive demographic effect started to fall in the second half of 2007 and continued to decline throughout 2008 and 2009 before becoming negative in Q3 2009. The negative demographic effect continued for each quarter until Q1 2014. The demographic effect has been positive since Q2 2014 and in Q2 2018 a positive demographic effect contributed an increase of 27,200 to the overall change in the labour force.
  • In addition to the demographic effect, the change in the size of the labour force is influenced by changes in participation. While the overall participation rate increased over the year by 0.5 percentage points to 62.3% in Q2 2018, the net result of changes in individual age groups for the same period was a positive participation effect of 30,700. See tables 1 and 8.
  • Of those persons not in the labour force, the number classified as being in the potential additional labour force was 131,900 in the second quarter of 2018.

International Comparisons

  • The employment rate in Ireland increased by 1 percentage point to 67.9% over the year to Q1 2018. The employment rate in the EU-28 in Q1 2018 was 67.8%. See table 11.
  • The unadjusted unemployment rate among the EU-28 countries in the first quarter of 2018 was 7.4%, while the comparable rate in Ireland was 5.7%.  The highest unemployment rates among the EU-28 countries in Q1 2018 were recorded in Greece and Spain (21.2% and 16.8% respectively), while the lowest rates of 2.4% and 3.6% were recorded in the Czech Republic and Germany respectively. See table 11.
  • The latest figures available at the time of finalising this release indicate that the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for the EU-28 for June 2018 was 6.9% compared to the revised seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment rate of 5.9% for Ireland for the same period.
Table 1 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and ILO Economic Status
'000
ILO Economic StatusQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
In labour force 1,271.61,256.61,270.91,289.81,289.51,280.51,295.7
In employment 1,148.41,165.31,176.31,198.21,206.11,206.81,215.5
full-time 985.51,019.81,036.51,066.41,067.01,068.01,070.9
part-time 162.9145.5139.8131.8139.1138.8144.6
of which:part-time, not underemployed108.8101.999.183.692.792.889.3
  part-time, underemployed54.143.640.748.246.446.055.3
Unemployed 123.291.294.691.683.473.880.2
seeking full-time work/future job-starter112.283.184.378.169.862.168.8
seeking part-time work 6.6[4.9]7.78.19.47.38.0
seeking work as self-employed[4.4][3.2]*****
Not in labour force 560.8595.7586.5574.7586.0596.9594.2
Potential additional labour force 20.816.718.650.452.455.461.8
Others 540.0579.0568.0524.3533.5541.5532.4
Total males aged 15 or over 1,832.41,852.31,857.51,864.51,875.51,877.41,889.9
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)9.77.37.57.16.55.86.2
Participation rate % 69.467.868.469.268.868.268.6
 
Females
In labour force 1,066.61,065.21,070.51,080.31,085.31,073.11,103.6
In employment 978.3993.01,004.51,008.31,024.71,013.91,039.5
full-time 652.2674.3689.2702.3703.6698.3727.8
part-time 326.0318.7315.3306.0321.1315.6311.7
of which:part-time, not underemployed258.2266.2261.1238.4252.1247.9238.3
  part-time, underemployed67.852.454.267.669.067.773.4
Unemployed 88.372.265.972.060.659.264.1
seeking full-time work/future job-starter63.250.947.651.340.238.644.4
seeking part-time work 23.819.918.219.319.019.117.7
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 835.2858.5857.5854.0857.4873.4854.8
Potential additional labour force 17.013.714.265.458.863.870.2
Others 818.2844.8843.4788.7798.6809.6784.6
Total females aged 15 or over 1,901.71,923.71,928.01,934.31,942.71,946.51,958.4
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)8.36.86.26.75.65.55.8
Participation rate % 56.155.455.555.855.955.156.4
 
All persons
In labour force 2,338.22,321.82,341.42,370.02,374.82,353.72,399.3
In employment 2,126.72,158.42,180.92,206.52,230.82,220.72,255.0
full-time 1,637.71,694.11,725.81,768.71,770.61,766.31,798.7
part-time 488.9464.2455.1437.8460.2454.4456.3
of which:part-time, not underemployed367.0368.1360.3322.0344.8340.7327.6
  part-time, underemployed121.996.194.9115.8115.4113.7128.7
Unemployed 211.5163.4160.5163.5144.0132.9144.3
seeking full-time work/future job-starter175.4134.0132.0129.5110.0100.7113.2
seeking part-time work 30.424.825.927.328.426.425.6
seeking work as self-employed5.7[4.6]*[6.7][5.6][5.8][5.5]
Not in labour force 1,396.01,454.21,444.01,428.71,443.41,470.31,448.9
Potential additional labour force 37.830.432.7115.8111.3119.2131.9
Others 1,358.21,423.71,411.31,312.91,332.11,351.01,317.0
Total persons aged 15 or over 3,734.13,775.93,785.53,798.83,818.23,823.93,848.3
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)9.17.16.96.96.15.76.0
Participation rate % 62.661.561.962.462.261.662.3
 
Employment rate % (Persons aged 15-64)
Male  71.672.372.673.773.573.673.8
Female  61.261.662.362.463.262.363.4
Total persons  66.366.967.468.068.367.968.5
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 2 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)Q2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing100.791.994.995.097.195.691.3
B-FTotal Industry303.8321.2318.5330.6326.2332.9330.2
B-EIndustry191.1203.4196.9209.3200.0203.7192.8
FConstruction112.7117.8121.6121.3126.3129.1137.4
G-UTotal Services740.1748.2758.4768.5778.3773.8789.3
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles148.7147.2148.0151.3152.0149.6155.2
HTransportation and storage 77.474.576.376.577.976.179.9
IAccommodation and food service activities74.776.174.878.376.680.881.4
JInformation and communication68.578.679.780.677.779.377.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities54.453.554.855.055.855.958.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities74.374.676.076.776.275.478.7
NAdministrative and support service activities52.653.354.754.857.957.558.4
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security49.947.549.548.850.050.251.9
PEducation36.040.139.441.344.641.843.1
QHuman health and social work activities53.755.358.756.858.555.657.5
R-UOther NACE activities 49.947.446.648.651.051.647.3
Not stated*[4.0][4.6]*[4.5]**
Total males1,148.41,165.31,176.31,198.21,206.11,206.81,215.5
 
Females
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing14.715.716.016.214.717.715.2
B-FTotal Industry88.885.788.487.289.883.990.2
B-EIndustry82.178.782.180.082.775.781.9
FConstruction6.77.16.47.27.18.28.4
G-UTotal Services871.4887.8897.8901.1916.3910.4929.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles145.3150.8152.5153.1156.1145.4142.9
HTransportation and storage 15.617.116.717.417.218.817.6
IAccommodation and food service activities80.585.185.186.592.188.895.7
JInformation and communication36.935.834.736.438.336.537.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities54.453.052.353.550.449.652.6
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities54.655.557.956.259.058.962.5
NAdministrative and support service activities36.437.439.638.036.842.345.2
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security47.546.249.346.951.753.353.7
PEducation113.7117.7117.4119.5123.1125.2123.5
QHuman health and social work activities217.2221.0221.8224.5222.5221.7228.5
R-UOther NACE activities 69.568.270.569.269.169.969.3
Not stated*[3.8]*****
Total females978.3993.01,004.51,008.31,024.71,013.91,039.5
 
All persons
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing115.4107.7110.9111.2111.7113.3106.5
B-FTotal Industry392.6406.9406.9417.9416.1416.7420.4
B-EIndustry273.3282.1278.9289.3282.7279.4274.7
FConstruction119.4124.9128.0128.5133.4137.3145.7
G-UTotal Services1,611.61,636.01,656.21,669.61,694.61,684.11,718.3
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles294.0298.0300.5304.3308.1295.0298.1
HTransportation and storage 93.091.793.093.895.194.997.4
IAccommodation and food service activities155.2161.2159.8164.8168.7169.6177.1
JInformation and communication105.4114.4114.4117.0116.1115.8115.3
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities108.7106.5107.1108.5106.2105.5110.7
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities128.9130.1133.9132.9135.2134.2141.2
NAdministrative and support service activities89.190.794.292.894.799.9103.7
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security97.493.798.995.7101.7103.5105.6
PEducation149.7157.8156.9160.8167.6167.0166.6
QHuman health and social work activities270.9276.4280.5281.3281.0277.3286.0
R-UOther NACE activities 119.5115.5117.0117.7120.1121.4116.6
Not stated7.17.86.9[7.8]8.4[6.5]9.8
Total persons2,126.72,158.42,180.92,206.52,230.82,220.72,255.0
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 3 Seasonally adjusted series of persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex, ILO Economic Status and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
ILO Economic Status/NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
In labour force1,268.81,267.31,271.31,278.31,289.81,293.21,294.5
In employment1,150.21,174.51,178.81,188.71,203.91,215.61,218.6
 of which:Full-time 990.51,027.91,043.01,056.01,063.41,074.91,078.9
  Part-time 161.2147.2138.1130.2141.2140.3142.7
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing99.393.693.793.997.797.390.2
B-EIndustry194.5201.8200.9205.6201.3201.6197.2
FConstruction111.9118.6120.6120.8127.1130.1136.0
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles149.5149.0148.7150.0150.6151.8155.8
HTransportation and storage 76.574.875.377.277.876.578.9
IAccommodation and food service activities75.776.175.876.777.380.782.5
JInformation and communication68.878.380.380.277.878.878.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities53.754.154.054.956.156.557.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities75.277.676.774.774.878.279.3
NAdministrative and support service activities52.454.354.454.757.458.458.3
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security49.747.749.348.750.250.451.5
PEducation36.940.040.441.643.441.744.1
QHuman health and social work activities53.956.658.855.858.157.057.6
R-UOther NACE activities 50.647.547.448.150.451.848.3
Unemployed119.794.491.688.486.077.277.4
Not in labour force562.0584.7587.0587.3584.0586.2594.0
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)9.57.57.27.06.76.06.0
Participation rate %69.368.468.468.568.868.868.6
 
Females
In labour force1,060.41,078.31,064.31,073.31,084.91,086.71,097.4
In employment977.11,002.21,002.11,007.81,018.21,023.81,036.2
 of which:Full-time 651.2681.6687.7698.3701.4706.7725.5
  Part-time 327.4320.8316.9304.6319.1317.5313.4
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing14.415.815.715.515.617.715.0
B-EIndustry81.580.381.280.381.677.480.9
FConstruction6.77.16.37.27.38.18.3
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles146.8153.0154.2152.4152.9147.4144.5
HTransportation and storage 16.017.117.317.316.718.718.2
IAccommodation and food service activities80.587.385.083.992.791.195.3
JInformation and communication36.836.434.836.737.437.137.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities54.453.452.352.650.950.052.7
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities54.957.358.155.158.061.062.5
NAdministrative and support service activities36.637.639.436.838.142.544.9
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security46.746.648.547.052.053.752.8
PEducation112.8115.3116.9124.0121.6122.8123.0
QHuman health and social work activities217.3222.9221.8224.2221.1223.5228.3
R-UOther NACE activities 68.768.069.668.970.469.768.3
Unemployed85.875.263.667.264.561.862.0
Not in labour force841.2846.8863.1861.4856.7861.4860.0
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)8.17.06.06.36.05.75.6
Participation rate %55.756.055.255.555.955.856.0
 
All persons
In labour force2,327.92,342.72,338.82,350.52,375.82,381.22,390.5
In employment2,127.42,177.32,181.82,196.02,221.32,239.32,256.5
 of which:Full-time 1,643.61,712.01,732.11,750.11,764.51,785.11,805.3
  Part-time 489.3468.9455.5433.4460.1458.8456.8
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing113.7109.3109.2109.8113.2114.8105.0
B-EIndustry276.5283.1282.4284.5283.1280.3278.3
FConstruction118.7125.6127.0127.9134.4138.1144.4
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles295.9301.9302.6303.1303.0299.4300.1
HTransportation and storage 92.592.092.594.494.695.397.0
IAccommodation and food service activities155.3164.0160.1162.3168.2172.3177.5
JInformation and communication106.0114.5115.3116.8115.3115.8116.4
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities108.3107.4106.3107.5107.0106.5109.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities130.0134.6135.3130.0132.7139.5141.2
NAdministrative and support service activities88.491.493.392.295.9100.2102.5
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security95.793.898.395.4102.5104.6103.8
PEducation149.6155.7157.1165.6164.8164.9166.9
QHuman health and social work activities271.6280.0279.8279.9279.4280.0286.1
R-UOther NACE activities 119.2115.9116.9117.0120.5121.9116.5
Unemployed205.4169.5155.2155.6150.4138.9139.3
Not in labour force1,402.21,433.41,449.01,448.11,440.71,449.31,452.8
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)8.87.36.76.66.45.95.8
Participation rate %62.462.161.761.962.262.162.2
See Background Notes for further detail. The not stated group presented in Table 2 has not been separately seasonally adjusted.
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate and coherence with monthly unemployment estimates.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 4 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and occupation (SOC2010)
'000
Broad occupational groupQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
1.Managers, directors and senior officials122.4124.4125.0125.3122.9124.1125.0
2.Professionals180.3188.6192.1193.9194.6196.0198.5
3.Associate professional and technical149.8153.2154.8161.1156.1156.1159.6
4.Administrative and secretarial42.650.951.246.950.142.451.1
5.Skilled trades271.0274.3267.8284.0290.1286.6278.9
6.Caring, leisure and other services29.528.332.536.642.537.735.7
7.Sales and customer service61.560.560.763.064.269.769.1
8.Process, plant and machine operatives138.8137.3143.0142.0142.5146.4148.2
9.Elementary146.3142.7143.5138.7135.1139.2139.9
Other/Not stated6.25.05.8[6.7]8.08.59.4
Total males1,148.41,165.31,176.31,198.21,206.11,206.81,215.5
 
Females
1.Managers, directors and senior officials64.766.666.670.069.365.069.0
2.Professionals240.5240.9242.8244.8251.0246.9259.1
3.Associate professional and technical111.0112.8120.2110.5105.7100.8107.8
4.Administrative and secretarial161.0156.5159.4165.1165.5174.2172.0
5.Skilled trades29.832.734.230.428.230.629.8
6.Caring, leisure and other services137.1145.5144.0141.0147.8152.8148.6
7.Sales and customer service108.8111.1112.4112.4117.2112.3112.5
8.Process, plant and machine operatives23.623.922.822.825.022.926.1
9.Elementary96.797.899.1107.4108.3103.8107.1
 Other/Not stated5.05.33.0*[6.7][4.8][7.5]
Total females978.3993.01,004.51,008.31,024.71,013.91,039.5
 
All persons
1.Managers, directors and senior officials187.1191.0191.5195.2192.2189.1194.0
2.Professionals420.9429.5434.9438.7445.6442.9457.6
3.Associate professional and technical260.8266.0275.1271.7261.8256.8267.4
4.Administrative and secretarial203.7207.4210.6212.0215.6216.5223.1
5.Skilled trades300.8307.0302.0314.4318.4317.2308.7
6.Caring, leisure and other services166.6173.8176.5177.6190.3190.5184.4
7.Sales and customer service170.3171.6173.1175.4181.4182.0181.5
8.Process, plant and machine operatives162.4161.2165.8164.9167.5169.3174.3
9.Elementary243.0240.5242.6246.1243.4243.1247.0
 Other/Not stated11.110.38.910.514.713.316.9
Total persons2,126.72,158.42,180.92,206.52,230.82,220.72,255.0
Note: From Q1 2011 occupational estimates are now captured and coded on the basis of the newer UK SOC2010 classification.
The CSO has re-coded previous quarters to 2007 inclusive on the basis of the text string captured under the old UK SOC90 classification. As with the introduction of any new classification comparability of estimates over time can be impacted - users should bear this in mind when comparing results from quarters prior to Q1 2011 to those from Q1 2011 onwards.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 5 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and employment status
'000
Employment statusQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
 Self employed (with paid employees)74.272.475.677.880.577.877.5
 Self employed (with no paid employees)182.5172.3177.6173.3177.7185.0172.7
 Total self employed256.7244.8253.2251.1258.2262.8250.3
 Employee881.5913.7915.3940.6939.1936.6959.3
 Assisting relative10.16.97.96.48.87.45.9
 Total males1,148.41,165.31,176.31,198.21,206.11,206.81,215.5
 
Females
 Self employed (with paid employees)22.523.922.323.522.922.725.7
 Self employed (with no paid employees)51.149.150.350.550.752.954.2
 Total self employed73.672.972.773.973.575.679.9
 Employee895.4913.9926.7927.6944.0931.0953.8
 Assisting relative9.36.2[5.2]6.77.27.4[5.8]
 Total females978.3993.01,004.51,008.31,024.71,013.91,039.5
 
All persons
 Self employed (with paid employees)96.796.397.9101.3103.4100.5103.2
 Self employed (with no paid employees)233.6221.4228.0223.8228.4237.9227.0
 Total self employed330.3317.7325.9325.1331.7338.4330.2
 Employee1,776.91,827.61,841.91,868.31,883.11,867.51,913.1
 Assisting relative19.413.113.113.216.014.811.7
 Total persons2,126.72,158.42,180.92,206.52,230.82,220.72,255.0
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and duration of unemployment (ILO)
'000
Duration of unemployment (ILO)Q2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
 Less than 1 year50.237.541.548.342.340.646.4
 1 year and over68.250.147.839.838.031.129.3
 Not stated[4.7][3.7][5.3]***[4.5]
 Total males123.291.294.691.683.473.880.2
 
Females
 Less than 1 year51.236.337.545.337.839.343.5
 1 year and over34.034.925.924.922.019.019.6
 Not stated*******
 Total females88.372.265.972.060.659.264.1
 
All persons
 Less than 1 year101.473.779.093.680.179.989.8
 1 year and over102.284.973.664.860.050.148.9
 Not stated7.9[4.7]7.9[5.1]**[5.6]
 Total persons211.5163.4160.5163.5144.0132.9144.3
 
Long-term unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)4.43.73.22.72.52.12.0
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by ILO economic status, sex, age group and quarter
'000
 Employed Unemployed In labour force
   Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18 Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18 Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18
Males
 15-1934.631.433.8 11.78.89.5 46.340.243.3
 20-2491.589.292.2 21.218.514.9 112.6107.7107.1
 Total 15-24 (Youths)126.1120.6126.0 32.927.324.4 158.9147.9150.4
 25-34248.9253.6253.9 29.322.419.6 278.2276.0273.5
 35-44311.4319.4329.2 25.919.514.7 337.3338.9343.9
 45-54251.5264.7272.0 21.015.211.2 272.5279.9283.2
 55-5998.1100.4106.3 8.86.1[5.3] 106.8106.5111.6
 60-6465.570.374.0 4.7[3.9][4.2] 70.374.378.2
 65+46.947.454.2 *** 47.547.655.1
 Total males1,148.41,176.31,215.5 123.294.680.2 1,271.61,270.91,295.7
 
Females
 15-1931.226.926.8 9.39.58.7 40.536.435.5
 20-2489.292.489.7 13.69.310.9 102.8101.7100.6
 Total 15-24 (Youths)120.4119.3116.5 22.818.819.6 143.2138.1136.1
 25-34248.9244.4244.7 22.115.113.8 271.0259.5258.5
 35-44262.9280.6291.8 22.112.414.5 285.0293.0306.4
 45-54202.9210.7223.9 13.811.310.2 216.7222.0234.1
 55-5978.779.584.3 [3.8][5.3]* 82.584.888.1
 60-6444.051.453.7 *** 47.253.955.7
 65+20.418.624.5 *** 20.819.124.8
 Total females978.31,004.51,039.5 88.365.964.1 1,066.61,070.51,103.6
 
All persons
 15-1965.858.360.6 21.018.318.2 86.876.678.8
 20-24180.6181.6181.9 34.727.825.9 215.4209.4207.7
 Total 15-24 (Youths)246.5239.9242.5 55.746.144.0 302.2286.0286.5
 25-34497.9498.0498.5 51.437.533.4 549.2535.5532.0
 35-44574.4599.9621.0 48.031.929.2 622.3631.8650.2
 45-54454.4475.4495.9 34.826.521.3 489.2501.9517.3
 55-59176.7179.8190.6 12.611.49.0 189.4191.2199.6
 60-64109.5121.8127.7 8.06.4[6.2] 117.5128.2133.9
 65+67.266.078.8 *** 68.366.779.9
 Total persons2,126.72,180.92,255.0 211.5160.5144.3 2,338.22,341.42,399.3
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by key economic rates, sex, age group and quarter
%
 Employment rate (15-64) Unemployment rate (15-74) Participation rate
   Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18 Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18 Q2 16Q2 17Q2 18
Males
 15-1922.419.921.0 25.321.921.9 30.025.526.8
 20-2466.163.562.6 18.817.213.9 81.476.772.7
 Total 15-24 (Youths)43.140.540.8 20.718.516.2 54.349.648.8
 25-3478.481.682.9 10.58.17.2 87.688.989.3
 35-4484.785.787.5 7.75.74.3 91.790.991.4
 45-5481.183.784.4 7.75.43.9 87.988.587.9
 55-5973.773.976.7 8.25.74.7 80.378.480.5
 60-6455.658.460.4 6.75.35.4 59.761.663.9
 65+::: 1.50.51.9 16.215.717.5
 Total males71.672.673.8 9.77.56.2 69.468.468.6
 
Females
 15-1921.217.817.3 22.926.024.4 27.624.122.9
 20-2466.068.063.2 13.29.110.9 76.174.870.9
 Total 15-24 (Youths)42.741.639.2 16.013.614.4 50.848.145.8
 25-3473.474.176.3 8.15.85.3 79.978.780.6
 35-4469.872.974.5 7.74.24.7 75.676.178.2
 45-5464.865.868.8 6.45.14.3 69.269.471.9
 55-5958.257.559.7 4.66.34.3 61.161.462.3
 60-6437.142.243.3 6.84.63.6 39.844.344.9
 65+::: 2.63.01.0 6.25.56.9
 Total females61.262.363.4 8.36.25.8 56.155.556.4
 
All persons
 15-1921.918.919.2 24.223.923.1 28.824.824.9
 20-2466.165.762.9 16.113.312.4 78.875.871.8
 Total 15-24 (Youths)42.941.040.1 18.416.115.4 52.648.947.3
 25-3475.877.879.5 9.47.06.3 83.683.684.8
 35-4477.179.280.8 7.75.04.5 83.683.484.6
 45-5472.974.776.5 7.15.34.1 78.578.979.8
 55-5965.965.668.1 6.76.04.5 70.669.871.3
 60-6446.350.351.8 6.85.04.6 49.752.954.3
 65+::: 1.91.21.6 10.810.311.9
 Total persons66.367.468.5 9.16.96.0 62.661.962.3
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and ILO Economic Status
RegionQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Northern and Western
 In employment ('000)368.4376.0371.3384.0384.8385.7376.9
 Unemployed ('000)36.125.325.128.021.720.326.3
 In labour force ('000)404.5401.3396.5412.0406.6406.0403.2
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.06.46.46.85.45.06.6
 Participation rate (%)61.360.159.261.460.360.159.3
Border
 In employment ('000)177.2176.8176.9180.4180.1177.1173.9
 Unemployed ('000)14.99.79.812.49.0[8.0]11.9
 In labour force ('000)192.2186.6186.6192.9189.1185.2185.8
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)7.85.35.36.54.84.46.5
 Participation rate (%)62.760.160.061.860.358.958.8
West
 In employment ('000)191.2199.2194.5203.6204.8208.6203.0
 Unemployed ('000)21.115.615.415.612.712.214.4
 In labour force ('000)212.3214.7209.9219.1217.5220.8217.4
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)10.07.37.47.25.95.66.7
 Participation rate (%)60.060.158.661.060.361.159.8
 
Southern
 In employment ('000)695.9704.5723.5720.0719.5709.5731.9
 Unemployed ('000)70.457.250.557.251.146.146.1
 In labour force ('000)766.3761.8774.1777.2770.6755.6778.0
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.27.56.67.46.76.16.0
 Participation rate (%)61.560.561.361.460.659.360.8
Mid-West
 In employment ('000)206.7208.7214.1215.3221.4212.0214.2
 Unemployed ('000)25.019.920.219.114.211.413.2
 In labour force ('000)231.7228.6234.3234.4235.6223.5227.4
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)10.88.88.78.26.15.25.8
 Participation rate (%)62.160.561.961.761.758.559.2
South-East
 In employment ('000)183.1184.0184.4185.9183.4181.6190.5
 Unemployed ('000)18.915.612.516.516.014.014.8
 In labour force ('000)202.0199.6196.9202.4199.4195.6205.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.47.96.48.28.17.27.2
 Participation rate (%)61.359.959.060.459.258.060.5
South-West
 In employment ('000)306.1311.9325.0318.8314.7315.9327.1
 Unemployed ('000)26.521.717.821.720.920.718.2
 In labour force ('000)332.6333.5342.8340.5335.6336.5345.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)8.06.55.26.46.36.25.3
 Participation rate (%)61.360.962.461.860.660.762.0
 
Eastern and Midland
 In employment ('000)1,062.31,077.81,086.01,102.51,126.41,125.51,146.3
 Unemployed ('000)105.080.984.978.371.266.671.9
 In labour force ('000)1,167.31,158.71,170.91,180.81,197.71,192.11,218.2
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.07.07.36.76.05.65.9
 Participation rate (%)63.962.663.163.464.063.664.5
Dublin
 In employment ('000)641.3648.8649.6663.3675.5683.9695.1
 Unemployed ('000)58.144.746.144.843.437.838.5
 In labour force ('000)699.3693.6695.7708.2718.9721.7733.6
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)8.36.56.66.36.15.35.3
 Participation rate (%)65.063.863.964.865.465.666.2
Mid-East
 In employment ('000)309.4312.3319.2319.8326.9317.8327.8
 Unemployed ('000)30.324.025.721.317.518.120.2
 In labour force ('000)339.7336.2344.9341.1344.4335.9348.0
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.07.27.56.35.15.45.8
 Participation rate (%)64.562.964.263.263.561.763.5
Midland
 In employment ('000)111.7116.7117.2119.3124.0123.8123.4
 Unemployed ('000)16.712.213.112.210.310.613.2
 In labour force ('000)128.3128.9130.3131.5134.3134.4136.6
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)13.09.510.19.37.78.09.7
 Participation rate (%)56.956.557.157.458.458.358.8
 
State
 In employment ('000)2,126.72,158.42,180.92,206.52,230.82,220.72,255.0
 Unemployed ('000)211.5163.4160.5163.5144.0132.9144.3
 In labour force ('000)2,338.22,321.82,341.42,370.02,374.82,353.72,399.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.17.16.96.96.15.76.0
 Participation rate (%)62.661.561.962.462.261.662.3
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Note: The composition of the NUTS regions changed in 2016 and took effect for the LFS survey from Q1 2018. Data from Q1 2012 to Q4 2017 has also been revised to reflect these changes. Please see background notes of the Q1 2018 LFS release for additional information.
Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by Principal Economic Status (PES)
'000
Principal Economic StatusQ2 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17Q1 18Q2 18
Males
 At work1,103.21,132.51,140.01,149.11,146.31,152.51,161.3
 Unemployed151.2124.6122.7122.8114.8106.8106.3
 Student204.0208.6206.8197.6211.3213.9208.4
 Home duties8.910.410.519.418.921.620.7
 Retired273.4280.7280.1280.9280.0279.1283.8
 Others91.895.497.394.8104.1103.5109.4
 Total males1,832.41,852.31,857.51,864.51,875.51,877.41,889.9
 
Females
 At work923.0951.7965.5958.6960.1952.2975.6
 Unemployed80.973.467.987.172.974.273.5
 Student204.8211.9203.7194.5218.9218.4210.9
 Home duties438.0412.3405.2318.0328.1324.4316.0
 Retired182.1202.7212.0278.2274.0273.2279.2
 Others72.971.673.798.088.6104.1103.1
 Total females1,901.71,923.71,928.01,934.31,942.71,946.51,958.4
 
All persons
 At work2,026.22,084.32,105.52,107.62,106.52,104.72,136.9
 Unemployed232.1198.1190.7209.9187.7181.0179.8
 Student408.8420.5410.4392.1430.2432.3419.3
 Home duties446.9422.7415.7337.3347.1345.9336.7
 Retired455.5483.4492.1559.0554.0552.4563.1
 Others164.6167.0171.0192.8192.8207.6212.5
 Total persons3,734.13,775.93,785.53,798.83,818.23,823.93,848.3
Note: The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a respondent's own subjective assessment - see Background Notes.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table 11 Labour Force Survey results classified by ILO Economic Status for persons in EU member states1
%
  Employment rate % (15-64 years) Unemployment rate % (15-74 years) Participation rate % (15 years and over)
  Q1 16Q1 17Q1 18Annual change Q1 16Q1 17Q1 18Annual change Q1 16Q1 17Q1 18Annual change
     Q1 18pp2    Q1 18pp2    Q1 18pp2
EU2865.766.767.81.1 9.28.37.4-0.9 57.557.657.70.1
EU1566.367.068.01.0 9.68.98.1-0.8 58.058.058.10.1
Eurozone364.665.466.51.1 10.79.98.9-1.0 56.956.957.00.1
 
Belgium61.662.263.91.7 8.37.76.2-1.5 52.853.553.90.4
Bulgaria62.364.366.52.2 8.66.95.7-1.2 53.153.754.60.9
Czech Republic71.072.874.21.4 4.43.52.4-1.1 59.659.960.30.4
Denmark74.473.274.41.2 6.36.55.2-1.3 63.362.162.0-0.1
Germany74.074.675.40.8 4.54.13.6-0.5 60.860.861.00.2
Estonia70.373.173.60.5 6.55.66.81.2 61.262.563.51.0
Ireland465.166.967.91.0 8.87.15.7-1.4 61.361.561.60.1
Greece50.952.053.31.3 24.923.421.2-2.2 52.051.951.6-0.3
Spain58.559.961.11.2 21.018.816.8-2.0 58.658.157.7-0.4
France63.763.864.81.0 10.710.09.6-0.4 56.055.455.80.4
Croatia55.055.959.03.1 15.414.110.4-3.7 51.150.651.00.4
Italy56.357.257.60.4 12.112.211.6-0.6 49.049.749.70.0
Cyprus61.663.466.22.8 14.113.610.8-2.8 60.061.562.00.5
Latvia68.268.770.92.2 10.39.48.2-1.2 60.460.161.11.0
Lithuania68.369.070.61.6 8.48.17.2-0.9 59.860.360.80.5
Luxembourg65.465.967.21.3 5.96.15.5-0.6 58.559.459.90.5
Hungary65.167.168.71.6 6.04.53.9-0.6 55.155.756.40.7
Malta64.365.768.12.4 4.94.64.4-0.2 54.355.256.91.7
Netherlands74.075.176.21.1 6.85.64.4-1.2 64.063.963.90.0
Austria70.471.072.01.0 6.36.05.3-0.7 60.560.560.80.3
Poland63.765.466.61.2 7.05.44.2-1.2 56.156.256.0-0.2
Portugal64.066.368.92.6 12.610.28.0-2.2 58.158.558.90.4
Romania59.861.263.11.9 6.65.54.7-0.8 52.752.953.80.9
Slovenia64.267.369.72.4 8.97.86.0-1.8 55.857.758.30.6
Slovakia64.165.867.11.3 10.48.77.1-1.6 59.859.959.6-0.3
Finland67.568.070.12.1 9.69.38.8-0.5 58.057.858.70.9
Sweden74.975.776.20.5 7.77.26.7-0.5 64.364.865.20.4
United Kingdom73.173.774.60.9 5.04.54.2-0.3 62.762.863.00.2
Source: Eurostat
1 Trends in some member states may be affected by changes in methodology
2 pp refers to percentage point change
3 Eurozone consists of EU15 states (with the exceptions of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom), Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia
4 Revised Labour Force Survey (LFS) data is not yet available on the Eurostat website. As a result the figures shown above for Ireland are sourced directly from the LFS. EU totals have not been adjusted to reflect these data.
Table A1 Estimated number of persons aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and ILO Economic Status
'000
Nationality   ILO Economic Status Total
   In employmentUnemployedIn labour forceNot in labour force 
Q2 18
Irish nationals 1,889.2118.42,007.51,313.9 3,321.5
Non-Irish nationals365.826.0391.8135.0 526.8
of which:      
 United Kingdom59.7*63.341.7 105.0
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK56.8*59.09.7 68.6
 EU15 to EU28160.413.5173.941.3 215.2
 Other89.0*95.642.3 137.9
Total persons2,255.0144.32,399.31,448.9 3,848.3
 
Q2 17
Irish nationals 1,847.5135.61,983.11,301.2 3,284.3
Non-Irish nationals333.424.9358.3142.8 501.1
of which:      
 United Kingdom55.0*58.943.0 101.9
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK50.6*52.411.8 64.2
 EU15 to EU28155.312.2167.543.3 210.8
 Other72.5[7.0]79.544.7 124.2
Total persons2,180.9160.52,341.41,444.0 3,785.5
 
Year on year changes
Irish nationals 41.7-17.224.412.7 37.1
Non-Irish nationals32.41.133.5-7.8 25.7
of which:      
 United Kingdom4.7*4.4-1.3 3.1
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK6.1*6.5-2.1 4.4
 EU15 to EU285.11.36.5-2.1 4.4
 Other16.5*16.1-2.4 13.7
Total persons74.1-16.257.94.9 62.8
Note: Persons whose nationality is not stated are included with Irish nationals.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information.
Table A2 Number of employees in the Public Sector by sub-sector and in the Private Sector
           '000
      Q2 15Q2 16Q2 17Q1 18¹Q2 18
Civil Service38.344.2 240.341.0:
Defence9.69.59.49.4:
Garda Siochána12.712.813.513.8:
Education111.5113.1114.6114.4:
Regional bodies33.033.133.433.6:
Health129.7124.0128.5131.0:
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies325.8336.9339.7343.2:
 
Semi-State bodies 50.452.954.053.9:
 
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies376.2389.9393.7397.1:
 
Total Private Sector1,244.61,302.11,362.3::
¹Preliminary data
2 Includes temporary Census of Population field staff.
: Employment data from the Earnings, Hours Worked and Employment Cost Survey (EHECS) data not available at time of release. Updated series will be issued with the next Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.
Table A3 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - All persons aged 15-74 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016July116,80081,500198,300 9.27.78.5
 August114,00079,700193,700 9.07.58.3
 September107,60075,900183,500 8.57.27.9
 October102,40076,100178,500 8.17.27.7
 November97,80076,700174,500 7.87.27.5
 December95,90077,300173,200 7.67.27.4
 
2017January95,00078,000173,100 7.57.37.4
 February94,40076,300170,600 7.57.17.3
 March93,80071,100164,900 7.46.67.1
 April92,70065,400158,000 7.36.16.8
 May91,50062,500154,100 7.25.96.6
 June90,50063,000153,500 7.15.96.6
 July89,50067,500157,000 7.16.36.7
 August88,10067,100155,200 6.96.36.6
 September87,70067,000154,700 6.96.26.6
 October88,60065,600154,200 6.96.16.5
 November86,10064,400150,400 6.75.96.4
 December83,30063,300146,600 6.55.86.2
 
2018January78,90062,300141,100 6.25.86.0
 February76,40061,400137,800 6.05.75.8
 March76,30061,500137,900 5.95.75.8
 April77,10061,400138,500 6.05.65.8
 May77,60062,000139,600 6.05.65.9
 June77,40062,500139,900 6.05.75.9
 July77,20063,600140,800 6.05.75.9
Table A4 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - persons aged 15-24 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016July31,30018,70050,000 19.513.316.7
 August31,30018,20049,500 19.613.016.5
 September29,90017,90047,800 18.912.816.0
 October29,00019,00048,000 18.613.516.2
 November27,60019,40047,000 18.113.816.0
 December25,70019,20044,800 17.113.615.4
 
2017January23,50018,20041,700 15.912.914.4
 February22,40017,20039,600 15.312.313.8
 March23,60016,60040,200 16.112.014.1
 April25,10016,30041,400 17.212.014.7
 May25,60016,20041,800 17.712.215.1
 June24,70016,70041,400 17.512.915.3
 July22,90017,70040,600 16.814.015.5
 August21,90017,50039,400 16.314.115.3
 September21,40016,80038,200 15.513.514.6
 October21,60015,30036,900 14.912.013.6
 November21,40014,50035,900 14.411.212.9
 December21,30014,90036,300 14.311.513.0
 
2018January21,40015,90037,300 14.412.313.4
 February21,30016,40037,700 14.412.813.7
 March21,70016,90038,700 14.813.214.1
 April22,00016,80038,800 15.013.014.1
 May22,30017,10039,500 15.313.214.3
 June22,20017,40039,600 15.313.314.4
 July21,80017,90039,700 15.413.914.7
Table A5 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - persons aged 25-74 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016July85,50062,800148,400 7.76.87.3
 August82,70061,500144,200 7.56.77.1
 September77,70058,000135,700 7.06.36.7
 October73,40057,100130,500 6.66.26.4
 November70,20057,300127,500 6.36.26.3
 December70,20058,100128,300 6.36.36.3
 
2017January71,50059,800131,300 6.46.46.4
 February72,00059,100131,100 6.46.36.4
 March70,20054,500124,700 6.35.86.1
 April67,60049,100116,700 6.15.35.7
 May65,90046,400112,300 5.95.05.5
 June65,80046,300112,100 5.85.05.4
 July66,60049,800116,400 5.95.35.6
 August66,30049,600115,800 5.85.25.6
 September66,30050,300116,600 5.85.35.6
 October66,90050,300117,300 5.95.35.6
 November64,60049,900114,500 5.75.25.5
 December61,90048,400110,300 5.55.15.3
 
2018January57,50046,400103,800 5.14.95.0
 February55,10045,000100,100 4.94.74.8
 March54,60044,60099,200 4.84.74.7
 April55,00044,70099,700 4.84.64.7
 May55,30044,800100,100 4.84.64.7
 June55,20045,100100,300 4.84.64.7
 July55,40045,700101,100 4.84.74.8

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017.  The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.

Reference Period

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter. Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997. The LFS is undertaken on a calendar quarter basis which was first adopted in the QNHS in the first quarter of 2009.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December

Data Collection

The LFS is conducted using mixed mode data collection with the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). As with the QNHS, information is collected from each sample household over 5 successive quarters or Waves. However, in the LFS, the first interview is conducted by a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The four follow-up interviews are conducted using CATI from a dedicated call centre, where householders have agreed to conduct a telephone interview, and are conducted using face-to-face interviews where householders have not agreed to conduct a telephone interview.

Sample Design

A new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was selected for the LFS and this was introduced incrementally from Q1 2016. The sample is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

To account for the additional attrition as a result of the introduction of mixed mode data collection, the LFS sample is being increased incrementally from Q3 2017. An additional 1,300 households are being included in Wave 1 for each quarter and this results in a total sample of 31,200 households in Q2 2018. As the sample is being increased by 1,300 households per Wave, the final design sample will increase to 32,500 households by Q3 2018.  The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

The number of valid responding households for the LFS in Q2 2018 was 14,071.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the QNHS/LFS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. It is important to note that there is no overlap in sample between the QNHS and the LFS.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region (the regions have changed from Q1 2018 – see below) and are also calibrated to nationality control totals. The LFS results also contain a non-response adjustment to make the results from the achieved sample representative of the target sample and the population. The population estimates for April of each year are published in a separate release.

New samples, both based on the 2011 Census of Population, were introduced incrementally for the QNHS in Q4 2012 and in Q3 2016. The former was stratified using administrative county and population density while the latter was stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. The quarterly sample in each case was 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varied over time depending on the level of response.

Households with all persons aged 75 and over and classified as inactive

Households which contain only respondents who are aged 75 or over who are each classified as Inactive (Not in the Labour Force) are not re-interviewed. This is to reduce unnecessary burden and instead answers are copied forward from the last available interview.

Statistical significance

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates were calculated using the defacto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). Since Q2 2006 a new concept of usual residence has been used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the state.

ILO Labour Force Classification

The primary classification used for the LFS results is the ILO (International Labour Office) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed.

Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates

The rates given in this release are based on the ILO classification. The Participation Rate is the number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 or over. The Employment Rate is the number of employed aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 to 64.

To ensure coherence with Unemployment Rates produced by Eurostat, the CSO changed the method of calculation of the Unemployment Rate as of Q2 2015. Prior to this, the Unemployment Rate was calculated as the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 and over. The change introduced limits the labour force to persons aged 15-74 and this excludes a small number of persons aged 75 and over in employment from the total labour force used in the calculation. The overall impact of this change was minimal.

Duration of Unemployment

The duration of unemployment is the length of time since a person last had a job or began looking for work, whichever is more recent. The long-term unemployment rate is the number of persons unemployed for one year or more expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 to 74 years.

Part-time Underemployment

The calculation of part-time underemployment is based on ILO and Eurostat recommendations and uses the following criteria to derive underemployment:

1. Working part-time
2. Willing to work additional hours
3. Available to work additional hours

This indicator is only available from quarter 3 2008 onwards as estimates prior to that quarter were based on one single question which included the need for the person to be looking for additional work. From quarter 3 2008 the indicator is derived from a series of separate questions which allow this requirement to be excluded.       

Potential Additional Labour Force

The Potential Additional Labour Force (PALF) is the sum of the two groups ‘persons seeking work but not immediately available’ and ‘persons available for work but not seeking’. Persons in the PALF are not part of the standard labour force, which encompasses only employed and unemployed people but however they have a stronger attachment to the labour market than other persons not in the labour force. The new indicators have been defined by the European statistical office (Eurostat) following extensive international discussion regarding appropriate indicators to supplement the unemployment rate.

Further background information regarding the methodology and approach adopted by Eurostat in building these new indicators can be found at the link below. European wide and individual country results are also available here:

Principal Economic Status Classification

Results are also available using the Principal Economic Status (PES) classification which is also used in the Labour Force Survey and the Census of Population. The PES classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation with regard to employment and given the following response categories:

• At work
• Unemployed
• Student
• Engaged on home duties
• Retired
• Other

NACE Industrial Classification

The LFS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature généraledes activités économiques dans les Communauté européenne) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006. Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Table 2 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS/LFS outputs. The NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use from Q4 1997 to Q4 2008.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series, NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 1998 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been published.

Occupation Classification

As a result of changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the LFS (formerly the QNHS) the CSO has been obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly. One particular example which highlighted this change was the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of ‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available here.

NUTS2 and NUTS3 Regions

The regional classifications in this release is based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat. Until Q4 2017, the NUTS3 regions corresponded to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994 while the NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, were groupings of those historic NUTS3 regions.

However, the NUTS3 boundaries were amended on 21st of November 2016 under Regulation (EC) No. 2066/2016 and have come into force from Q1 2018. These new groupings are reflected in the LFS results from Q1 2018 onwards. The changes resulting from the amendment are that County Louth has moved from the Border to the Mid-East and what was formerly South Tipperary has moved from the South-East to the Mid-West, resulting in the new NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions:

Northern & Western NUTS2 Region Southern NUTS2 Region Eastern & Midland NUTS2 Region
Border Cavan Mid-West Clare Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Limerick City & County   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Tipperary   Fingal
  Monaghan       South Dublin
  Sligo        
    South-East Carlow Mid-East Kildare
West Galway City   Kilkenny   Meath
  Galway County   Waterford City & County   Wicklow
  Mayo   Wexford   Louth
  Roscommon        
        Midland Laois
    South-West Cork City   Longford
      Cork County   Offaly
      Kerry   Westmeath

 

Seasonal Adjustment Methodology

To correct for typical seasonal patterns, the series presented in Table 3 have been seasonally adjusted. The seasonal adjustment of data from the QNHS between Q2 2011 and Q2 2017 was completed by applying the X-12-ARIMA model, developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. This seasonal adjustment methodology has been reviewed following the introduction of the new LFS in Q3 2017. As a result of this review, from Q3 2017 onwards, the seasonal adjustment of the LFS is conducted using the X-13ARIMA-SEATS software also developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. The adjustments are carried out by applying the X-13-ARIMA model to the unadjusted data. This methodology estimates seasonal factors while also taking into consideration factors that impact on the quality of the seasonal adjustment, such as:

  • Calendar effects e.g. the timing of Easter
  • Outliers, temporary changes, and level shifts in the series

For additional information on the use of X-13ARIMA-SEATS see:

http://www.census.gov/srd/www/x13as/

Seasonal adjustment is conducted using the direct approach, where each individual series is independently adjusted. As a result of this direct seasonal adjustment approach it should be noted that the sum of any component series may not be equal to seasonally adjusted series to which these components belong, e.g. the seasonally adjusted number of males in employment and the seasonally adjusted number of females in employment will not necessarily add up to the total employment on a seasonally adjusted basis.

The X-13-ARIMA method has the X-11 moving averages process at its core, but builds on this by providing options for pre-treating the series using a regARIMA approach for prior adjustment and series extension. In essence this methodology will estimate seasonal factors while taking account of calendar effects (e.g. timing of Easter), outliers, temporary changes and level shifts.

The seasonal adjustment is designed and implemented in full accordance with the ESS Guidelines (2015).

Non-response adjustment

Non-response occurs when households that are sampled, and that are eligible for the survey, do not provide the requested information. This can lead to biased survey estimates if specific groups within the population are over- or under-represented and if these groups behave differently with respect to the survey variables (i.e. labour market outcomes). To correct for this, the CSO has introduced a non-response adjustment into the weighting procedure for the LFS.

The adjustment involves estimating response rates or propensities to respond as functions of characteristics available for responding and non-responding households, as well as characteristics of the areas where the households are located. Basically, the design weights have to be inflated by the inverse of the response propensities in order to compensate for the loss of units in the sample.

Linking the LFS sample with the Census of Population at household level provides a set of auxiliary variables which are available for both responding and non-responding LFS households. These include a mix of personal characteristics as well as characteristics of the dwelling and location (e.g. gender, age, marital status, education, personal employment status, dwelling type, area etc.). This allows the CSO to compare responding and non-responding households with respect to the characteristics available from the Census. This auxiliary information allows the use of “response propensities” to model non-response and adjust the grossing factors to compensate for non-response.

The response propensities are calculated using a logistic regression model where the dependent variable (Y) is an indicator variables corresponding to response (if the household responded then Y=1 and if the household did not respond then Y=0) and the independent variables are the set of auxiliary variables available from the Census. The estimated response propensities are then used to form adjustment cells or strata which are made up of respondents and non-respondents with similar estimated response propensities. Respondents within each cell/stratum are then weighted by the inverse of the observed response rate in that cell. This non-response adjusted weight is then used to inflate the original survey design weight to account for non-response. This approach is referred to as response propensity classification.

Back-casting methodology

The introduction of the LFS in Q3 2017 constituted a break in series for the labour market estimates published by the CSO. In an effort to mitigate the effect of the introduction of the LFS on the coherence of the historic data series, a back-casting exercise was carried out to link the QNHS and the LFS. The result of this is that the published QNHS series from Q1 1998 to Q2 2017 has been revised.

As part of the roll-out of the LFS, a parallel run of the two surveys was carried out. This allowed the estimation of the effect of the introduction of the new survey on the various labour market estimates. Quarter 1 of 2017 was used as the reference period to calculate scaling factors which were used to link the results from the two surveys. Labour market estimates were calculated from both surveys for a range of cohorts (age, sex, ILO status etc.) and the ratio of the two estimates provided a scaling factor which was applied to the historic QNHS series to create a back-cast series. 

In Q3 2017, separate scaling factors were calculated for ILO status by age and sex together with the fifteen economic sector categories (table 2 of this release) by sex:

  • ILO status (Employed, Unemployed, Inactive) by sex (Male and Female) and by age (15-24 years and 25+ years)
  • NACE Rev. 2 groups (table 2 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

In Q1 2018, additional scaling factors were calculated for the eight NUTS3 regions by Labour Force ILO status, occupation categories (table 4 of this release) and highest level of education completed (supplementary table 8 of this release) by sex:

  • NUTS3 Regions (pre-Q1 2018 groupings) by Labour Force ILO status (Employed and Unemployed)
  • Occupation groups (table 4 of this release)
  • Highest level of education completed (supplementary table 8 of this release) by sex (Male and Female)

Therefore, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for these indicators. However, as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.         

 Please refer to the following information notes for further details:

http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter32017/

http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter12018/

Monthly Unemployment

Monthly unemployment estimates were first introduced by the CSO in June 2015 for reference month May. The most recently published estimates were for May 2018 and these have now been revised along with those for January to April 2018 following the availability of new LFS benchmark estimates for this quarter. These estimates are included in Tables A3, A4 and A5 of this release.

In line with Eurostat practice, the seasonally adjusted quarterly unemployment volumes and rates included in Table 3 of this release are calculated as the average of the relevant 3 months of the quarter from the new monthly unemployment series. This approach ensures consistency between these new seasonally adjusted monthly series and the seasonally adjusted quarterly series.

Reliability of Estimates Presented

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Calculation of Rates and Estimates of Change

Rates and estimates of change presented in this release are calculated from whole unrounded  numbers. Due to rounding, these may differ from the rates and estimates of change calculated from the rounded volumes presented in the tables.

Interpretation of volume and rate changes

The overall change in the number of people employed, unemployed, in the labour force and not in the labour force is a function both of changes in the population as well as changes in the proportion of people with that status. Therefore, in interpreting changes in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc, both changes in population and changes in the relevant rates should be considered.

In recent years there has been a natural decline in the number of people in younger age groups arising from the falling number of births through the 1980’s until 1994 when a low of 48,255 births was recorded (compared with 74,278 in 2009). For example there were 326,030 people born in Ireland between 1982 and 1986 and, all other things being equal, these people would have been in the 20-24 age group in 2006. However between 1986 and 1990 there were nearly 50,000 fewer births which would create a natural decrease in the 20-24 age group of close to 50,000 between 2006 and 2010.

In addition to natural changes in population, net migration has been a significant feature of population change in Ireland in recent years and net migration has also been most heavily concentrated in younger age groups. Evidence shows that migration is also most heavily concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups. As a result of both natural decrease and net outward migration, the population of persons in the younger age groups has fallen and this should be borne in mind when considering the changes in the number of people in these age groups who are employed, unemployed and in the labour force.

Additional Data Series

Additional data series previously included in the QNHS release can still be accessed through the CSO website and are available here.

Labour market data can also be accessed from Statbank, the CSO’s main data dissemination service which can be accessed through the CSO website and are available here.

Implications of Census 2016 Final Results

The LFS results are weighted using population estimates which are updated every quarter. Every 5 years the Census of Population results are used to revise these population estimates, and QNHS/LFS results are revised as a consequence.

The population concept of usual residence is used for the LFS, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the State plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

The final Census count was published on April 6 2017. The total for this usually resident population concept which was enumerated on Census Night, April 24 2016, was 4,739,597 persons, while the existing estimate for the usually resident population for April 2016 is 4,673,700 as detailed in the 2016 Population and Migration Estimates release. There is a difference, therefore, of just over 65,900 or 1.4% between the two figures.

The CSO has revised the population estimates for 2011 to 2016 based on this final Census count. Estimates of persons employed and unemployed have been revised in line with the higher population totals.

Changes to CSO Labour Market Statistics

Effective from Q3 2017, the QNHS has been replaced by a new Labour Force Survey (LFS).This is part of a major Household Survey Development (HSD) project that the CSO has been engaged in over the past number of years with the aim of expanding the range of social statistics to meet new needs for information on households and persons. This new survey includes the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), a redesigned questionnaire and enhancements to the survey methodology.

The introduction of such large scale changes has inevitably led to discontinuity in some series and this is in line with international experience of introducing such large scale changes. Adjustments have been made to historic QNHS data to enable comparability with the new LFS for headline indicators. However as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.

The first results from this new LFS were for Q3 2017. They incorporated the revision of population estimates arising from the 2016 Census of Population along with a back-cast series of the existing data for the QNHS to create a coherent time series – additional series were added to the back-casting to further enable comparability between the new and old series.

Participating Households

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

upArrowHide Background Notes

Scan the QR code below to view this release online or go to
http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/er/lfs/labourforcesurveyquarter22018/