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For more information on this release:
E-mail: labour@cso.ie Martina O'Callaghan (+353) 21 453 5491 Jim Dalton (+353) 21 453 5623
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2565-5728
CSO statistical release, 14 March 2018, 11am

Labour Force Survey

Quarter 4 2017

IndicatorQuarter 4 2017Annual change
Employed2,231,000 +66,800
Unemployed144,100-23,400
In labour force2,375,200 +43,400
Not in labour force1,443,000 +10,700

Employment increases by 3.1% in year to Q4 2017

Figure 1 Numbers in employment (ILO) in the fourth quarters 2013 to 2017
go to full release

There was an annual increase in employment of 3.1% or 66,800 in the year to the fourth quarter of 2017, bringing total employment to 2,231,000. This compares with an annual increase of 2.2% or 48,100 in employment in the previous quarter and an increase of 3.8% or 79,200 in the year to Q4 2016.

Summary points for Q4 2017

  • The increase in total employment of 66,800 in the year to Q4 2017 was represented by an increase in full-time employment of 90,100 (+5.4%) and a decrease in part-time employment of 23,300 (-4.8%). See table 1 and figure 1.
  • On a seasonally adjusted basis, employment increased by 29,000 (+1.3%) over the previous quarter. This follows on from a seasonally adjusted increase in employment of 15,200 (+0.7%) in Q3 2017, an increase of 4,700 (+0.2%) in Q2 2017, an increase of 17,500 (+0.8%) in Q1 2017 and an increase of 11,900 (+0.6%) in Q4 2016. See table 3.
  • Unemployment decreased by 23,400 (-14.0%) in the year to Q4 2017 bringing the total number of persons unemployed to 144,100. This is the twenty second quarter in succession where unemployment has declined on an annual basis. See table 1.
  • The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6.4% for Q4 2017 and the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed decreased by 5,100 to 151,500. See table 3.
  • The long-term unemployment rate decreased from 3.7% to 2.5% over the year to Q4 2017. Long-term unemployment accounted for 40.3% of total unemployment in Q4 2017. See table 6.
  • The total number of persons in the labour force in the fourth quarter of 2017 was 2,375,200, representing an increase of 43,400 (+1.9%) over the year.  This compares with an annual labour force increase of 40,000 (+1.7%) in Q4 2016.  The number of persons not in the labour force in Q4 2017 was 1,443,000, an increase of 10,700 (+0.7%) over the year. See table 1.

Users should note that effective from Q3 2017, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) has replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS). The results presented in this report incorporate adjustments to the historic QNHS data series to take account of revisions to population estimates arising from the 2016 Census of Population. In addition, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for headline indicators. However as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.

Further information is available in the background notes accompanying this release on the change from the QNHS to the LFS, revisions to population estimates, enhancements to the survey methodology now used in the LFS and headline indicators which have been adjusted.

Employment

  • The annual increase of 66,800 (+3.1%) in employment was represented by an increase of 35,100 (+3.0%) in male employment and an increase of 31,800 (+3.2%) in female employment over the year. See tables 1, 7 and figure 1.
  • Employment increased in twelve of the fourteen economic sectors over the year (excluding Not stated). The largest rates of increase were recorded in the Administrative and support service activities (+11.6% or 9,800) and the Construction (+9.9% or +12,000) sectors. The largest rate of decrease was recorded in the Professional, scientific and technical activities (-4.1% or -5,700) sector. See table 2 and figure 2.
  • The overall employment rate among persons aged 15-64 was 68.3% in Q4 2017 compared to 67.1% in Q4 2016. See table 8.
  • The number of employees in Q4 2017 was 1,883,500, up 57,300 (+3.1%) over the year. The number of self-employed persons increased by 8,100 (+2.5%) over the year to 331,700. See table 5.
NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ4 2016Q4 2017
1110.2111.5
2277.8282.3
3121.2133.2
4303.3308.9
593.795.2
6155.5169.2
7112.8116.5
8107.9106.3
9140.8135.1
1084.994.8
1194101.6
12156.5167.6
13278.9281
14119.4120.4
KEY  
1- Agriculture, forestry and fishing
2- Industry
3- Construction
4- Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
5- Transportation and storage
6- Accommodation and food storage activities
7- Information and communication
8- Financial, insurance and real estate activities
9- Professional, scientific and technical activities
10- Administrative and support service activities
11- Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
12- Education
13- Human health and social work activities
14- Other NACE activities

 Public Sector Employment

  • Based on the higher response levels and lower levels of subjectivity associated with the Earnings, Hours and Employment Costs Survey (EHECS) the CSO believes it offers a more reliable source for public sector employment estimates over time. In particular, employment data coded to Sectors P (Education) and Q (Human health and social work activities) of the NACE Rev. 2 Industrial Classification which is presented in Tables 2 and 3 are not exclusively public sector employment.
  • Table A2 in the annex shows the most recently available estimates of public sector employment from the EHECS survey at the time of this release being finalised. An updated series will be issued with the next Earnings and Labour Costs release which is due to be published shortly.

Unemployment

  • Male unemployment decreased by 12,300 (-12.8%) to 83,400 over the year to Q4 2017, while female unemployment decreased by 11,100 (-15.5%) to 60,800 over the same period. See tables 1 and 7.
  • The overall unadjusted unemployment rate decreased from 7.2% to 6.1% over the year to Q4 2017. See tables 1 and 8.
  • In the year to Q4 2017, the number of persons classified as long-term unemployed decreased by 28,800 (-33.1%), bringing total long-term unemployment to 58,100. Short-term unemployment increased by 300 (+0.3%) over the year to 76,000. See table 6 and figure 3.
  • The unemployment rate for 15-24 year olds (youth unemployment rate) decreased from 14.8% to 12.2% over the year to Q4 2017. See table 8.
  • A series of Monthly Unemployment statistics was first issued by the CSO in 2015. The most recent publication was issued in February 2018 for reference month February 2018. The Monthly Unemployment release contains a series of monthly unemployment rates and volumes. These series are based primarily on the LFS and are compiled in accordance with agreed international practice. Data for more recent periods for which no LFS benchmark is available is adjusted for trends in the Live Register. These statistics are the definitive measure of Monthly Unemployment and replaced the SUR (which has been discontinued).
Short-termLong-term
Q4 14 Male48.886.9
Q4 17 Male39.637
Q4 14 Female48.945.3
Q4 17 Female36.421.1
  • The previously published seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment figures are now revised with the availability of new LFS benchmark unemployment estimates for Q4 2017. The seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment rate for December 2017 is now revised from 6.2% to 6.3%, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed is revised from 146,800 to 150,200.
  • The provisional estimates for both January and February 2018 have also been revised with the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for January revised from 6.1% to 6.2%, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed is revised from 143,900 to 148,400. The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for February is revised from 6.0% to 6.1%, while the seasonally adjusted number of persons unemployed is revised from 141,600 to 146,100. The full series of revised monthly unemployment rates and volumes are included in Tables A3, A4 and A5.

Labour force

  • As with employment, the number of persons in the labour force is also influenced by changes in the size of the working age population (demographic effect).  Up to the start of 2008 this demographic effect had been adding at least 30,000 to the labour force on an annual basis, primarily driven by net inward migration.  This demographic effect peaked at over 90,500 in the second quarter of 2007. See tables 1 and 7.
  • With the decline in inward migration the positive demographic effect started to fall in the second half of 2007 and continued to decline throughout 2008 and 2009 before becoming negative in Q3 2009. The negative demographic effect continued for each quarter until Q1 2014. The demographic effect has been positive since Q2 2014 with values increasing each quarter to Q4 2016 when it peaked at 21,700. In Q4 2017 a positive demographic effect contributed an increase of 21,500 to the overall change in the labour force.
  • In addition to the demographic effect, the change in the size of the labour force is influenced by changes in participation. While the overall participation rate increased over the year by 0.3 percentage points to 62.2% in Q4 2017, the net result of changes in individual age groups for the same period was a positive participation effect of 21,900. See tables 1 and 8.
  • Of those persons not in the labour force, the number classified as being in the potential additional labour force was 111,100 in the fourth quarter of 2017.

International Comparisons

  • The employment rate in Ireland increased by 0.8 percentage points to 68.0% over the year to Q3 2017. The employment rate in the EU-28 in Q3 2017 was 68.2%. See table 11.
  • The unadjusted unemployment rate among the EU-28 countries in the third quarter of 2017 was 7.3%, while the comparable rate in Ireland was 6.9%.  The highest unemployment rates among the EU-28 countries in Q3 2017 were recorded in Greece and Spain (20.3% and 16.4% respectively), while the lowest rates of 2.8% and 3.6% were recorded in the Czech Republic and Germany respectively. See table 11.
  • The latest figures available at the time of finalising this release indicate that the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for the EU-28 for January 2018 was 7.3% compared to the revised seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment rate of 6.2% for Ireland for the same period.
Table 1 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and ILO Economic Status
'000
ILO Economic StatusQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
In labour force 1,252.21,287.61,267.11,256.71,271.01,289.91,289.9
In employment 1,125.11,170.81,171.51,165.51,176.41,198.31,206.6
full-time 972.71,005.21,018.71,016.71,034.61,066.41,067.3
part-time 152.4165.7152.8148.7141.8131.9139.3
of which:part-time, not underemployed100.2112.8108.5103.2100.483.593.1
  part-time, underemployed52.152.944.245.541.448.346.2
Unemployed 127.1116.895.691.294.591.683.4
seeking full-time work/future job-starter117.0106.887.083.184.478.269.8
seeking part-time work [5.2][6.4][4.9][4.9]7.68.19.4
seeking work as self-employed[4.9][3.6][3.8][3.2]***
Not in labour force 567.8552.6579.5595.6586.5574.6585.6
Potential additional labour force 18.219.018.717.519.150.452.4
Others 549.6533.7560.8578.1567.5524.1533.1
Total males aged 15 or over 1,820.11,840.21,846.71,852.31,857.51,864.51,875.5
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)10.29.17.67.37.57.16.5
Participation rate % 68.870.068.667.868.469.268.8
 
Females
In labour force 1,039.51,072.11,064.61,065.41,070.71,080.51,085.3
In employment 959.9987.9992.7993.21,004.81,008.51,024.5
full-time 626.3649.7661.3662.9677.4702.3702.8
part-time 333.6338.2331.4330.4327.3306.2321.6
of which:part-time, not underemployed273.6280.2276.0276.2272.1238.4252.6
  part-time, underemployed60.158.055.554.255.367.969.0
Unemployed 79.684.271.972.165.971.960.8
seeking full-time work/future job-starter58.662.251.850.147.651.340.3
seeking part-time work 19.620.819.420.518.219.219.1
seeking work as self-employed*******
Not in labour force 852.3837.4852.8858.3857.3853.9857.5
Potential additional labour force 13.116.413.313.413.665.558.7
Others 839.3821.1839.5844.9843.7788.4798.8
Total females aged 15 or over 1,891.81,909.51,917.41,923.71,928.01,934.31,942.7
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)7.77.96.86.86.26.75.6
Participation rate % 54.956.155.555.455.555.955.9
 
All persons
In labour force 2,291.72,359.72,331.72,322.02,341.62,370.42,375.2
In employment 2,085.02,158.72,164.22,158.72,181.22,206.82,231.0
full-time 1,599.11,654.91,680.01,679.61,712.01,768.81,770.1
part-time 486.0503.9484.2479.1469.2438.1460.9
of which:part-time, not underemployed373.8392.9384.5379.4372.5321.9345.7
  part-time, underemployed112.2111.099.799.796.7116.2115.3
Unemployed 206.7201.0167.5163.3160.4163.5144.1
seeking full-time work/future job-starter175.6169.0138.7133.2132.0129.4110.1
seeking part-time work 24.827.124.325.425.827.328.6
seeking work as self-employed6.3[4.9][4.5][4.7]*[6.8][5.5]
Not in labour force 1,420.21,390.01,432.31,453.91,443.91,428.41,443.0
Potential additional labour force 31.335.332.031.032.7115.9111.1
Others 1,388.81,354.71,400.31,423.01,411.11,312.61,332.0
Total persons aged 15 or over 3,711.93,749.73,764.03,775.93,785.53,798.83,818.2
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)9.18.67.27.16.96.96.1
Participation rate % 61.762.961.961.561.962.462.2
 
Employment rate % (Persons aged 15-64)
Male  70.572.972.772.372.673.773.5
Female  60.561.661.761.662.362.463.1
Total persons  65.467.267.166.967.468.068.3
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 2 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
Economic sector (NACE Rev.2)Q4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing92.5100.395.892.495.495.097.0
B-FTotal Industry291.3312.0313.5321.2318.4330.2325.7
B-EIndustry187.8198.0197.8203.4197.0209.1199.7
FConstruction103.5114.0115.7117.8121.4121.1126.0
G-UTotal Services737.9755.0758.5747.9758.0769.0779.7
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles147.3150.7151.5147.1148.1151.2152.6
HTransportation and storage 74.974.274.874.576.276.678.0
IAccommodation and food service activities75.677.674.576.374.978.476.9
JInformation and communication69.173.675.378.679.680.878.0
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities50.153.754.353.454.754.955.9
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities79.180.681.474.676.076.776.2
NAdministrative and support service activities49.153.251.153.354.554.857.9
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security49.847.047.947.649.448.950.1
PEducation37.637.740.840.139.541.244.6
QHuman health and social work activities55.255.355.755.358.656.958.5
R-UOther NACE activities 49.951.351.147.346.548.651.1
Not stated***[4.0][4.6]**
Total males1,125.11,170.81,171.51,165.51,176.41,198.31,206.6
 
Females
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing13.516.214.415.916.116.114.5
B-FTotal Industry82.793.285.585.988.587.189.8
B-EIndustry76.387.180.078.882.280.082.7
FConstruction6.46.15.57.16.37.27.2
G-UTotal Services859.9876.3889.2887.8897.9901.5916.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles150.8149.0151.8150.8152.5153.1156.3
HTransportation and storage 16.118.518.917.116.817.417.2
IAccommodation and food service activities77.685.281.085.385.386.592.2
JInformation and communication35.235.737.535.834.736.338.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities53.054.953.652.952.153.750.4
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities54.459.459.555.357.856.258.9
NAdministrative and support service activities34.831.233.837.339.537.936.9
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security42.245.646.146.249.446.951.5
PEducation114.6109.9115.6117.8117.5119.6123.0
QHuman health and social work activities217.2219.2223.2221.1221.8224.6222.5
R-UOther NACE activities 64.167.568.368.270.469.269.3
Not stated[3.8]*[3.6][3.7]***
Total females959.9987.9992.7993.21,004.81,008.51,024.5
 
All persons
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing106.0116.5110.2108.3111.5111.2111.5
B-FTotal Industry374.0405.2399.0407.0406.9417.4415.5
B-EIndustry264.1285.1277.8282.2279.2289.1282.3
FConstruction109.9120.0121.2124.9127.8128.3133.2
G-UTotal Services1,597.81,631.31,647.71,635.71,655.91,670.51,696.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles298.2299.7303.3297.8300.6304.3308.9
HTransportation and storage 91.092.893.791.692.994.095.2
IAccommodation and food service activities153.2162.8155.5161.5160.2164.9169.2
JInformation and communication104.4109.3112.8114.3114.3117.1116.5
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities103.1108.6107.9106.3106.8108.6106.3
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities133.4140.0140.8129.9133.8133.0135.1
NAdministrative and support service activities83.984.584.990.694.092.794.8
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security92.092.694.093.898.995.8101.6
PEducation152.1147.7156.5157.9157.0160.9167.6
QHuman health and social work activities272.4274.5278.9276.4280.5281.5281.0
R-UOther NACE activities 114.0118.9119.4115.4116.9117.8120.4
Not stated7.3[5.8]7.37.76.9[7.8][7.4]
Total persons2,085.02,158.72,164.22,158.72,181.22,206.82,231.0
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 3 Seasonally adjusted series of persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex, ILO Economic Status and NACE Rev.2 Economic Sector
'000
ILO Economic Status/NACE Rev.2 Economic SectorQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
In labour force1,254.81,275.01,269.31,268.31,269.61,277.61,291.9
In employment1,124.11,160.51,169.91,176.11,178.01,188.01,204.4
 of which:Full-time 965.4997.11,011.71,026.11,041.51,056.31,060.7
  Part-time 154.7163.8155.3149.9139.9130.5141.8
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing93.599.096.894.593.593.998.0
B-EIndustry187.8194.9198.7202.7200.1205.3201.1
FConstruction104.2113.4116.7118.3120.4120.6126.5
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles146.0149.9150.0148.4149.1150.2150.8
HTransportation and storage 74.874.974.874.575.577.377.6
IAccommodation and food service activities75.476.074.576.776.176.776.8
JInformation and communication68.973.475.378.580.180.378.1
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities50.353.554.554.054.154.856.1
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities77.178.479.078.077.174.673.8
NAdministrative and support service activities48.353.350.354.354.354.958.7
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security49.946.847.947.649.548.750.1
PEducation36.738.039.839.840.541.643.4
QHuman health and social work activities55.054.455.456.558.756.058.2
R-UOther NACE activities 49.850.750.547.947.248.050.3
Unemployed132.5113.599.792.991.889.086.7
Not in labour force564.9565.8577.0582.9588.4587.8583.5
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)10.69.07.97.47.37.06.8
Participation rate %69.069.368.768.568.368.568.9
 
Females
In labour force1,041.51,065.81,066.21,073.81,067.11,074.61,086.3
In employment956.4986.4989.5999.31,002.61,008.21,021.4
 of which:Full-time 624.2645.4659.0668.6679.1696.8700.5
  Part-time 331.9337.3329.9332.2328.0305.2320.3
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing14.415.515.515.915.715.415.6
B-EIndustry75.687.579.279.981.580.381.9
FConstruction6.26.15.47.26.37.27.1
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles149.3148.0150.0152.4153.6152.4154.2
HTransportation and storage 15.718.718.317.217.117.516.5
IAccommodation and food service activities78.282.481.787.285.484.092.9
JInformation and communication34.536.036.636.334.736.737.6
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities53.754.054.352.952.352.950.8
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities53.558.258.457.458.155.157.6
NAdministrative and support service activities35.229.834.338.040.036.338.6
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security42.645.546.647.148.046.952.0
PEducation113.4114.3114.4115.6116.7124.2121.6
QHuman health and social work activities215.2218.9221.3222.7222.5224.2220.6
R-UOther NACE activities 65.866.969.968.169.368.870.5
Unemployed84.679.376.774.963.267.664.8
Not in labour force849.7844.0850.3849.6861.8860.3855.4
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)8.17.57.27.05.96.36.0
Participation rate %55.155.855.655.855.355.555.9
 
All persons
In labour force2,296.62,339.32,335.72,341.62,338.32,351.02,378.3
In employment2,079.22,146.72,158.62,176.12,180.82,196.02,225.1
 of which:Full-time 1,591.31,636.81,671.91,698.11,721.91,747.51,761.8
  Part-time 486.0499.9484.5483.1468.8434.4461.5
AAgriculture, forestry and fishing108.2114.3112.4110.2109.2109.4113.7
B-EIndustry263.8281.0278.5282.8282.2284.2283.7
FConstruction110.6119.4122.2125.2126.8127.8133.8
GWholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles295.1298.4299.7300.9302.4303.2304.8
HTransportation and storage 90.593.393.291.992.794.594.1
IAccommodation and food service activities152.5160.4154.6164.2160.9162.5168.0
JInformation and communication103.5109.3112.0114.4115.1117.0115.7
K-LFinancial, insurance and real estate activities103.9107.3108.9106.8106.6107.5107.0
MProfessional, scientific and technical activities129.9136.8136.5135.7135.4130.3130.5
NAdministrative and support service activities84.083.785.291.593.592.198.0
OPublic administration and defence; compulsory social security92.892.094.694.698.095.2102.0
PEducation150.0152.4154.0155.5157.2165.9164.8
QHuman health and social work activities270.9273.1277.4279.5280.3280.1279.4
R-UOther NACE activities 114.9117.8119.8116.4116.6116.8120.2
Unemployed217.2192.9176.4167.8155.0156.6151.5
Not in labour force1,413.61,410.11,426.51,433.41,449.81,447.81,438.5
Unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)9.58.37.67.26.76.76.4
Participation rate %61.962.462.162.061.761.962.3
See Background Notes for further detail. The not stated group presented in Table 2 has not been separately seasonally adjusted.
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate and coherence with monthly unemployment estimates
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 4 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and occupation (SOC2010)
'000
Broad occupational groupQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
1.Managers, directors and senior officials111.4114.3115.9116.8117.3125.2122.9
2.Professionals161.3178.4176.4176.0180.2194.0194.9
3.Associate professional and technical151.6152.5155.1150.4152.9161.3156.7
4.Administrative and secretarial41.846.148.152.652.646.950.3
5.Skilled trades286.1281.3283.8292.4285.8283.9290.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services29.730.330.529.333.636.742.5
7.Sales and customer service63.569.768.567.468.163.064.2
8.Process, plant and machine operatives129.8138.2134.3130.8136.4142.0142.1
9.Elementary139.8148.2148.9139.4139.6138.5135.1
Other/Not stated10.312.09.910.39.8[6.7][7.6]
Total males1,125.11,170.81,171.51,165.51,176.41,198.31,206.6
 
Females
1.Managers, directors and senior officials57.060.060.960.460.570.069.4
2.Professionals217.0207.9215.4217.5218.1245.2251.2
3.Associate professional and technical102.2105.4107.6106.4113.1110.5105.8
4.Administrative and secretarial170.2174.4171.0167.3171.2165.0165.3
5.Skilled trades29.033.335.035.336.530.428.2
6.Caring, leisure and other services143.9152.6156.3154.9154.2140.9147.8
7.Sales and customer service119.0123.1120.0120.1121.7112.3117.4
8.Process, plant and machine operatives21.423.422.823.322.422.824.9
9.Elementary92.5100.295.198.799.9107.5108.6
 Other/Not stated7.77.68.69.37.2*[6.0]
Total females959.9987.9992.7993.21,004.81,008.51,024.5
 
All persons
1.Managers, directors and senior officials168.4174.4176.9177.2177.7195.2192.3
2.Professionals378.3386.3391.8393.5398.3439.2446.1
3.Associate professional and technical253.7257.8262.6256.8266.0271.8262.5
4.Administrative and secretarial211.9220.5219.0219.9223.8212.0215.6
5.Skilled trades315.1314.6318.8327.7322.4314.3318.3
6.Caring, leisure and other services173.6182.8186.8184.2187.8177.6190.3
7.Sales and customer service182.5192.7188.5187.6189.8175.3181.6
8.Process, plant and machine operatives151.2161.6157.2154.1158.8164.8167.0
9.Elementary232.3248.4244.1238.1239.5246.0243.7
 Other/Not stated18.019.618.519.617.010.513.6
Total persons2,085.02,158.72,164.22,158.72,181.22,206.82,231.0
Note: From Q1 2011 occupational estimates are now captured and coded on the basis of the newer UK SOC2010 classification.
The CSO has re-coded previous quarters to 2007 inclusive on the basis of the text string captured under the old UK SOC90 classification. As with the introduction of any new classification comparability of estimates over time can be impacted - users should bear this in mind when comparing results from quarters prior to Q1 2011 to those from Q1 2011 onwards.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 5 Persons aged 15 years and over in employment (ILO) classified by sex and employment status
'000
Employment statusQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
 Self employed (with paid employees)70.773.173.269.773.177.680.3
 Self employed (with no paid employees)179.5180.8179.5174.1179.3173.3178.0
 Total self employed250.2253.9252.7243.9252.5250.9258.2
 Employee867.5907.9911.4914.7916.3940.9939.6
 Assisting relative7.49.07.46.97.76.58.7
 Total males1,125.11,170.81,171.51,165.51,176.41,198.31,206.6
 
Females
 Self employed (with paid employees)21.623.422.822.921.123.422.9
 Self employed (with no paid employees)47.950.248.147.648.950.650.6
 Total self employed69.573.770.970.670.074.073.5
 Employee880.9905.6914.9916.4929.7927.9943.9
 Assisting relative9.58.76.96.3[5.1]6.77.0
 Total females959.9987.9992.7993.21,004.81,008.51,024.5
 
All persons
 Self employed (with paid employees)92.296.696.092.694.2101.0103.2
 Self employed (with no paid employees)227.4231.0227.7221.8228.2223.9228.6
 Total self employed319.7327.6323.7314.4322.5324.8331.7
 Employee1,748.41,813.51,826.21,831.11,846.01,868.81,883.5
 Assisting relative16.917.714.313.212.813.215.8
 Total persons2,085.02,158.72,164.22,158.72,181.22,206.82,231.0
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by sex and duration of unemployment (ILO)
'000
Duration of unemployment (ILO)Q4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
 Less than 1 year47.348.537.137.140.745.939.6
 1 year and over75.364.054.850.448.639.137.0
 Not stated[4.5][4.2][3.8][3.7][5.2][6.6][6.8]
 Total males127.1116.895.691.294.591.683.4
 
Females
 Less than 1 year43.447.038.735.437.342.536.4
 1 year and over33.735.432.035.826.126.421.1
 Not stated*******
 Total females79.684.271.972.165.971.960.8
 
All persons
 Less than 1 year90.795.575.772.578.088.476.0
 1 year and over109.099.486.886.274.765.558.1
 Not stated6.9[6.0][5.0][4.7]7.79.710.1
 Total persons206.7201.0167.5163.3160.4163.5144.1
 
Long-term unemployment rate % (Persons aged 15-74)4.84.23.73.73.22.82.5
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by ILO economic status, sex, age group and quarter
'000
 Employed Unemployed In labour force
   Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17 Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17 Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17
Males             
 15-1923.832.432.0 11.0[8.2]9.2 34.840.541.2
 20-2486.190.691.9 20.317.910.9 106.5108.5102.8
 Total 15-24 (Youths)109.9123.0123.9 31.326.120.2 141.3149.1144.1
 25-34249.2257.7260.4 31.421.419.1 280.7279.2279.6
 35-44307.6317.4324.0 27.120.420.6 334.7337.7344.6
 45-54250.4260.4270.6 21.115.412.2 271.5275.8282.8
 55-5995.699.7101.1 9.56.9[5.9] 105.1106.7107.0
 60-6466.666.970.3 5.5[4.7][4.5] 72.171.674.7
 65+45.746.356.3 *** 46.847.157.2
 Total males1,125.11,171.51,206.6 127.195.683.4 1,252.21,267.11,289.9
 
Females
 15-1924.230.129.2 [5.1][7.1][6.3] 29.337.235.4
 20-2483.291.885.0 12.09.4[6.7] 95.2101.391.6
 Total 15-24 (Youths)107.4121.9114.1 17.116.612.9 124.5138.5127.1
 25-34250.6244.0247.4 21.018.615.2 271.5262.7262.6
 35-44261.4271.2288.3 18.217.714.9 279.6288.8303.1
 45-54203.0207.4218.9 16.411.69.5 219.4219.0228.4
 55-5975.178.679.8 [3.5][5.0][5.3] 78.783.585.1
 60-6445.148.855.5 *** 48.251.158.1
 65+17.320.920.4 *** 17.621.020.9
 Total females959.9992.71,024.5 79.671.960.8 1,039.51,064.61,085.3
 
All persons
 15-1948.062.561.1 16.115.315.5 64.177.876.7
 20-24169.3182.4176.9 32.327.417.6 201.6209.8194.5
 Total 15-24 (Youths)217.3244.9238.0 48.442.633.1 265.7287.6271.1
 25-34499.8501.8507.8 52.440.134.3 552.2541.8542.1
 35-44569.0588.5612.2 45.338.035.5 614.3626.5647.7
 45-54453.4467.8489.5 37.527.021.7 490.9494.8511.2
 55-59170.8178.3180.9 13.011.911.2 183.8190.2192.1
 60-64111.7115.7125.8 8.67.17.0 120.4122.8132.8
 65+63.067.276.7 *** 64.468.178.1
 Total persons2,085.02,164.22,231.0 206.7167.5144.1 2,291.72,331.72,375.2
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by key economic rates, sex, age group and quarter
%
 Employment rate (15-64) Unemployment rate (15-74) Participation rate
   Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17 Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17 Q4 15Q4 16Q4 17
Males
 15-1915.520.720.0 31.720.122.4 22.725.925.8
 20-2461.864.963.7 19.116.510.6 76.477.771.2
 Total 15-24 (Youths)37.541.540.8 22.217.514.0 48.250.347.4
 25-3478.281.984.2 11.27.76.8 88.188.790.4
 35-4484.185.686.4 8.16.06.0 91.591.191.9
 45-5481.583.284.8 7.85.64.3 88.388.288.6
 55-5972.974.273.7 9.06.55.5 80.279.378.0
 60-6457.356.258.0 7.76.66.0 62.060.161.7
 65+...... 3.01.81.9 16.315.718.5
 Total males70.572.773.5 10.27.66.5 68.868.668.8
 
Females
 15-1916.620.119.0 17.419.117.7 20.124.923.1
 20-2461.267.561.2 12.69.37.3 70.174.566.0
 Total 15-24 (Youths)38.142.739.0 13.712.010.2 44.248.543.5
 25-3473.172.876.2 7.77.15.8 79.278.480.8
 35-4469.971.174.2 6.56.14.9 74.875.778.1
 45-5465.465.567.9 7.55.34.1 70.769.270.8
 55-5956.557.557.3 4.56.06.2 59.161.161.1
 60-6438.540.645.2 6.44.64.4 41.142.547.3
 65+...... 1.90.82.3 5.36.15.9
 Total females60.561.763.1 7.76.85.6 54.955.555.9
 
All persons
 15-1916.020.419.5 25.219.620.3 21.425.424.5
 20-2461.566.262.4 16.013.09.0 73.376.168.6
 Total 15-24 (Youths)37.842.139.9 18.214.812.2 46.349.445.5
 25-3475.677.280.1 9.57.46.3 83.583.485.5
 35-4476.978.380.2 7.46.15.5 83.183.384.9
 45-5473.474.376.3 7.65.54.2 79.578.679.7
 55-5964.665.765.4 7.16.35.8 69.670.169.5
 60-6447.848.351.6 7.25.85.3 51.551.354.5
 65+...... 2.71.52.0 10.410.611.8
 Total persons65.467.168.3 9.17.26.1 61.761.962.2
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions and ILO Economic Status
RegionQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Border, Midland and Western
 In employment ('000)527.0538.0543.1547.0545.6561.8567.3
 Unemployed ('000)61.460.150.445.944.844.235.1
 In labour force ('000)588.4598.1593.5592.8590.4606.0602.4
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)10.510.18.67.87.67.35.9
 Participation rate (%)60.160.559.859.559.160.559.9
Border
 In employment ('000)215.6217.1219.0216.0219.3238.9238.5
 Unemployed ('000)22.124.921.319.417.216.412.1
 In labour force ('000)237.7241.9240.3235.4236.6255.3250.6
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.310.38.98.37.36.54.9
 Participation rate (%)58.959.358.757.357.461.860.4
Midland
 In employment ('000)122.8123.3125.0125.5126.3119.3124.1
 Unemployed ('000)15.615.111.411.112.112.210.2
 In labour force ('000)138.4138.4136.4136.7138.4131.5134.3
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)11.310.98.48.28.79.37.7
 Participation rate (%)61.761.160.160.060.757.458.4
West          
 In employment ('000)188.6197.6199.1205.5200.0203.6204.7
 Unemployed ('000)23.720.217.815.315.415.612.7
 In labour force ('000)212.3217.8216.8220.8215.4219.1217.5
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)11.39.48.37.07.27.25.9
 Participation rate (%)60.561.360.961.860.261.060.2
 
Southern and Eastern
 In employment ('000)1,558.11,620.71,621.11,611.71,635.51,645.11,663.7
 Unemployed ('000)145.3140.9117.1117.4115.7119.3109.1
 In labour force ('000)1,703.31,761.61,738.21,729.21,751.21,764.41,772.8
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)8.68.06.86.86.66.86.2
 Participation rate (%)62.363.862.762.262.863.163.0
Dublin
 In employment ('000)641.5658.0664.8659.9660.9663.3675.4
 Unemployed ('000)52.957.446.245.947.844.843.4
 In labour force ('000)694.4715.4711.0705.7708.7708.2718.8
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)7.68.06.56.56.86.36.1
 Participation rate (%)65.066.265.664.965.064.865.4
Mid-East
 In employment ('000)246.0252.4254.2256.2260.5261.3268.6
 Unemployed ('000)21.819.915.414.417.417.314.5
 In labour force ('000)267.8272.3269.6270.6277.9278.6283.1
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)8.27.45.75.36.36.25.2
 Participation rate (%)63.363.462.462.363.863.664.2
Mid-West
 In employment ('000)162.0172.5174.8168.3173.0173.8178.5
 Unemployed ('000)16.014.811.612.913.015.912.6
 In labour force ('000)178.0187.3186.4181.1186.1189.7191.1
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.07.96.37.17.08.46.6
 Participation rate (%)58.761.661.059.160.561.561.6
South-East
 In employment ('000)210.3221.5221.1220.1221.2227.8226.4
 Unemployed ('000)29.726.524.323.720.619.617.6
 In labour force ('000)240.0248.0245.4243.7241.8247.4244.0
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)12.410.79.99.88.68.07.3
 Participation rate (%)60.461.860.960.359.760.959.8
South-West
 In employment ('000)298.4316.3306.3307.3319.9318.8314.9
 Unemployed ('000)24.822.219.620.716.821.720.9
 In labour force ('000)323.2338.5325.9328.0336.8340.5335.8
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)7.76.66.06.35.06.46.2
 Participation rate (%)59.862.159.659.961.361.860.7
 
State
 In employment ('000)2,085.02,158.72,164.22,158.72,181.22,206.82,231.0
 Unemployed ('000)206.7201.0167.5163.3160.4163.5144.1
 In labour force ('000)2,291.72,359.72,331.72,322.02,341.62,370.42,375.2
 Unemployment rate (%) (Persons aged 15-74)9.18.67.27.16.96.96.1
 Participation rate (%)61.762.961.961.561.962.462.2
See Background Notes for further information regarding minor modifications to calculation of unemployment rate
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and over classified by Principal Economic Status (PES)
'000
Principal Economic StatusQ4 15Q3 16Q4 16Q1 17Q2 17Q3 17Q4 17
Males
 At work1,094.81,113.81,133.81,132.01,139.81,149.11,146.6
 Unemployed162.8152.0133.4126.7123.2122.8114.5
 Student198.2191.3197.4207.0205.3197.6211.6
 Home duties10.39.58.810.210.419.418.9
 Retired265.4276.6276.5277.8277.6280.7279.8
 Others88.697.296.698.7101.294.8104.1
 Total males1,820.11,840.21,846.71,852.31,857.51,864.51,875.5
 
Females
 At work919.2936.9946.6950.5963.8958.8959.4
 Unemployed80.983.074.673.968.486.973.0
 Student203.8198.0204.3211.8203.2194.6219.2
 Home duties444.2430.9423.5418.3412.2318.0328.5
 Retired169.8185.0195.3195.6205.0278.0273.8
 Others73.975.973.173.675.498.088.9
 Total females1,891.81,909.51,917.41,923.71,928.01,934.31,942.7
 
All persons
 At work2,014.02,050.62,080.42,082.52,103.52,108.02,106.0
 Unemployed243.7234.9208.0200.6191.7209.7187.5
 Student402.1389.2401.7418.8408.5392.2430.8
 Home duties454.5440.4432.3428.5422.6337.4347.4
 Retired435.1461.5471.9473.3482.6558.7553.6
 Others162.5173.0169.7172.2176.6192.8193.0
 Total persons3,711.93,749.73,764.03,775.93,785.53,798.83,818.2
Note: The Principal Economic Status (PES) classification is based on a respondent's own subjective assessment - see Background Notes.
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table 11 Labour Force Survey results classified by ILO Economic Status for persons in EU member states1
%
  Employment rate % (15-64 years) Unemployment rate % (15-74 years) Participation rate % (15 years and over)
  Q3 15Q3 16Q3 17Annual change Q3 15Q3 16Q3 17Annual change Q3 15Q3 16Q3 17Annual change
     Q3 172    Q3 172    Q3 172
EU2866.167.168.21.1 9.08.27.3-0.9 57.757.958.20.3
EU1566.567.568.30.8 9.38.77.9-0.8 58.058.358.40.1
Eurozone364.965.966.80.9 10.39.68.7-0.9 56.857.257.30.1
 
Belgium62.162.263.41.2 8.27.97.2-0.7 53.353.054.11.1
Bulgaria64.564.268.54.3 8.37.05.9-1.1 54.953.656.52.9
Czech Republic70.572.274.11.9 4.84.02.8-1.2 59.560.160.60.5
Denmark73.775.274.9-0.3 6.26.35.9-0.4 62.363.962.8-1.1
Germany74.275.175.60.5 4.44.03.6-0.4 60.361.261.50.3
Estonia74.073.274.81.6 5.27.55.2-2.3 63.464.364.0-0.3
Ireland465.367.268.00.8 9.98.66.9-1.6 62.462.962.4-0.5
Greece51.753.054.61.6 24.122.620.3-2.3 52.352.452.3-0.1
Spain58.460.261.81.6 21.218.916.4-2.5 58.858.658.2-0.4
France64.364.665.00.4 10.09.69.3-0.3 56.256.055.9-0.1
Croatia 57.558.461.02.6 15.410.99.0-1.9 53.551.352.20.9
Italy56.757.658.40.8 10.611.010.6-0.4 48.649.449.80.4
Cyprus62.564.466.62.2 14.713.010.0-3.0 61.961.861.90.1
Latvia68.668.970.92.0 9.79.58.5-1.0 60.460.561.40.9
Lithuania68.070.070.90.9 8.37.56.6-0.9 59.360.560.60.1
Luxembourg65.565.267.01.8 7.77.15.5-1.6 59.959.159.90.8
Hungary64.867.168.71.6 6.44.94.1-0.8 55.256.156.60.5
Malta65.266.668.21.6 5.34.84.0-0.8 55.455.856.50.7
Netherlands74.575.376.31.0 6.65.64.5-1.1 64.464.164.20.1
Austria72.172.672.90.3 5.66.15.5-0.6 61.562.161.8-0.3
Poland63.564.966.51.6 7.15.94.7-1.2 56.456.356.70.4
Portugal 64.466.068.52.5 12.110.78.6-2.1 58.658.859.30.5
Romania63.263.165.32.2 6.55.74.7-1.0 55.954.856.11.3
Slovenia66.766.470.44.0 8.67.46.3-1.1 58.156.759.22.5
Slovakia63.065.166.41.3 11.39.58.0-1.5 59.860.260.1-0.1
Finland69.970.571.00.5 8.47.67.70.1 59.458.959.00.1
Sweden76.977.378.00.7 6.66.36.30.0 65.365.366.31.0
United Kingdom72.973.774.20.5 5.55.04.4-0.6 63.063.263.0-0.2
Source: Eurostat
1 Trends in some member states may be affected by changes in methodology.
2 Percentage points.
3 Eurozone consists of EU15 states (with the exceptions of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom), Cyprus, Estonia, Lativa, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia
4 Revised Labour Force Survey (LFS) data were not available from the Eurostat website at the time of finalising this release. As a result the figures shown above for Ireland are sourced directly from the LFS. EU totals have not been adjusted to reflect these data revisions.
Table A1 Estimated number of persons aged 15 years and over classified by nationality and ILO Economic Status
'000
Nationality   ILO Economic Status Total
   In employmentUnemployedIn labour forceNot in labour force 
Q4 17
Irish nationals 1,884.8115.32,000.11,303.0 3,303.1
Non-Irish nationals346.328.8375.1140.0 515.1
of which:      
 United Kingdom54.6[6.8]61.442.2 103.7
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK53.3*55.711.3 67.0
 EU15 to EU28160.012.3172.340.4 212.8
 Other78.3*85.646.0 131.6
Total persons2,231.0144.12,375.21,443.0 3,818.2
 
Q4 16
Irish nationals 1,841.3140.61,981.91,287.6 3,269.5
Non-Irish nationals322.926.9349.8144.7 494.6
of which:      
 United Kingdom51.9[4.7]56.644.3 100.9
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK44.9*47.115.1 62.2
 EU15 to EU28154.413.1167.443.7 211.2
 Other71.8[6.9]78.641.6 120.3
Total persons2,164.2167.52,331.71,432.3 3,764.0
 
Year on year changes
Irish nationals 43.5-25.318.215.4 33.6
Non-Irish nationals23.31.925.3-4.7 20.6
of which:      
 United Kingdom2.7[2.1]4.8-2.0 2.7
 EU15 excl. Irl and UK8.5*8.6-3.8 4.8
 EU15 to EU285.6-0.74.9-3.3 1.6
 Other6.6*7.04.4 11.4
Total Persons66.8-23.443.410.7 54.2
Note: Persons whose nationality is not stated are included with Irish nationals
Note: A new Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in Q3 2017 and, as a result, care should be taken when comparing data from before and after this period. Please see background notes of the LFS release for additional information
Table A2 Number of employees in the Public Sector by sub-sector and in the Private Sector
      Q4 14Q4 15Q4 16Q3 17Q4 171
Civil Service38.238.139.940.541.2
Defence9.89.59.59.49.4
Garda Siochána12.812.813.213.713.8
Education110.8111.3112.0111.3113.8
Regional bodies32.232,933.133.433.5
Health118.6122.2125.6129.7129.9
Total Public Sector excluding Semi-State bodies322.3326.8333.3337.9341.6
           
Semi-State bodies 51.752.853.154.454.5
           
Total Public Sector including Semi-State bodies374.0379.6386.3392.3396.1
           
Total Private Sector1,209.41,246.21,305.61,330.1:
1 Preliminary.
: Employment data from the Earnings, Hours Worked and Employment Cost Survey (EHECS) data not available at time of release. Updated series will be issued with the next Earnings and Labour Costs quarterly release.
Table A3 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - All persons aged 15-74 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016February124,00078,500202,500 9.97.58.8
 March122,30080,900203,200 9.77.78.8
 April121,00084,300205,300 9.68.08.9
 May120,20085,500205,700 9.58.18.8
 June118,50085,300203,800 9.48.08.7
 July117,00081,500198,400 9.27.78.5
 August114,70080,100194,900 9.17.58.4
 September108,90076,400185,300 8.67.28.0
 October103,60076,300180,000 8.27.27.7
 November99,30076,800176,100 7.97.27.6
 December96,20077,000173,200 7.67.27.4
 
2017January93,70077,700171,400 7.47.27.3
 February92,60076,000168,600 7.37.17.2
 March92,40070,900163,300 7.36.67.0
 April92,30065,000157,300 7.36.16.8
 May92,20062,000154,200 7.35.86.6
 June90,80062,700153,500 7.25.96.6
 July90,00067,700157,700 7.16.36.7
 August88,90067,600156,500 7.06.36.7
 September88,10067,500155,700 6.96.36.6
 October87,40065,800153,200 6.86.16.5
 November86,50064,700151,200 6.86.06.4
 December86,40063,900150,200 6.75.96.3
 
2018January85,50062,800148,400 6.65.86.2
 February84,40061,700146,100 6.55.66.1
Table A4 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - persons aged 15-24 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016February31,80015,80047,600 21.412.717.5
 March31,50017,50049,000 20.813.517.5
 April31,20019,60050,900 20.214.517.5
 May31,50020,70052,100 20.014.817.5
 June31,30020,40051,700 19.714.417.2
 July31,80019,00050,700 19.813.616.9
 August31,70018,50050,200 19.813.316.8
 September30,30018,10048,400 19.213.116.3
 October29,50019,00048,500 19.013.716.5
 November27,90019,30047,200 18.413.816.2
 December25,50018,90044,400 17.213.615.5
 
2017January22,60018,20040,700 15.513.114.3
 February21,50017,40038,900 14.912.713.8
 March23,30016,80040,200 16.012.414.3
 April25,50016,40041,800 17.312.214.9
 May26,60016,30043,000 18.212.315.4
 June25,40016,80042,200 17.912.815.5
 July23,40017,90041,300 17.214.115.7
 August22,10017,80039,800 16.514.315.4
 September21,20017,00038,200 15.613.714.7
 October21,10015,40036,500 14.812.313.6
 November21,10014,50035,600 14.311.312.9
 December21,80014,50036,300 14.411.112.8
 
2018January22,10014,40036,500 14.511.012.9
 February21,80013,90035,700 14.310.612.6
Table A5 Seasonally adjusted monthly unemployment by sex - persons aged 25-74 years
   Number of persons Unemployment rate (%)
   MalesFemalesAll Persons MalesFemalesAll Persons
2016February92,20062,700154,900 8.46.87.7
 March90,70063,500154,200 8.26.97.6
 April89,80064,700154,400 8.17.07.6
 May88,80064,800153,600 8.07.07.6
 June87,20064,900152,100 7.97.07.5
 July85,20062,500147,700 7.76.87.3
 August83,10061,600144,700 7.56.77.1
 September78,70058,300136,900 7.16.36.7
 October74,10057,400131,500 6.76.26.5
 November71,40057,500128,900 6.46.26.3
 December70,70058,100128,800 6.46.36.3
 
2017January71,10059,500130,700 6.46.46.4
 February71,10058,700129,700 6.46.36.3
 March69,00054,100123,200 6.25.86.0
 April66,80048,600115,400 6.05.25.6
 May65,60045,700111,300 5.94.95.4
 June65,40045,900111,300 5.84.95.4
 July66,60049,800116,400 5.95.35.6
 August66,80049,800116,700 5.95.25.6
 September66,90050,500117,400 5.95.35.6
 October66,30050,400116,700 5.85.35.6
 November65,40050,200115,600 5.85.25.5
 December64,60049,300113,900 5.75.25.4
 
2018January63,40048,400111,800 5.65.05.3
 February62,60047,800110,400 5.55.05.3

Background Notes

Purpose of Survey                  

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) replaced the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) at the beginning of Q3 2017. The purpose of the survey is the production of quarterly labour force estimates and occasional reports on special social topics. The survey meets the requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 577/98, adopted in March 1998, which requires the introduction of quarterly labour force surveys in EU member states.                      

Reference Period                     

Information is collected continuously throughout the year from households surveyed each week in each quarter. Up to and including the fourth quarter of 2008 the QNHS operated on a seasonal quarter basis since its establishment in Q4 1997. The LFS is undertaken on a calendar quarter basis which was first adopted in the QNHS in the first quarter of 2009.

The reference quarters for survey results are:

Q1 - January to March, Q2 - April to June, Q3 - July to September and Q4 - October to December.

Data Collection

The LFS is conducted using mixed mode data collection with the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). As with the QNHS, information is collected from each sample household over 5 successive quarters or Waves. However in the LFS, the first interview is conducted by a team of face-to-face interviewers using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The four follow-up interviews are conducted using CATI from a dedicated call centre, where householders have agreed to conduct a telephone interview, and are conducted using face-to-face interviews where householders have not agreed to conduct a telephone interview.                                                                                    

Sample Design                         

A new sample based on the 2011 Census of Population was selected for the LFS and this was introduced incrementally from Q1 2016. The sample is stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. A two-stage sample design is used. In the first stage 1,300 blocks are selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling. In the second stage households are selected using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). This ensures each household in the sample frame has an equal probability of selection.

To account for the additional attrition as a result of the introduction of mixed mode data collection, the LFS sample is being increased incrementally from Q3 2017. An additional 1,300 households are been included in Wave 1 for each quarter and this results in a total sample of 28,600 households in Q4 2017. As the sample is being increased by 1,300 households per Wave, the final design sample will increase to 32,500 households by Q3 2018.  The actual achieved sample varies over time depending on the level of response.

The number of valid responding households for the LFS in Q4 2017 was 13,419.

Households are asked to take part in the survey for five consecutive quarters and are then replaced by other households in the same block. Thus, one fifth of the households in the survey are replaced each quarter and the QNHS/LFS sample involves an overlap of 80% between consecutive quarters and 20% between the same quarter in consecutive years. It is important to note that there is no overlap in sample between the QNHS and the LFS.

The survey results are weighted to agree with population estimates broken down by age, sex and region and are also calibrated to nationality control totals. The LFS results also contain a non-response adjustment to make the results from the achieved sample representative of the target sample and the population. The population estimates for April of each year are published in a separate release.

New samples, both based on the 2011 Census of Population, were introduced incrementally for the QNHS in Q4 2012 and in Q3 2016. The former was stratified using administrative county and population density while the latter was stratified using administrative county and the Pobal HP (Haase and Pratschke) Deprivation Index. The quarterly sample in each case was 26,000 households. The actual achieved sample varied over time depending on the level of response.

Statistical significance              

All estimates based on sample surveys are subject to error, some of which is measurable. Where an estimate is statistically significantly different from another estimate it means that we can be 95% confident that differences between those two estimates are not due to sampling error.

Usual residence and de facto population concepts            

Up to and including Q1 2006 the annual population estimates were calculated using the defacto definition of population (i.e. all persons present in the state). Since Q2 2006 a new concept of usual residence has been used, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the state plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the state.

ILO Labour Force  Classification

The primary classification used for the LFS results is the ILO  (International Labour Office) labour force classification. Labour Force Survey data on this basis have been published since 1988. The ILO classification distinguishes the following main subgroups of the population aged 15 or over:

In Employment: Persons who worked in the week before the survey for one hour or more for payment or profit, including work on the family farm or business and all persons who had a job but were not at work because of illness, holidays etc. in the week.

Unemployed: Persons who, in the week before the survey, were without work and available for work within the next two weeks, and had taken specific steps, in the preceding four weeks, to find work. It should be noted that as per Eurostat’s operational implementation, the upper age limit for classifying a person as unemployed is 74 years.

Inactive Population (not in labour force): All other persons.

The labour force comprises persons employed plus unemployed.

Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates

The rates given in this release are based on the ILO classification. The Participation Rate is the number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 or over. The Employment Rate is the number of employed aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage of the total population aged 15 to 64.

To ensure coherence with Unemployment Rates produced by Eurostat, the CSO changed the method of calculation of the Unemployment rate as of Q2 2015. Prior to this, the Unemployment Rate was calculated as the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 and over. The change introduced limits the labour force to persons aged 15-74 and this excludes a small number of persons aged 75 and over in employment from the total labour force used in the calculation. The overall impact of this change was minimal.

Duration of Unemployment

The duration of unemployment is the length of time since a person last had a job or began looking for work, whichever is more recent. The long-term unemployment rate is the number of persons unemployed for one year or more expressed as a percentage of the total labour force aged 15 to 74 years.

Part-time Underemployment       

The calculation of part-time underemployment is based on ILO and Eurostat recommendations and uses the following criteria to derive underemployment:

1. Working part-time

2. Willing to work additional hours

3. Available to work additional hours

This indicator is only available from quarter 3 2008 onwards as estimates prior to that quarter were based on one single question which included the need for the person to be looking for additional work. From quarter 3 2008 the indicator is derived from a series of separate questions which allow this requirement to be excluded.       

Potential Additional Labour Force               

The Potential Additional Labour Force (PALF) is the sum of the two groups ‘persons seeking work but not immediately available’ and ‘persons available for work but not seeking’. Persons in the PALF are not part of the standard labour force, which encompasses only employed and unemployed people but however they have a stronger attachment to the labour market than other persons not in the labour force. The new indicators have been defined by the European statistical office (Eurostat) following extensive international discussion regarding appropriate indicators to supplement the unemployment rate.

Further background information regarding the methodology and approach adopted by Eurostat in building these new indicators can be found at the link below. European wide and individual country results are also available here:

Principal Economic Status Classification

Results are also available using the Principal Economic Status (PES) classification which is also used in the Labour Force Survey and the Census of Population. The PES classification is based on a single question in which respondents are asked what is their usual situation with regard to employment and given the following response categories:

• At work

• Unemployed

• Student

• Engaged on home duties

• Retired

• Other.

NACE Industrial Classification

The LFS sectoral employment figures are based on the EU NACE Rev. 2 (Nomenclature généraledes activités économiques dans les Communauté européenne) classification as defined in Council Regulation (EC) no 1893/2006. Fourteen NACE sub-categories are distinguished in Table 2 of this release. From Q1 2009 NACE Rev. 2 has been adopted as the primary classification of industrial sectors for use in QNHS/LFS outputs. The NACE Rev. 1.1 classification had been in use from Q4 1997 to Q4 2008.

To facilitate analysis and the running of seasonal adjustment on the time series, NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been produced from Q1 1998 onwards. As of Q2 2009 only NACE Rev. 2 estimates have been published.

Occupation Classification

As a result of changes to the European regulations governing the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (implemented in Ireland using the LFS (formerly the QNHS) the CSO has been obliged to report occupational coding data to Eurostat based on the new Europe wide classification ISCO-08 from Q1 2011 onwards. To allow this requirement to be met the CSO changed to using UK SOC2010 as the primary classification used in collecting the data. ISCO-08 is then derived from UK SOC2010.

The previously used classification for publication purposes in Ireland was UK SOC1990 and this cannot be directly compared to the new UK SOC2010 classification as all occupations have been reclassified accordingly. One particular example which highlighted this change was the reclassifying of farmers from the major occupation grouping of ‘Managers and administrators’ in SOC1990 to the major occupation grouping of ‘Skilled trades’ in SOC2010.

Results for occupations coded to the new SOC2010 classification have now been recoded for historical quarters back to Q1 2007 to provide a longer and consistent time series for users.

Further information regarding SOC 2010 is available here

NUTS2 and NUTS3 Regions

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994. The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions. The composition of the regions is set out below.

Border, Midland and Western NUTS2 Region      Southern and Eastern NUTS2 Region          
Border Cavan Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Fingal
  Louth   South Dublin
  Monaghan    
  Sligo Mid-East Kildare
      Meath
Midland Laois   Wicklow
  Longford Mid-West Clare
  Offaly   Limerick City
  Westmeath   Limerick County
      North Tipperary
West Galway City    
  Galway County South-East Carlow
  Mayo   Kilkenny
  Roscommon   South Tipperary
      Waterford City
      Waterford County
      Wexford
       
    South-West Cork City
      Cork County
      Kerry

The NUTS3 boundaries were amended on 21st of November 2016 under Regulation (EC) No. 2066/2016 and will come into force from Q1 2018. These will be reflected in the LFS results from Q1 2018 onwards. The changes resulting from the amendment are that County Louth has moved from the Border to the Mid-East and what was formerly South Tipperary has moved from the South-East to the Mid-West.

Seasonal Adjustment Methodology             

To correct for typical seasonal patterns, the series presented in Table 3 have been seasonally adjusted. The seasonal adjustment of data from the QNHS between Q2 2011 and Q2 2017 was completed by applying the X-12-ARIMA model, developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. This seasonal adjustment methodology has been reviewed following the introduction of the new LFS in Q3 2017. As a result of this review, from Q3 2017 onwards, the seasonal adjustment of the LFS is conducted using the X-13ARIMA-SEATS software also developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. The adjustments are carried out by applying the X-13-ARIMA model to the unadjusted data. This methodology estimates seasonal factors while also taking into consideration factors that impact on the quality of the seasonal adjustment, such as:

  • Calendar effects e.g. the timing of Easter
  • Outliers, temporary changes, and level shifts in the series

For additional information on the use of X-13ARIMA-SEATS see:

http://www.census.gov/srd/www/x13as/

Seasonal adjustment is conducted using the direct approach, where each individual series is independently adjusted. As a result of this direct seasonal adjustment approach it should be noted that the sum of any component series may not be equal to seasonally adjusted series to which these components belong, e.g. the seasonally adjusted number of males in employment and the seasonally adjusted number of females in employment will not necessarily add up to the total employment on a seasonally adjusted basis.

The X-13-ARIMA method has the X-11 moving averages process at its core, but builds on this by providing options for pre-treating the series using a regARIMA approach for prior adjustment and series extension. In essence this methodology will estimate seasonal factors while taking account of calendar effects (e.g. timing of Easter), outliers, temporary changes and level shifts.

The seasonal adjustment is designed and implemented in full accordance with the ESS Guidelines (2015).

Non-response adjustment        

Non-response occurs when households that are sampled, and that are eligible for the survey, do not provide the requested information. This can lead to biased survey estimates if specific groups within the population are over- or under-represented and if these groups behave differently with respect to the survey variables (i.e. labour market outcomes). To correct for this, the CSO has introduced a non-response adjustment into the weighting procedure for the LFS.

The adjustment involves estimating response rates or propensities to respond as functions of characteristics available for responding and non-responding households, as well as characteristics of the areas where the households are located. Basically, the design weights have to be inflated by the inverse of the response propensities in order to compensate for the loss of units in the sample.

Linking the LFS sample with the Census of Population at household level provides a set of auxiliary variables which are available for both responding and non-responding LFS households. These include a mix of personal characteristics as well as characteristics of the dwelling and location (e.g. gender, age, marital status, education, personal employment status, dwelling type, area etc.). This allows the CSO to compare responding and non-responding households with respect to the characteristics available from the Census. This auxiliary information allows the use of “response propensities” to model non-response and adjust the grossing factors to compensate for non-response.

The response propensities are calculated using a logistic regression model where the dependent variable (Y) is an indicator variables corresponding to response (if the household responded then Y=1 and if the household did not respond then Y=0) and the independent variables are the set of auxiliary variables available from the Census. The estimated response propensities are then used to form adjustment cells or strata which are made up of respondents and non-respondents with similar estimated response propensities. Respondents within each cell/stratum are then weighted by the inverse of the observed response rate in that cell. This non-response adjusted weight is then used to inflate the original survey design weight to account for non-response. This approach is referred to as response propensity classification.

Back-casting methodology        

The introduction of the LFS in Q3 2017 constituted a break in series for the labour market estimates published by the CSO. In an effort to mitigate the effect of the introduction of the LFS on the coherence of the historic data series, a back-casting exercise was carried out to link the QNHS and the LFS. The result of this is that the published QNHS series from Q1 1998 to Q2 2017 has been revised.

As part of the roll-out of the LFS, a parallel run of the two surveys was carried out. This allowed the estimation of the effect of the introduction of the new survey on the various labour market estimates. Quarter 1 of 2017 was used as the reference period to calculate scaling factors which were used to link the results from the two surveys. Labour market estimates were calculated from both surveys for a range of cohorts (age, sex, ILO status etc.) and the ratio of the two estimates provided a scaling factor which was applied to the historic QNHS series to create a back-cast series. 

Separate scaling factors were calculated for each ILO status grouped by sex and age, resulting in 14 ILO categories:

  • Employed males aged 15-24 years
  • Employed males aged 25+ years
  • Unemployed males aged 15-24 years
  • Unemployed males aged 25+ years
  • Inactive males aged 15-24 years
  • Inactive males aged 25+ years
  • Males aged < 15 years
  • Employed females aged 15-24 years
  • Employed females aged 25+ years
  • Unemployed females aged 15-24 years
  • Unemployed females aged 25+ years
  • Inactive females aged 15-24 years
  • Inactive females aged 25+ years
  • Females aged < 15 years

Scaling factors were also calculated for the 15 NACE groups published in Table 2 of this release, broken down by sex, resulting in 30 additional categories.

Therefore, adjustments have been made to this historic data to enable comparability with the new LFS for these indicators. However as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.           

Please refer to the following information note for further details:

http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/in/lfs/informationnotice-labourforcesurveyquarter32017/.

Monthly Unemployment          

Monthly unemployment estimates were first introduced by the CSO in June 2015 for reference month May. The most recently published unemployment monthly unemployment estimates were for February 2018 and these have now been revised along with those for December 2017 and January 2018 following the availability of new LFS benchmark estimates for this quarter. These estimates are included in Tables A3, A4 and A5 of this release.

In line with Eurostat practice, the seasonally adjusted quarterly unemployment volumes and rates included in Table 3 of this release are calculated as the average of the relevant 3 months of the quarter from the new monthly unemployment series. This approach ensures consistency between these new seasonally adjusted monthly series and the seasonally adjusted quarterly series.

Reliability of Estimates Presented            

Estimates for number of persons where there are less than 30 persons in a cell are too small to be considered reliable. These estimates are presented with an asterisk (*) in the relevant tables.

Where there are 30-49 persons in a cell, estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution. These cells are presented with parentheses [ ].

In the case of rates, these limits apply to the denominator used in generating the rate. In the case of annual changes, both the current year and the preceding year are taken into account when deciding whether the estimate should be suppressed or flagged as having a wider margin of error.

Calculation of Rates and Estimates of Change

Rates and estimates of change presented in this release are calculated from whole unrounded  numbers. Due to rounding, these may differ from the rates and estimates of change calculated from the rounded volumes presented in the tables.

Interpretation of volume and rate changes          

The overall change in the number of people employed, unemployed, in the labour force and not in the labour force is a function both of changes in the population as well as changes in the proportion of people with that status. Therefore, in interpreting changes in the volume of persons who are employed, unemployed etc, both changes in population and changes in the relevant rates should be considered.

In recent years there has been a natural decline in the number of people in younger age groups arising from the falling number of births through the 1980’s until 1994 when a low of 48,255 births was recorded (compared with 74,278 in 2009). For example there were 326,030 people born in Ireland between 1982 and 1986 and, all other things being equal, these people would have been in the 20-24 age group in 2006. However between 1986 and 1990 there were nearly 50,000 fewer births which would create a natural decrease in the 20-24 age group of close to 50,000 between 2006 and 2010.

In addition to natural changes in population, net migration has been a significant feature of population change in Ireland in recent years and net migration has also been most heavily concentrated in younger age groups. Evidence shows that migration is also most heavily concentrated in the 20-24 and 25-34 age groups. As a result of both natural decrease and net outward migration, the population of persons in the younger age groups has fallen and this should be borne in mind when considering the changes in the number of people in these age groups who are employed, unemployed and in the labour force.

Additional Data Series

Additional data series previously included in the QNHS release can still be accessed through the CSO website and are available here.

Labour market data can also be accessed from Statbank, the CSO’s main data dissemination service which can be accessed through the CSO website and are available here.

Implications of Census 2016 Final Results             

The LFS results are weighted using population estimates which are updated  every quarter.Every 5 years the Census of Population results are used to revise these population estimates, and QNHS/LFS results are revised as a consequence.

The population concept of usual residence is used for the LFS, i.e. all persons usually resident and present in the State plus absent persons who are usually resident in Ireland but are temporarily away from home and outside the State.

The final Census count was published on April 6 2017. The total for this usually resident population concept which was enumerated on Census Night, April 24 2016, was 4,739,597 persons, while the existing estimate for the usually resident population for April 2016 is 4,673,700 as detailed in the 2016 Population and Migration Estimates release. There is a difference, therefore, of just over 65,900 or 1.4% between the two figures.

The CSO has revised the population estimates for 2011 to 2016 based on this final Census count. Estimates of persons employed and unemployed have been revised in line with the higher population totals.

Changes to CSO Labour Market Statistics          

Effective from Q3 2017, the QNHS has been replaced by a new Labour Force Survey (LFS). This is part of a major Household Survey Development (HSD) project that the CSO has been engaged in over the past number of years with the aim of expanding the range of social statistics to meet new needs for information on households and persons. This new survey includes the introduction of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), a redesigned questionnaire and enhancements to the survey methodology.

The introduction of such large scale changes has inevitably led to discontinuity in some series and this is in line with international experience of introducing such large scale changes. Adjustments have been made to historic QNHS data to enable comparability with the new LFS for headline indicators. However as a result of changes to the questionnaire, the interview mode, the introduction of a new sample, data processing changes and other methodological enhancements there are changes in the levels of some series from Q3 2017 onwards. As a consequence, the series before and after the introduction of the new survey may not be directly comparable and users should therefore note this when examining annual and quarterly changes.

The first results from this new LFS were for Q3 2017. They incorporated the revision of population estimates arising from the 2016 Census of Population along with a back-cast series of the existing data for the QNHS to create a coherent time series.

Participating Households         

The Central Statistics Office wishes to thank the participating households for their co-operation in agreeing to take part in the survey and for facilitating the collection of the relevant data.

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