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Social Cohesion and Lifestyles

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3.1 Ireland: Principal economic status, 2006 and 2016
persons aged 15 years and over (000s)
Principal Economic Status20062016
MenWomenTotalMenWomenTotal
At work1,139.8815.11,954.91,058.4882.71,941.1
Unemployed80.638.1118.7149.872.0221.8
Total in labour force1,220.4853.22,073.61,208.2954.72,162.9
% in labour force72.750.261.467.851.559.5
       
Student166.4194.4360.8206.9201.9408.8
Looking after home/family4.9528.2533.19.2445.5454.7
Retired211.077.3288.3266.5177.8444.3
Other75.244.9120.191.775.4167.1
Total not in labour force457.5844.81,302.3574.3900.61,474.9
% not in labour force27.349.738.632.248.540.5
       
Total aged 15 and over1,678.01,698.13,376.11,782.41,855.33,637.7
Source: CSO, QNHS

 

  • Just over half (51.5%) of women aged 15 years and over were in the labour force (at work or unemployed) in 2016, a slight increase on the proportion from 2006 of 50.2%.
  • The proportion of men in the labour force over the same time period dropped from 72.7% to 67.8%.
  • More than half (54.5%) of those who were at work in 2016 were men while over two-thirds (67.5%) of people who were unemployed were men
  • Nearly all of the people (98%) who were looking after home or family in 2016 were women although the number of men in this grouping nearly doubled in the ten years up to 2016, rising from 4,900 to 9,200.
  • In 2006 77,300 women described themselves as retired but this number increased strongly to 177,800 by 2016.
MenWomen
At work1058400882700
Unemployed14980072000
Student206900201900
Looking after home/family9200445500
Retired266500177800
Other9170075400
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3.2 EU: Gender pay gap, 2011-2015
Difference between male and female gross hourly earnings as % of average gross hourly male earnings
Country20112012201320142015
Romania9.66.94.94.55.8
Luxembourg7.97.06.25.45.5
Italy5.76.57.06.15.5
Belgium9.48.37.56.66.5
Slovenia3.34.56.37.08.1
Poland5.56.47.17.77.7
Croatia3.42.99.010.4:
Malta7.79.59.710.6:
Lithuania11.511.912.213.314.2
Sweden15.615.514.613.814.0
Ireland12.712.212.913.9:
Bulgaria13.215.114.114.215.4
Cyprus16.115.614.914.214.0
Spain17.618.717.814.914.9
Portugal12.915.013.314.917.8
Hungary18.020.118.415.114.0
France15.715.615.515.515.8
Denmark16.416.816.516.015.1
Netherlands18.617.616.516.116.1
EU 2816.917.316.816.716.3
Latvia14.114.916.017.317.0
Finland19.119.218.818.417.3
Slovakia20.120.818.819.719.6
United Kingdom19.721.220.520.920.8
Austria23.522.922.322.221.7
Germany22.422.722.122.322.0
Czech Republic22.622.522.322.522.5
Estonia27.329.929.828.126.9
Greece15.0::::
      
Macedonia:::9.1:
Norway15.714.715.514.514.9
Iceland17.817.719.016.717.5
Switzerland17.919.219.3:17.7
Source: Eurostat, EU SES

 

  • On average, female employees were paid 13.9% an hour less than male employees in Ireland in 2014 while the average EU gender pay gap in 2015 was 16.3%.
  • Of those countries for which data were available in 2015, Romania had the lowest gender pay gap at 5.8% while Estonia had the highest at 26.9%.
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3.3 EU: At risk of poverty rates, 20151
%
CountryBefore pensions and social transfersAfter pensions and social transfers
MenWomenMenWomen
Czech Republic33.640.38.511.0
Netherlands37.341.011.811.5
Denmark38.143.112.511.9
Slovakia35.540.712.112.4
Finland41.844.912.212.6
France41.846.613.213.9
Austria41.347.313.514.3
Hungary46.251.815.614.4
Belgium40.546.114.115.6
Slovenia40.044.913.015.6
Luxembourg43.645.915.015.7
Sweden39.245.113.215.9
Ireland44.647.916.116.4
Malta35.539.416.116.6
Cyprus36.740.815.317.2
Poland42.145.018.117.2
United Kingdom41.846.416.217.2
Germany41.746.015.917.4
EU 2842.446.716.917.7
Portugal45.749.818.820.1
Croatia43.946.419.320.6
Italy43.448.419.020.8
Greece51.154.621.521.2
Spain46.048.022.521.8
Lithuania40.844.621.822.5
Estonia36.741.719.623.3
Bulgaria40.445.320.023.8
Latvia37.543.819.724.8
Romania47.151.825.125.7
     
Iceland31.133.99.69.6
Norway37.942.710.313.5
Switzerland34.940.214.316.8
Macedonia39.541.521.521.5
Turkey37.941.222.723.6
Serbia55.455.926.124.6
   Source: Eurostat, CSO SILC
12013 data used for Turkey.

 

  • In 2015 47.9% of women in Ireland were at risk of poverty before income from pensions and social transfers was taken into account, compared with 44.6% of men.
  • The at risk of poverty rate after social transfers and pensions was 16.4% for women and 16.1% for men.
  • The lowest at risk of poverty rates in the EU in 2015, after pensions and social transfers, was in the Czech Republic at 11% for women and 8.5% for men.
  • The highest at risk of poverty rates, after pensions and social transfers, were in Romania where about a quarter of men and women were at risk of poverty.
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3.4 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate1 by most frequent economic activity, 2010 and 2015
%
Economic activity20102015
MenWomenMenWomen
Employed7464
Unemployed27253939
Retired12101516
Other inactive24233326
Total population aged 18 & over14141515
Source: CSO SILC
1This table refers only to persons aged 18 and over.

 

  • The at risk of poverty rate for both men and women aged 18 and over in Ireland rose slightly between 2010 and 2015 from 14% to 15%.
  • People in employment had a lower at risk of poverty rate with a rate of 6% for men and 4% for women in 2015.
  • The highest at risk of poverty rates were for people who were unemployed with a rate of 39% for both men and women in 2015.
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3.5 Ireland: At risk of poverty rate by age, 2010 and 2015
%
Age group20102015
MenWomenMenWomen
0-1717211718
18-2418222623
25-4912131113
50-6418151917
65 & over10101214
Total15161616
Source: CSO SILC

 

  • The at risk of poverty rate for males in 2015 was 16%, a slight rise on the 2010 rate of 15%. For females, the at risk of poverty rate in 2015 of 16% was unchanged on the 2010 rate.
  • The age groups with the highest at risk of poverty rate in 2015 were those aged 18-24 with about a quarter of men and women in this age group at risk of poverty.
  • The at risk of poverty rate for men aged 18-24 rose from 18% in 2010 to 26% in 2015.
  • Children aged under 18 years of age had at risk of poverty rates slightly above the overall rate.
  • Men and women aged between 25 and 49 and those aged 65 and over had at risk of poverty rates below the overall rates.
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3.6 EU: Early school leavers, 2011 and 2016
% of 18-24 age group
Country20112016
MenWomenMenWomen
Croatia5.94.03.71.8
Lithuania10.04.66.43.6
Czech Republic5.44.46.66.8
Poland7.43.76.73.7
Slovenia5.72.56.72.6
Slovakia5.44.67.06.6
Luxembourg7.64.87.45.6
Greece15.910.07.55.5
Austria9.08.07.96.2
Ireland12.88.88.04.8
Sweden7.85.48.26.7
Denmark12.17.08.96.2
France14.110.49.97.9
Finland11.28.49.97.5
Netherlands11.17.210.26.3
Cyprus15.18.110.33.5
Belgium14.99.710.77.6
Germany12.510.710.99.6
Estonia12.88.411.67.9
EU 2815.311.512.39.3
United Kingdom16.113.812.79.6
Hungary12.310.612.912.1
Bulgaria11.212.613.513.3
Latvia15.87.514.36.9
Portugal28.117.716.510.6
Italy20.614.916.611.5
Romania19.117.218.718.4
Spain31.021.523.215.4
Malta28.816.323.415.9
     
Switzerland6.85.74.85.3
Macedonia11.915.29.911.3
Norway19.913.112.98.4
Iceland22.217.122.514.0
Turkey37.745.733.336.5
Source: CSO QNHS, Eurostat LFS

 

  • In all EU countries in 2016, except the Czech Republic, higher proportions of men then women aged 18-24 had left school with at most lower secondary education and were not in further education or training.
  • In Ireland 8% of men and 4.8% of women aged 18-24 were early school leavers in 2016. The EU averages were 12.3% for men and 9.3% for women.
  • The target on early school leavers in the Europe 2020 strategy from the European Commission is a rate of less than 10% by 2020.
  • The lowest rates for early school leavers in the EU in 2016 for both men and women were in Croatia, at 3.7% for men and 1.8% for women.
  • The highest rates for both men and women in 2016 in the EU were in Malta, at 23.4% for men and 15.9% for women.
MenWomen
Croatia4.63.6
Slovenia5.43.2
Slovakia64.6
Czech Republic6.14.9
Poland7.83.5
Austria7.97.3
Lithuania8.14.6
Sweden8.56.3
Finland9.88.1
Netherlands10.27.3
Luxembourg10.75.5
Denmark10.87.4
IRELAND11.28.2
Germany11.39.9
Bulgaria12.113
Hungary12.210.7
France13.49.8
Greece13.79.1
Estonia147.1
EU14.410.9
Belgium14.49.5
Latvia14.76.3
United Kingdom14.712.4
Cyprus16.57
Romania1816.7
Italy20.514.5
Portugal27.114.3
Malta27.517.6
Spain28.820.8
00
Switzerland5.75.3
Macedonia11.112.3
Norway17.611.9
Iceland23.616.5
Turkey36.143
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3.7 Ireland: Lone parents1, 2006-2016
  000s 
YearMenWomen% women
200610.1115.692.0
200710.0125.292.6
200810.7124.992.1
200912.1132.591.6
201011.3142.592.7
201112.6141.391.8
201211.5147.892.8
201312.8139.391.6
201412.7129.791.1
201512.9133.591.2
201612.9132.591.1
Source: CSO QNHS
1Refers to persons living as lone parents whose children are less than 20 years of age.

 

  • More than nine out of ten lone parents were women in 2016 and this proportion has remained stable over the period 2006 to 2016.
  • The number of women living as lone parents increased by 14.6% from 115,600 to 132,500 between 2006 and 2016.
  • The number of men living as lone parents rose by more than a quarter (27.7%) from 10,100 in 2006 to 12,900 by 2016.
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3.8 Ireland: Lone parents1 by age of youngest child, 2016 2,3
  000s 
Age of youngest childMenWomen% women
0-9[4.9]75.693.9
10-14*31.190.9
15 -19[4.9]25.984.1
Total12.9132.591.1
Source: CSO QNHS
1Refers to persons living as lone parents whose children are less than 20 years of age.
2Data in parentheses [ ] indicate where there are 30-49 persons in a cell - these estimates are considered to have a wider margin of error and should be treated with caution.
3The symbol * is used where there are less than 30 persons in a cell and estimates for numbers of persons or averages are not produced as they are too small to be considered reliable.

 

  • More than nine out of ten lone parents were women in 2016.
  • The youngest child was aged under 10 for 57.1% of women living as lone parents.
  • For 38% of male lone parents, the age of the youngest child was aged under 10 years and for the same proportion of male lone parents the age of the youngest child was between 15 and 19 years.
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3.9 Ireland: Recipients of one-parent family payment by age, 2016
  number  
Age groupMenWomenTotal% women
under 25167,4137,42999.8
25-3413619,76019,89699.3
35-4923912,22112,46098.1
50 & over3949353292.7
Total43039,88740,31798.9
Source: Department of Social Protection
     

 

  • The vast majority (98.9%) of the 40,317 persons in receipt of one-parent family payments in 2016 were women.
  • Just under one in five (18.6%) of the women receiving the one-parent family payment was aged under 25 years.
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3.10 EU: Representation in national parliaments, 2012-20161
% female representatives
Country20122013201420152016
Sweden43.644.443.643.645.8
Finland42.542.542.041.542.0
Spain39.439.740.943.038.9
Belgium39.940.038.038.038.7
Netherlands38.738.037.338.738.0
Denmark40.838.038.537.437.4
Germany32.936.536.536.037.0
Slovenia37.833.338.234.435.6
Portugal29.131.331.334.334.3
Italy21.431.331.331.131.0
Austria28.433.330.630.830.6
United Kingdom22.422.622.829.429.7
EU 2826.127.427.728.628.7
Luxembourg23.323.328.328.328.3
Poland23.924.423.627.228.0
France26.526.226.526.226.2
Estonia21.017.819.825.725.7
Ireland15.015.716.316.322.2
Lithuania23.724.123.624.121.3
Czech Republic21.519.519.520.020.5
Slovakia18.718.720.020.020.5
Bulgaria23.024.620.419.619.2
Croatia25.823.825.825.218.5
Greece21.021.021.019.718.3
Cyprus10.714.314.312.517.9
Latvia23.025.018.017.016.0
Romania11.613.513.713.914.2
Malta8.714.312.913.013.0
Hungary9.19.410.19.69.5
      
Iceland39.741.041.346.047.6
Norway39.638.538.739.639.6
Macedonia31.734.135.934.135.0
Serbia32.434.133.633.634.0
Turkey14.414.414.414.914.7
Source: European Institute for Gender Equality
1Lower house or single chamber female representation in quarter 4.

 

  • Less than a quarter (22.2%) of the TDs in the Dáil were women in 2016, the twelfth lowest representation in the EU and below the EU average of 28.7%.
  • Female representation in the Dáil increased in Ireland to 22.2% after the 2016 general election (from 16.3%) as a result of new legislation on female quotas for political parties, see Appendix 1.
  • Two countries had female participation of over 40% in parliament - Sweden and Finland. The lowest representation was in Hungary at 9.5%.
This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.
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Open in Excel:
WomenMen
Dáil Éireann22.151898734177277.8481012658228
Ministers of State22.222222222222277.7777777777778
Government Ministers 26.666666666666773.3333333333333
Seanad Éireann3070
State Boards37.771520514883362.2284794851167
  • Men significantly out-numbered women in all national decision-making structures in Ireland in 2016.
  • Just over a quarter (26.7%) of Government Ministers and 22.2% of Ministers of State were female.
  • Just over a fifth (22.2%) of TDs were female while 30% of the membership of the Seanad were female.
WomenMen
Local Authorities21.413502109704678.5864978902954
Regional Assemblies42.268041237113457.7319587628866
Education Training Boards43.243243243243256.7567567567568
  • Men also out-numbered women in all regional decision-making structures in Ireland in 2016.
  • Just over one in five members of Local Authorities were female in 2016 while women accounted for 43.2% of those on Education Training  Boards.
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3.12 Ireland: Civil Service general service grades, 2016 
 number% of grade 
GradeMenWomenTotalMenWomen 
Secretary General1431782.417.6 
Deputy Secretary and Assistant Secretary1014114271.128.9 
Principal Officer46829276061.638.4 
Assistant Principal1,1301,0492,17951.948.1 
Higher Executive Officer1,6732,2383,91142.857.2 
Administrative Officer28227956150.349.7 
Executive Officer1,9213,5335,45435.264.8 
Staff Officer2811,1051,38620.379.7 
Clerical Officer2,8508,52511,37525.174.9 
Services Attendant1021011291.18.9 
Services Officer4116147287.112.9 
Total9,23317,13626,36935.065.0 
Source: Department of Finance 

 

  • Just under two-thirds (65%) of Irish civil servants in general service were women in 2016
  • About three-quarters of Clerical officers and Staff officers were female in 2016. In contrast, less than two in ten (17.6%) of those at Secretary General level were women while less than three in ten (28.9%) of those at Deputy and Assistant Secretary level were women.
  • A clear majority of those in the four most senior general service grades were men in 2016.    
  • The middle management grade of Administrative Office was the most gender balanced of all grades.
MenWomen
Total35.014600477833864.9853995221662
Secretary General82.352941176470617.6470588235294
Deputy & Assistant Secretary71.126760563380328.8732394366197
Principal Officer61.578947368421138.4210526315789
Assistant Principal51.858650757228148.1413492427719
Administrative Officer42.776783431347557.2232165686525
Higher Executive Officer50.267379679144449.7326203208556
Executive Officer35.221855518885264.7781444811148
Staff Officer20.274170274170379.7258297258297
Clerical Officer25.054945054945174.9450549450549
Services Officer91.07142857142868.92857142857143
Services Attendant87.076271186440712.9237288135593
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3.13 Ireland: Religion, 2011 and 2016
% 
Religion20112016
MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal
Roman Catholic83.485.984.777.380.378.8
Church of Ireland, England, Anglican, Episcopalian2.72.82.72.62.62.6
Muslim (Islamic)1.20.91.11.51.11.3
Orthodox (Greek, Coptic, Russian)1.01.01.01.31.31.3
Other stated religion3.33.43.43.83.83.8
No religion6.74.75.710.88.59.6
Not stated1.71.41.52.72.42.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population

 

  • The number of males and females in the usually resident population who described themselves as Roman Catholic decreased between 2011 and 2016.
  • In 2011 85.9% of females were Roman Catholic but this had dropped to 80.3% by 2016 while 83.4% of males were Roman Catholic in 2011 but this decreased to 77.3% by 2016.
  • There was an increase in the numbers of people with no religion between 2011 nad 2016. Over this time period the number of males with no religion increased from 6.7% to 10.8% while the number of females increased from 4.7% to 8.5%.
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3.14 Ireland: Religion by nationality, 2016
%
ReligionIrishOther EUNon-EUTotal
MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal
Roman Catholic82.485.183.853.456.655.024.527.726.177.380.378.8
Church of Ireland, England, Anglican, Episcopalian2.32.42.35.65.85.71.82.01.92.62.62.6
Muslim (Islamic)0.90.80.81.10.91.014.49.612.11.51.11.3
Orthodox (Greek, Coptic, Russian)0.50.50.57.98.07.94.24.74.41.31.31.3
Other stated religion2.82.72.87.58.07.715.316.916.13.83.83.8
No religion9.77.38.521.017.719.312.413.713.010.88.59.6
Not stated1.41.21.33.63.03.327.325.326.32.72.42.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: CSO Census of Population

 

  • In the population usually resident in Ireland in 2016, 80.3% of females and 77.3% of males described themselves as Roman Catholic.
  • Just over half of males (53.4%) and females (56.6%) with 'Other EU' nationality were Roman Catholic compared to more than eight out of ten Irish males (82.4%) and females (85.1%).
  • Around a quarter of males (27.3%) and females (25.3%) with 'Non EU' nationality did not state their religion compared just 1.4% of Irish males and 1.2% of Irish females.
  • Irish residents with non-EU nationality had varied religions - 14.4% of males and 9.6% of females described themselves as Muslim while around an eighth stated they had no religion, (12.4% of males and 13.7% of females).
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3.15 Ireland: Grants to high-performance athletes by age of athlete1, 2016
recipients
Age of athleteMenWomenTotal
19 and under044
20-2420626
25-29211132
30-34448
35-446511
45-64415
Total1553186
Source: Sport Ireland
1Grants to junior athletes are not included in this data, see Appendix 1.
    

 

  • In 2016 Sport Ireland awarded grants under the International Carding Scheme to 55 male and 31 female athletes.
  • Athletes aged between 25 and 29 years of age received the largest number of grants. For male athletes, just under four out of ten (38.2%) grants went to those aged 25-29 while 35.5% of grants went to female athletes in this age group.
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3.16 Ireland: Grants to high-performance athletes by size of grant1, 2016 
 recipientsaverage allocation (€) 
Size of grantMenWomenMenWomen 
Less than €10,000826,0004,500 
€10,000 - €19,999231211,91311,833 
€20,000 - €34,999151020,00020,000 
€35,000 & over9740,00040,000 
Total1553117,85520,355 
Source: Sport Ireland 
1Grants to junior athletes are not included in this data, see Appendix 1. 

 

  • In 2016 the Irish Sports Council awarded grants under the International Carding Scheme to 55 male and 31 female athletes.
  • The average grant allocated was €20,355 to women and €17,855 to men.
  • More than four in ten (41.8%) male athletes and 38.7% of female athletes received a grant between €10,000 and €19,999.
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3.17 Ireland: Arts council grants to artists by artform, 2016
  recipients average allocation(€)
ArtformMenWomenMenWomen
Architecture634,5317,140
Arts Participation4104,83410,668
Circus746,23910,559
Dance52718,62513,486
Film7521,13330,910
Literature664713,78710,227
Music55309,9375,952
Opera648,0006,688
Street Arts1119,750800
Theatre182918,40024,751
Traditional Arts17116,00813,730
Visual Arts7910313,80211,987
Young people, children and education21710,0006,059
Total27329112,45112,307
    Source: Arts Council

 

  • The Arts Council awarded 564 grants to artists in 2016. Women represented more than half (52%) of recipients.
  • The average grant awarded to men by the Arts Council was €12,451 while the average awarded to women was €12,307.
  • More than a third (35%) of grants awarded to women and 29% of the grants awarded to men were in the field of visual arts.
  • Just under a quarter of grants to men were for Literature and 20% were for music. Around 16% of grants to women were for literature while about one in ten were for music.
  • About 60% of the recipients of grants in the fields of literature and music were men while women received 84% of the grants relating to dance and 62% of the theatre grants.
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3.18 Ireland: Arts council grants to artists by size of grant, 2016
recipientsaverage allocation(€)
ArtformMenWomenMenWomen
Less than €5,000641032,1371,569
€5,000 - €9,99946437,4377,723
€10,000 - €14,999384912,70412,751
€15,000 and over1259619,48925,655
Total27329112,45112,307
Source: Arts Council

 

  • The Arts Council awarded 564 grants to artists in 2016. Women represented more than half (52%) of recipients.
  • The average grant awarded to men by the Arts Council was €12,451 while the average awarded to women was €12,307.
  • Close to half (46%) of the grants awarded to men were €15,000 or over while a third of the grants to women were in this category.

 

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